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Applied Physics A

Ultra Wide Band Monopole Antenna with Reconfigurable Quality Based on


Metamaterial Structure
--Manuscript Draft-Manuscript Number:
Full Title:

Ultra Wide Band Monopole Antenna with Reconfigurable Quality Based on


Metamaterial Structure

Article Type:

Regular papers

Corresponding Author:

ferdows zarrabi, M.S.


Tehran, IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF

Corresponding Author Secondary


Information:
Corresponding Author's Institution:
Corresponding Author's Secondary
Institution:
First Author:

Samaneh Heydari

First Author Secondary Information:


Order of Authors:

Samaneh Heydari
Marjan Soltani
Mojtaba Mohaghegh
Zeeshan Ahmed
ferdows zarrabi, M.S.

Order of Authors Secondary Information:


Funding Information:
Abstract:

In this letter, a Ultra Wide Band (UWB) monopole antenna based on metamaterial
(MTM) unit cell with reconfigurable quality has been developed. In this current
research, the antenna is covering 3.1-10.6GHz for UWB applications and a
reconfigurable narrow band for L-band and wireless applications. The gaps in Split
Rings Resonator (SRR) element are made for Left-hand capacitance and -shape
strip layer by four via junctions are used for Left-hand inductance. The antenna is
printed on FR-4 low cost substrate with relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness of 1.6
mm. The total size of the antenna is 40mm40mm. It is simulated using HFSS
commercial full wave software. In addition, the experimental results are presented and
compared with simulation. The antenna gives a peak gain of 6dBi with OmniDirectional radiation pattern and high efficiency of more than 70%. By applying 4
switches in - shape strip layer, we have success designed a reconfigurable antenna
for wireless applications.

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Samaneh Heydari, 2Marjan Soltani, 3Mojtaba Mohaghegh, 4Zeeshan Ahmed, 1Ferdows B. Zarrabi
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Faculty of Engg., Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran-Iran email: ferdows.zarrabi@yahoo.com
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Department of Electrical engineering, Imam Khomeini international University, Qazvin, Iran
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran-Iran
10
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, Military College of Signals (MCS), National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
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12
13 Abstract In this letter, a Ultra Wide Band (UWB) monopole
resonant antenna [10] or by loading conventional antenna with
14 antenna based on metamaterial (MTM) unit cell with
single or many unit cells [11]. Using MTM is an effectual
15 reconfigurable quality has been developed. In this current
technique more than other conventional techniques for
16 research, the antenna is covering 3.1-10.6GHz for UWB
enhancing bandwidths [12]. The zeroth-order resonators, with
17 applications and a reconfigurable narrow band for L-band and
an infinite wavelength (at non-zero frequencies), are used for
wireless applications. The gaps in Split Rings Resonator (SRR)
18 element are made for Left-hand capacitance and -shape strip
antenna design [13]. The use of this technique for designing
19 layer by four via junctions are used for Left-hand inductance.
antenna at low frequencies has become limited, because it
20 The antenna is printed on FR-4 low cost substrate with relative
needs a large parallel inductor and series capacitor and high
21 permittivity of 4.4 and thickness of 1.6 mm. The total size of the
value of these parameters are difficult to obtain in microstrip
22 antenna is 40mm40mm. It is simulated using HFSS commercial
technology [13-14].
23 full wave software. In addition, the experimental results are
Multiband antenna plays a great role in wireless systems.
24 presented and compared with simulation. The antenna gives a
UWB antenna uses multiband antenna in order to reduce
25 peak gain of 6dBi with Omni-Directional radiation pattern and
interference systems which are close to communication
26 high efficiency of more than 70%. By applying 4 switches in systems [15]. Despite of the UWB antenna benefits for
27 shape strip layer, we have success designed a reconfigurable
wireless application, the notch techniques for reducing the
28 antenna for wireless applications.
overlapping the local wireless and UWB system are suggested.
29
To overcome this problem, designing a band notch UWB
Index
Terms - Metamaterial;
Ultra
wideband;
30
antenna with reconfigurable structure is beneficial [16]. In
reconfigurable; monopole antenna;
31
modern wireless communication, the idea of reconfigurable
32
multiband antenna has attracted the attention of many
I.
INTRODUCTION
33
researchers [17]. They can be adjusted by using two methods;
Ultra Wide Band (UWB) communication technology has
34
the first method is continuous adjusting that can be achieved
gained considerable attention because of its high performance
35
by using varactor diodes [18-19]. The second one is discrete
over a large spectrum of frequency. By developing the modern
36
adjusting that can be achieved by using PIN-diode switches
technology
in
communication
systems,
Ultra
Wide
Band
37
[20-21]. Through this method, the operation frequency can be
communication
has
become
a
revolution
in
wireless
38
exchanged between various devices.
communication
because
of
its
appealingly
high
data
rate
[1].
39
In here, we have designed a UWB antenna with metamaterial
The
Federal
Communications
Commission
has
permitted
very
40
unit cells and it is modified for achieving dual band
41 low power emission level to UWB communication systems
characteristic. Here, we show that the narrow band resonance
42 operating in 3.1-10.6 GHz [1] which is easily interfered by the
in this antenna is controllable with some change in -shape
43 nearby communication systems such as WiMAX
strip layer. For this aim, we have placed four switches in
communication
system
operating
at
3.5
GHz
(3300-3690
44
antenna as described in this paper. The prototype antenna
MHz),
WLAN
system
operating
at
5.2
GHz
(51505350
45
shows good performance in UWB such as Omni directional
MHz)
and
5.8
GHz
(57255875
MHz),
and
X-band
downlink
46
pattern, sufficient gain between -2 to 6 dBi, high efficiency of
communication
frequency
operating
at
7.5
GHz
(71007760
47
more than 70%. The experimental results are confirmed
MHz)
[2].
48
through simulation.
49 For UWB systems, monopole [3] and CPW antenna [4-6] are
50 the most frequently used antennas due to many advantages
II.
Antenna Design
51 like cheap manufacturing cost, compact and light weight.
Fig.1
(a)
and
(b)
shows
the
prototype-designed top and bottom
Circular
monopole
microstrip
antenna
and
circular
CPW
52
view
respectively.
The
final
antenna model that contains a
patches
are
the
conventional
structures
for
UWB
application.
53
small
ground
with
a
slot
and
a
special SRR is implemented for
Recently,
some
new
researches
like
metamaterial
unit
cells
54
radiator
part
that
connected
to
-shape strip layer by four via
have
been
studied
for
UWB
and
multi-band
application
[7].
55
junction. The antenna is printed on a FR-4 low cost substrate
56 Metamaterials (MTM) are complex materials that have
with relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness of 1.6 mm. The
57 negative responses at a certain frequency range [8]. Several
total size of the antenna is 40mm40mm. A Microstrip line
58 types of MTM structures such as Split Ring Resonator (SRR)
with 3mm width provides 50 input impedance which feeds
59 and complementary electric coupled field resonator have been
the antenna. The gap length between the patch and the ground
introduced
for
antenna
designing
[9].
In
recent
years,
60
is 0.5mm and a slot is designed on the ground to improve the
composite
right/left-hand
transmission
line
metamaterial
61
VSWR and bandwidth. In addition, all dimensions have been
62 antenna (CRLH-TL MTM) has received considerable
63 attention. They are frequently used for implementing small
64
65

Ultra Wide Band Monopole Antenna with Reconfigurable Quality


Based on Metamaterial Structure

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presented in Table 1. At last, in Fig.1 (d) and (e) the prototype


fabricated antenna is presented.

), R
L is left handed resonance frequency ( L
C L
L L

TABLE 1
GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF THE PROPOSED ANTENNA

shows right handed TL equivalent circuit resonance frequency

parameter

Mm

a
b
c
d
e
f
r3
r1
r2

40
40
19.6
1
19
4
3.5
6
9.5

(a)

(
R

) and also series and shunt resonance

C L
R R

frequencies are presented by se (


se

sh

1
) and
C L
L R

sh (

1
)
C L
R L

There is a frequency that separates the left handed region from


the right handed one, we call it the transmission frequency and
it is calculate by the following equation [22]:
1
(2)
0 RL
4 L C L C
R R L L

(b)

Fig.2 The gap capacitance geometry

Fig.2 shows the gap capacitance geometry and the gap


capacitance value can be obtain by (3) [24] :
s
Cs pf 500.h.exp(1.86. ).Q1 .(1 1.49(1 exp(0.785.
h
h w2
. )))
w1 w1
(3)
Where Q1 is obtained by (4)
(c)
(d)
Fig.1 The both prototype antenna (a) top view (b) bottom view (d)
top view of fabricated antenna (e) bottom view of fabricated antenna

III.
CRLH Theory and equivalent circuit
CRLH-TL is including series inductance and parallel
capacitances, along with parallel inductors and series
capacitors. Series inductor and parallel capacitor are known as
right handed TL (LR and CR) and the parallel inductor and
series capacitor are called left handed inductor and capacitor
(LL and CL) [22-23]. In this current research, the gaps are
parallel capacitance and the via and -shape strip is made the
series inductance in our CRLH model.
For MTL, effective permeability and permittivity can be
achieved by calculation of Z and Y as presented in (1) [22]:

LR

1
Z

CL j
2

CR

1
Y

LL j
2

(1)

1
Where Z j L R 1 / m , Y j CR
S / m .
LL
C L

W
Q1 0.04598. 0.03 1 . 0.272 0.07. r

(4)

1.23
1 0.12. W2 W1 1

0.9

On the other hand, the Via are made an Left hand inductance
in equivalent circuit and it can be calculated by (5) [24]:

2h

2r
L 2 107 h ln 0.5 0.75
via
h
r
(5)

b
wh
L
0.00508.b. ln 2.
.5 0.2235.(
)

strip
b
wh
In our structure the W1=W2 and h=1.6mm therefore the P and
Q1 are obtained 1.23 and 0.044, respectively, and capacitance
is 18.55 pf in this antenna for each gap. With equation (5) the
via inductance is achieved 0.452 nH and inductance of the
strip approximately around 0.730 nH. Therefore, by neglecting
the inductance of the ring and other coupling parameter the
Left hand frequency is obtained around 1.07 GHz and the
Right hand frequency can be calculated by monopole ring
antenna calculation at (6) [25] :

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fL

0.72
(6)
c r2 p

Where c is the height of the planar monopole antenna, r2 is the


effective radius of the ring and p is the length of the 50 feed
line. All these lengths are in mm. In our model by putting
c=19.6 mm, R=9.5 mm and p=1.6 mm, the antenna frequency
is obtained 2.34 GHz.
Finally the ZOR resonance is obtained by (2) and it is around
1.58 GHz and for simulation and experimental, we achieved to
1.27 GHz and this difference is oriented from our
approximation and neglecting of the inductance of the ring
strip for simplification of modeling.
IV.

Simulation and experimental results

As shown in Fig.3, prototype antenna is operating as a dual


band antenna with an UWB covering in range of 3.2-11GHz
and a narrow band resonance at 1.27 GHz and for both
resonances, the VSWR is less than 2. The result comparison
between HFSS software simulation and the experimental
result (with HP8722ET network analyzer) have been presented
and the experimental results are confirmed the simulation
result.

Fig.4 The prototype antenna and placement and arrangement of


switches

Fig.5 (a) illustrates change in frequency where in each time


one of the switches is off. In the first step, when the switch
one is off, the narrowband resonance frequency is occurred in
1.725 GHz for GSM 1800 send band application and return
loss is around -13 dB. In the second step, by eliminating the
switch two, the frequency resonance in 2.075 GHz is placed
for personal communication network and return loss is around
-18dB. In the next step, when the switch 3 is off, the frequency
resonance in 1.95GHz for GSM 1800 band application.
Finally, by removing the switch four, the frequency resonance
reaches 1.675 GHz. When the second or third switches are
off, we have the best matching in narrow band and UWB
resonance.
Fig.5 (b) shows the return loss when a switch is on and the
other switches are off. When only first switch is on, we have
resonance at 2.125 GHz with return loss of -22dB. When only
one of the second to fourth switches are connected we don't
have any resonance in the range of 1GHz to 3GHz.

Fig.3 magnitude of S11 Results for simulation and experimental result


of the prototype antenna

In prototype antenna, we have implemented four switches


which we can replace with PIN diode or RF MEMS switches
in fabricated model or in simple model can replace them with
microstrip junction [19]. By using 4 switches between via
junctions we will have 64 combination and choice in our
prototype antenna. With these combinations, we are able to
control the first resonance of the antenna. The Fig.4 shows the
placement of the switches in prototype antenna.

(a)

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(c)
Fig. 6 the surface current a distribution for top and bottom faces (a) 4 GHz in
slot (b) 6 GHz (c) 8 GHz

(b)
Fig.5 magnitude of S11 Results for simulation of prototype antenna for (a) off
switches (b) on switches

The antenna gain for simulation and experimental is presented


for antenna in Fig.7. The antenna gain is simulated and
compared with measurement and antenna gain around -2 to 6
dBi. The antenna efficiency is obtained more than 70% in the
range of the UWB frequencies at simulation.

Fig.6 shows the surface current distribution simulations in


HFSS for final prototype antenna at 4, 6 and 8 GHz for top
and bottom face in a 3D view. At fig.5 (a), the current
distribution for 4 GHz is presented and current is concentrate
in radiator and - shape strip. By increasing the frequency to
6 GHz, the current is limited to feed line and 8 GHz we have
good matching with return loss of -25 dB and therefore the
current dispense on whole of the antenna surface.

Fig.7 simulation and measurement of the gain

(a)

The simulated radiation patterns (co-polarization and crosspolarization) in E-plane (y-z plane) and H-plane (x-z plane) at
3GHz and 6GHz of the prototype antenna are shown in Fig.
8(a-d). The prototype antenna has Omni-directional pattern in
E-plane.

(b)
(a)

(b)

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(c)
(d)
12 Fig. 8 Radiation pattern (a)simulation of E-plane at 3GHz for phi=0
13 (b)simulation of H-plane at 3GHz for theta=90 (c)simulation of E-plane at
14 3GHz for phi=0 (d)simulation of H-plane at 3GHz for theta=90
15
Conclusion
16 In this paper a modified UWB antenna with metamaterial unit
17 cells, for achieving dual band characteristic, has been
18 presented. The presented antenna has reconfigurable
19
characteristic by using four switches which can be replaced
20
with PIN diode or RF memes switches in fabricated model and
21
by applying 4 switches in -shape strip layer, it serves as a
22
reconfigurable antenna for wireless application in the range of
23
1GHz-3 GHz.
24
With numerical modeling, we are able to give simply
25
calculation for obtaining the ZOR resonance.
26
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