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ITALIAN

ARCHITECTURE
BEING

BRIEF

OF

ACCOUNT

PRINCIPLES

ITS

PROGRESS

AND

BY

J. WOOD

BROWN,
of

Author
**

M.A.

"

THE

DOM

INICAN
"

TriB

CHURCH
TUSCAN

A,
2

LANOHAM

OF

SANTA

NOVELLA

MARIA

arch/' ETC,

ETC.

SIEGLE
PLACE,

1905

LONDON,

W.

All

rights

restrvtd

CONTENTS

Pag$
THI

ARCHITECTURE

OF

ROME

I
....

II

BA8ILICAN

ARCHITECTURE

III

BYZANTINE

ARCHITECTURE
...

IV

THE

LOMBARD

47

ROMANESQUE

THE

GOTHIC

ROMANESQUE

VI

RENAISSANCE

76

ARCHITECTURE

85976

FULL-PAGE

SPECIAL

AftCH

ON

ILLUSTRATIONS
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^3
"

PART

'ITALIAN
GRAMMAR

THE

IN

AND

TURE,
ARCHITEC-

OF

THEIR

STUDY

EARLY

ITS

OF

GROUPINGS

ELEMENTS

CHAPTER

THE

ARCHITECTURE

Authorities

the

AugusUn

A.D.

23-79

Roma^

Vitravius,

Pliny,

Trajan
and

JquaducAbus

Parcbttettum

presto

Torino^

1883

where

in

of

Part

de

Jrchitetti

GR

Mem.

Reg,

Ancient
the

follows

full

very

1756-66;

Lanciani,

Remains

delf

Plranesiy Mag-

pratique

et

Romania

who

his
a

i
;

Middleton,
in

Promis,

Libri

RomaiMf

tMoriqtti

1861

Rondelet

1570

Jntichith

Trait^

batiff

1892,

Di

oi

NaturaRSf

Historia

Palladioy

Termg^

and

Rondelety

1888;

drcJuUctura^

Frontinusy

temp.

Accad.

Di

ROME

ntficenza

OF

Age;

Arclntettura^

de

Rome,
of

work

Ancient

Rome,
will

bibliography

be

found.

THE

civilisation

high
technical
the

skill

task

of

in

very
some

the

use,

large

religious,

designed

to

of

meet

as

the

the

by

made
or

the

architectural

requirements

of

this

resulted

them

by
tomb

to
as

imperative^

and

great

Romans

needs

discovenr

imposing
temple

the

such

supplying

adaptation,
number

brought

had

civilisation

and

Rome,

of

of
forms

but

private

more
or

civic

ITALIAN
in
life,

ARCHITECTURE

the thermay
house, the palace,the villa,
baths ; the aqueducts,bridges,roads,and
or
gates $
the foroy or
markets
and
places of meeting, the
of
for merchants, the basilicas^
courts
or
porticos
justice,the curia^ for the senators, the triumphal
arches and memorial
colunms, the circus,the theatre
and amphitheatre, where, finally,
all that varied life
itself to amusement,
excitement, and display.
gave
From
the
Capital and the neighbouring Italian
Provinces
these forms went
with the Roman
eagles
in
in Spain
every successive campaign ; theyappear
and Africa, are
and by the Danube,
found
in Asia

the

France

in our
own
Germany ; and even
Britain, at Wroxeter, Silchester,and elsewhere
Italy is never
abiding signs of a greatness which
like to see again.
in

To

those
and

and

who

believe

that

architecture

is essentially

expression of a
inevitablythe unconscious
the proper
national
this will seem
to
moment
spirit,
character
Roman
and
say something of Roman
of fancy, and
With
ideals.
what
certain want
a
of mind, this great people
be called spirituality
tnav
haa an
for splenimdoubted, almost oriental,sense
dour,
led them
which
to
adopt and adapt to their
whatever
promised to favour the pom*
own
purpose
of public life.
and
hieratic in the conduct
pous
the public"ith and practisedritual of Roman
Hence
from
and
Etruscan
largelyborrowed
religionw"re
with
the
Greek
sources
naturally,
so, very
^ and
and
processionsof Augur and Flamen, of
pomps
the buildingswhere
these
priestand pontifex,came
found a home
rites had traditionally
: temples,copied

ARCHITECTURE

THE

at

first from

of Etruria

those

In such

placesof worship.
Rome

what

"

for which

and

Greek

introduced

were

way

from

then

to

called the

tecture
"styles" of ancient archiTuscan, Doric, Ionic,and Corinthian
last the Roman, with
his magnificent

are

^the

"

ROME

OF

tastes, showed

instant

an

and

growing

preference,

it

attention
the
much
to
largely,without
Hellenic
restraint,and modifying it in sympathy
with his own
likingfor the florid and the splendid.
all this movement,
But
though answering really

using

to

is

certain

part of the Roman

fore
character,and theredeservingthe passing notice we have given it,
somewhat
and
one-sided
it leaves
superficial
:

untouched
national

the

roots

character.

life and

of

The

the

Roman

of

essence

the

reality
of fancy
nothing if not a practicalman
: his want
and
was
originality
fully compensated for by an
of the facts of life and
its
almost unequalled sense
immediate
So, behind the public ritual
possibilities.
and
its pomps
with
splendours lay the real Roman
religion: a very different matter
; a simple faith,
it was
to which
yet powerful to guide the minds
natural

of the

sense

was

fundamental

in

facts of human

the
pietasyborn with
family in religious
thence
widening to
respect for family ties,and
of
the State, the hearth
home
embrace
kindling
both
the fire of Vesta, and
subliming the sacrifice
and
of many
another
of Curtius
devoted
patriot.

life ;

This

was

whence

the

their

true
arms

seat

of

Roman

forth

went

power,
to

from
the

conquer

world.
To

take

account

of

the

movements

of

such

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

of the buildingart
the lines it
spiritin the matter
followed, the changes it brought, the results it
is to
attained
the vital,the
on
lay one's hand
"

"

true, and the essential in the architecture


At
the bidding of this practicalsense

Rome.

of

forms

some

for the first time


Italian soil
the
on
appear
bath, the aqueduct, the bridge or at least acquire

now

"

"

dignityand

Romans

learn

from

constructing

arches

follows

and

still.
studied

in the

evidence

where
much
"of

The

the

to

of

mechanics

Tiber

by

of

art

Cloaca

the

extant, but
the arch was

only

not

principleof

its

tive
opera-

deeply

thrusts,for there

is

considerable

that

show

the

vaults ; and
forthwith
the
Forum,
drainage under

is in part

builders

The

and

of
system
finds its outlet

Maxima

raised

Etruscan

which

before.

unknown

importance

buildingswere
bv the Romans
advanced
of art,
on
principles
domes
set on
were
pendentives as they were
later at Byzantium, and thrust met
by thrust
in the
buttress or
as
coimterpoising arch
to

"

system of
Yet

it

Roman

date

not

was

cathedral.
in

direction that the


any such
its fullest architectural expression.

spiritfound
A simple but far-reachingdiscoveryof early

of

served

what

was

line which

use

Gothic

to

put

these

builders

their own,
definitely
with such lasting
splendour of success.
in the world,
ancient
cement
was

known

to

they

both

made

Greeks

passed,as
who
builders,

their

hand

volcanic

it

in

the

found

and

Etruscans.

styleshad

done,

excellent

material

pezzolana

of

to

and

the
lowed
folThe

and

From
the

on

well
them

Roman

readyto their
the Campagna.

THE
Used
of

ARCHITECTURE

ROME

OF

as
timidlyat first,

backing

retainingwalls

to

hewn

this

year

cement

200

fullyrealised
onwards,
the principal

this time

From

B.C.

sive
cohe-

immense

not

were

and

of arches

stone, or in the foundations


temples,the singularpropertiesand
of
power
till about
the

in which
it was
however, a concrete
of almost
the unseen
substance
ingredientformed
Within
wooden
every building erected in Rome.
their
served as moulds
to determine
casings,which
positionand shape, walls were, so to say, cast in a
formed
mixed
with lumps
of this cement
concrete
of tahy and faced,according to the taste of the time
or

the

in

of the structure, with stone or brick


traditional arrangements
known
as

character

various

the

reticulatum^
opus incertunij
teitaceumy
practice was
windows, which
constructed

which

the
done

the

allowed

walls, and
as

Roman
came

way,
stone

terings,
cen-

of
support
temporary
device of stone
permanent

retained

in

wooden

the

project for

to

builders

when

aid

this

their

in future

this kind

of work

purpose
first work

from
was

repairs. Their
the
only made

daring,and vaults and domes


in the same
too"
to be built"
over
largeareas
with the precaution,however, of using pumice
empty

or

for the

sake

practice go
landing of a
upper

more

convenient

earlysuccesses

on

hardly say

can

upon

and

doors

over

one

poured

cement

rested

or
scaffolding

brackets

formed"

were

in

"

arches

applied to

same

The

mixtum.

or

room

of
that

more

pots instead

of tufa in

the

concrete

lightness.So far,indeed, did


where
examples may be seen

stair

or

the entire

even

is formed

in

this way

floor of
of

one

this

the

large

block

of

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

solid concrete, supported only at the edges by stone


brackets in the wall.
Here, then, in this discovery
of

the

its

to

come

desired
of

of

powers

the

which

for

kingdom,

form

it

it could

had

there

no

henceforth

was

not

e"fect of time

it need

dread

for the

tures
struc-

raised.

so

effects of the

The
and

architecture

reproduce in the fluidity


material ; no enterpriseof the art from
need
shrink, and, we
surelyadd, no
may

new

common

Roman

cement,

this

much

very

because

the Roman

appealedto

method

new

they

were

and

character

enormous,
just such as

were

aims, promising

deeplynational : a
spondence
stylewhose future was assured in its singularcorrewith the genius of the peoplethat created
observe that it set the builder as free
it. For, first,
as
ditions.
might be from the restraint imposed by static conan

architecture

The
builders

arch, as Gothic
in later times, is contheir cost
stantly
:
by difficult problems of stability

found

such

to

system

developed"
but

as

had

he

These

may.

alreadybeen

Roman

architects

cement

in the

method

^and the

"

is forced

one

an

cement,
domes

to

which
into

one

the

further

build

not

as

problems,

it is

he would
have

said,
great part solved,by

have
way we
carried ail before

irksome

more

as

we

in
met, and
before they resorted

believed,because of
as bringing freedom
as

of the

architecture

true

embarrassed
on

and

trulynatural

described

to

; and

the

of

use

this

new

it,very much, it may be


that foregoingexperience,and

from

what

bondage.

In

had
the

been
already
solid

felt

unity

of

walls and arches,vaults and


petrified
unyielding mass, all forces were

ARCHITECTURE

THE

resolved

in

weight,

and

reduced

to

foundation

umple

single downward

the

the

the

whole

condition

freedom,

static

was

within

satisfied the
means

mere

problem, therefore,

sufficient

the

of

thrust

simple question

covering

ROME

OF

of

adequate

an

area.

Once

builder

allowed

had

this
lute
abso-

him,

to

ITALIAN

10

satisfyto
Roman

the

ARCHITECTURE

and

utmost

restraint

without

his

of splendour, in
order, and even
connection
with
needs
the supply of those practical
which
the buildingwas
designed to meet.
"
We
say advisedly of splendour/* thinking of
less
another
of the new
not
enect
building method

welcome
to

of

sense

the

Roman

the

to

Roman

were
constructionaliy,

treated

the

former

was

of cement
the use
spirit. When
of building,these, discarded
ways

superseded other
now

than

taste

them

as

in the freedom

retained

which

mainly, decorative

merely,or

is perhaps the
touch
what
adjuncts. Thus
we
instant
and
magical,
grandest,as it is the most
and
architecture
art
example of a change which
finds it when
The
on
continuallypresent.
savage
hand
his first clay bowl
with
uncertain
he scratches

recall his model

lines which
Etruscan

and

the

Greek

"

The

basket.

wicker

di^layedit high

their

on

follow
lines of
the
entablatures,making stone
And
construction.
previouswooden
now, at Rome,
like change affects these forms
a
again, subjecting
Hitherto
fiirther metamorphosis.
them
to a
pillar
and
been
architrave
least had
functional,they
at
had supported weight and carried the pediment and
the new
hands and on
the roof.
Now, in Roman
accessories :
constructive
mere
method, they became
about
the true
framework
set
a decorative
building
the arches, once
and supported by it. Even
structive,
conbroken, opposed and combined, on which
the

builders

had

their

place and

only

in

the

but
power

surface

of

late spent

in the

casing

true
as

such

wall
mere

care,

and

lost

kept

it

occasional

ARCHITECTURE

THE

decorative

motif. Thus,

ROME

method

of

change

It had

ii

the

met

practical

Roman

of trouble
by relievinghim
static problems, but it appealedalso to his taste
the luxurious and
the magnificent by promising
of

sense

over

for
him

the

free hand

at

in

only that

not

was

aim
a

the

freedom.

further

brought a

It

OF

size

any

Colosseum

or

world

new

in construction

space

Golden

he

could

he

or

detail.

of decorative

House

might

plan or
of

for"

pay

Nero"

now

but that

and
lintel at will^
play with pillar
the bidding of the practical,
at
reducing the
now,
fine empiric proportionsheld by the Greeks
to
a
formula
in which
mathematic
largelylost
grace was
to convenience
pilingorder upon order in a
; anon
where
with
used
restraint
scheme
details,once
far from
because stillstructural or not
it,might be
desired effect: a
to
multiplied and enriched
any
splendour that should hold strength in her arms
as
he

free

was

Delilah

Samson.
avoid

To
to

to

introduce

at

tions,such
view

as

ceased

to
was

were

built

double

without

so-called

of

two

by heavy

iron

qualifica*

in any

our

degree

argument.

our

solid stone, each


Roman
feet by one.

as
alternately

mortar,

well

always known, and never


than that of concrete.
solidity
walls
opus quadratum^ where

throughout

cube

as

^had

"

^another

"

the

laid

other

knew

of

be

somewhat

without

contention

main

the

use

This

or

buildingcraft

Romans

The

widen

to

serve

may

of Roman

weakening

were

misunderstandingit may
this point some
necessary

any

and

of

headers

often

were

clamps

and

: an

block

These

with
stretchers^
bound

almost

to

each

superfluous

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

12

of securing greater
it is plainthat here, loo,

in
solidity

means

the

at

effect

same

have

we

which

the wall.

Now

builders

the

ing
aim-

concrete

cement

tually
easilyand effecin which
: the
liberty
they might feel free to
and weight.
neglectall problems save those of mass
what
as
Again, the Romans
felt,
age and nation
force in which
has not, the conservative
religion

enabled

them

tends

hold

to

still

reach

to

fast the

more

material

forms

which

with

it

associated.

be

tinued
Temples, then, conand
to
rise,at Rome
elsewhere, on the old
with
Grseco-Etruscan
lines,and the free peristyle
its functional
and architrave
to adorn
pillar
buildings

has

to

come

of state, such

under

as

Roman

government

were

religiousrites.
here
innovations
But
not
are
even
wanting, and
sacred
the
limits proceed with
outside
growing
style
freedom, till in arch and amphitheatre the new
from
the old, and
the latter
is sharplydistinguished
loses almost entirely
its constructive
value to assume

always more

It

comes

to

of the

sparinglyas
of the

the

with

of decoration.

that

art

less associated

or

of

this

then, that
opus quadratum
"

time

went

great period was

moulding

masses,

as

of

in

on

"

with
^used

^allRoman

the
more

ception
single ex-

and

architecture

structurally
nothing

cement

livingand

on

more

but

the

colossal scale.

In

lastingrock, that

were

devices Rome
had
formed, earlier constructive
held fast,and
thought fit to adopt and retain were
now
appeared as surface fossils awaiting the chisel
of time and the breath of a new
age : arches,domes
and
vaults, dead because
asleep and thrustless ;

thus

ARCHITECTURE

THE

OF

ROME

13

pillarsand
architraves, no
longer bearing
carrying but themselves,borne and carried in
Rome

that

grasp

in

her

masterful

own

had

way

and
the
at

It follows,therefore,that
them.
length laid upon
almost
everything usually described as ^^ Roman
Architecture"
matter

seen

thus

is

fall under

to

Even

Decoration.

detailed

more

subordinate

the

however,

so,

notice

of

just view

upon

than

it

we

may
have

head
well

the

of
ceive
re-

yet given

it.

to

and
regards their general form
outline,
be
Roman
buildings may
pretty evenly divided
the
the
between
as
quadrangular, such
temple,
palace or basilica $ and the circular,as the tomb,
temples, the theatre, the circus, and the
some

As

of the

rotundas

character

latter have

in

The

baths.
to

and

mass

addition

former

and

charm

owe

their

posing)
im-

proportion,and the
which
depends on
which
curves
they
decorative
details,
their
to
simplest

beauty of the
external
to
Coming
present.
indeed
find these, reduced
we
visible wall-surface
not
form, in practically
every
belonging to the opus quadratuniyand in a succession
of (htingapproximately
affords a useful means
which
First we
have
the buildingsin which
they appear.
of the concrete
the "ce
is
where
the opus incertuntj
nearly filled with irregularpieces of tufa, three or
in front and
inches
four
running
across, "nooth
of the wall in a rough
substance
into the
back
point : this belongs to the period of the second and
the

form

first centuries
B.C.

50

to

A.D.

Then

B.c.

150

"

the

follows
neater

"

from

about

epus reticulatum^

ITALIAN

14

ARCHITECTURE

from
dijBFering
the tufa lumps

but

"ce

only in this,that
the
not
now
on
only smoothed
each
other
to
meet
exactly in
set
diagonallyin the wall and

are

dressed
which

squares

opus incertum

the

are

it is still
which
or
entirelyconceal the concrete
composed. During the same
substantially
period
also find a
third variety,the
we
opus testaceum^
much
which, however, continued
longer in use :
as
late,in "ct, as the close of the Western
Empire.

Here

brick

used

was

triangularbricks,that
back

into

the

is,with
and

concrete

so

Rondelet

the

in

be

often

methods

have

we

reminiscence

alreadysuperseded by
the

Finally appears
earliest known

opus mtxtum^

example

is

seen

in

as

researches

of

It

is

the

skin-deep
alreadyspoken
of

the

wall, for
taken by

Middleton.

which

seen

close in front

the

that

of

before

angle running

is still commonly

opus testaceum^

arches

decorative

been

solid brick

unacquainted with
the
or
expositionsof

observers

may

one

set

of

present the appearance


which
indeed this work

to

here,

had

tufa

as

constructive

use

of
the

of

cement.

which

the

Circus

of

The
main
Maxentius, built a.d. 310.
body of this
of brick, as in the opus testaceum^ but
fiicingwas
interruptedat regularintervals by horizontal courses
of tufa in small oblong blocks
pointing back into
the

concrete

before.

Romans

The
such

as

forms

of,so

the walls

that

simple
To

applya

coat

subtle mixture

of

satisfied,
however,

not

were

their

of lime

say, structural
bore it they soon
to

famous

and

camentum^

with

tion.
decora-

began

to

made

in

pounded marble, applied

walls

the

became

high polish)and
in itself but

Examples
of

times

of

took

camentum

decorative

new

which,

used

was

methods.

earlyas

as

even

Republic, camentum

the

cornice

in

known

are

of

which

only a thing of beauty

not

material

the

all the finer and


the

This

studded.

were

15

nails with

iron

place by

in

held

thicklyand

ROME

OF

ARCHITECTURE

THE

to

the
form

visible details of external

proper
the wall

being

which

on

mouldings :
roughened projection

mere

the

camentum

was

laid

fashioned.

and

By steps such
trulyconsidered

as

these

as

the

we

to

come

boldest

kind

what
of

may

sur"ce

be

coration
de-

Roman

architecture,where
Greek
and
the Etruscan
Orders, with their pillars,
used in higher or
architraves and entablatures,were
of
combination
in selection of one
lower relief,
or
of giving lightand
for the purpose
two
or
more,
known

shade

and

to

lavish

the

decorative

efiect

that

the

plete.
combuildingsalreadystructurally
Doric
of earlyRoman
The
days is neither
purelyEtruscan nor Greek, but a mixture of both ;
which
of its echinus^
in the modified
curve
as
appears
recalls without
exactlyfollowingthe Greek freedom,

Romans

loved

Etruscan

while

to

reminiscences

are

found

even

as

Augustan age in the shallow architrave,


the columns
which
and the bases on
the astragalus^
set.
Examples of this Order may be studied
are
in the Tabularium, and
Rome
temple of Spes,
at
and
at
Pompeii in the buildingsof the Forum
less change in
Ionic suffered
Triangulare. The
and
the form
Roman
hands from
proportionsused
is still,
There
however, the Italo
by the Greeks.
late

as

the

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

i6

Etruscan
architrave.

and

Vesta

Pietas

of

Temples

they

innovated

Greek

upon

the

in

the
of

Corinthian

The

Order,

of

and

Rome,

at

Tivoli.

Roman

found

be

Fortuna

and

depth

the

to

are

Sibyl at

the

the favourite

was

diminish

tendency to
Examples

and

in it

particularly
practice,not only

by their lavish use of a stylewhich the Greeks had


sparinglyemployed, but by changing certain details,
their
to
bases,
adding, for instance, a member
the
carding
beneath
brackets
cornice,and in the end disthe traditional acanthus
of the capitalsin
The
favour
whole
of the olive.
historyof these
be conveniently
changes and developments may
and
compendiously followed by observing how the
of the Temple
Assisi
of Minerva
architecture
at
that of Mars
differs from
Ultor
at
Rome, and this
the
the
decoration
of
Baths
of
again from
Diocletian.
last

This

Orders

example

also

used

were

reminds

in
buildings,especially
were

of

enrichment

the
Rome

size

such
:

as

For

Bath.

and

was

in

the

interior
and

importance

as

the

case

the

with

efiect

that

note

later times

internal

relied also upon

to

us

when

Roman
these

called for this

the

the

of

the

Basilica and
architects

of

proportionof their
of
halls,the imposing height and sweeping curves
their vaults and
domes.
These
latter forms, which
had
the Romans
made
their own,
were
peculiarly
the opus lacunare
often covered
with
an
internally
effective
decoration
by nailing
easily obtained
which
the centeringon
to
stepped squares of wood
vast

"

the

vault

or

dome

surfiice

was

moulded.

The

THE

the

'cetmenlum

used

to

say,

and

veritable
choicest

kind

within

the

nused

cither

final
the

note

rich

well

as
as

exquisite

marble

of

to

internal
on

as

17

was

backing

mere

panelling
"

rorm

decorative

secce

and

or

in

colour

scheme

to

the

stucco

encaustic,
at

to

Mural

decoration.

carefully prepared

fresco,a

in

finished

freely
without, and,

indeed

sometimes

painting, executed

grounds,

often

were

which

marmareum,

everywhere,

strange

formed

thus

retreatingpanels

ROME

OF

ARCHITECTURE

once,

its

gave
and

highest

ITALIAN

point

what

the

Pantheon

idea

of

architecture

The

effect.

and

and

ARCHITECTURE

is

of

known

Rome,

at

the

beauty
rose

Pompeian

to

and
its

the

wall-paintings,
decoration

original

may

give

splendour
culmination.

us

some

in

which

in
faint
this

II

CHAPTER

ARCHITECTURE

BASILICAN

Authorities

864

Mille

Giovanni

San

fast

down

the

of

history

and

to

simply

by

combination,

been

they

seen

in

each

of

unity

so

twos

The

dislocation

the

life

threes

and

or

and

the

new

held

were

spell.

The
ages,

Renaissance,

their

together,

successive
in

Never

used

lies

fundamental

four

the

again

without

new

have

regard

function.

heralded
the

the

column

succeeding

in

style.

which
under

commence

West,

or

in

Romei

the

these

and

immobilised,

constructive

to

of

free

succeeding

their

how,

all

in

of

that

architecture,

of

elements

setting

Storia

enchanter's
craft

building

Duomo

dome,

and

some

including

the

in

bv

as

VI.

II., 1902.

Imperial

vault

arch,

secoio
//

noticed

of

Architecture
and

and

I.

Venturis

already

have

WE

to

Vols.

ItaRana^

delfArte

dal

Mospignotti,

1902

rArddtecture

ItaRa

in

Despotti

BotUrranea^

de

VArcMtutura
circa

Roma

Rossi,

Monuments

HQbschy

Cattaneoy
al

De

this

decline
life

of

it

change
the

held

Empire
answers

is

remarkably
of

old

contemporary

Christian

passed, and
art

the

period

our

attention

Church,

be concentrated

must

entering on
let us try to
details,
the

Ere

Civil

development
buildingsof
for

us,

and

the churches.

on

account

an

the

on

the

non-existent
practically

are

before

and

to

progress
the

which

demands

occasion

describe.

to

now

and

power
before

fresh

whose

immediate

gave

are

we

But

the

to

the

order

builder's

of

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

20

of

their

forms

seize the essential character

architecture.

new

decline,
but before the fall,
of
Empire, a taste
had alreadyset in for what
be called a simpler
may
structive
style of building: simpler,that is,not in its conprinciple,which, as we
know. Imperial
Rome
had long reduced
to
a
unity, but at least
lighterand less expensive. It may be indeed that
the idea of removal
to
Constantinople,already in
Rome
the air,had
made
less inclined
at
to
men
build

in the

there

can

this

old

yet the

be

old

order

way,
the Western

or
style,

no

doubt

gave

for all time.


of

the

in

the

At

any rate,
includes

fact,which

feature that,whereas
significant

in true

Roman

period, arch and pillar


never
combined, that great step
were
structurally
was
now
taken, and at least as earlyas
decisively
the building of the splendidhalf-way house
to the
Diocletian's Palace
know
at
as
we
East, which
Spalato (a.d.284).
have two
of the
out
Here, then, observe that we
of architecture
four prime elements
showing signs
and funcinto a new
tional
of life,
and preparingto enter
Architecture

of

combination.

the

great

Rare

and

occasional

in Roman

i;

"

BASILIC

ARCHITECTURE

AN

21

building of the declining age, this practicewas


builders.
In their
eagerlyadopted by the Church
hands it became
the determining element
of a new
Italian
which
appeared on
style ^the Basilican
"

"

soil in

the

fourth

of

century

our

era,

held

fidl

two
building field for some
hundred
persisted,traditionally and in
years, and
till the
close of the first millennium,
a
measure,
of the principal
of architectural
streams
affordingone
formed
the new
tendency which
Romanesque.
and
It is in the north
walls bounding the
south
of these early churches
that we
central nave
see
constructive
The
the
principle at work.
new
here
the spoil of classic
columns
are
commonly
them
are
buildings,and the arches that rest upon
that
claim
the
from
often
stones
wrought
may
is it true that these ancient
same
origin; so literally

the

possession of

and

constant

elements
The

secular

bondage.
immediately on
the

builders

have

here

are

set

arches

discarded

turn

now

capitalsof

the

free

those

the

their

from

and

rest

columns,

clumsy

and

for

useless

fragments of classic trabeation with which, in earlier,


but
in pagan,
and
examples, they were
especially
the new
emtnirrass
to
practice even
lately wont
these arches, thus
where
they adopted it. On
sustained,bears the weight of the great clerestory
its high-set windows, and
wall with
this,in turn,
carries the
is

rafters and

the

roof.

The

simple,but thoroughly structural

true

arches

thrust

them, and
weight of wall

between
the

with

and

the

and

arrangement
the

arches

are

exchanged
answering to

counter-thrust

lines of force
roof

above

are

thus

made

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

22

Central

and

constructive

we

wedge,

where

the
as

arcade

is

feature,it

of

system

we

But

arch.

these

wedges

greater
chief

our

which

form

haunches

such

of

holds

architecture

their

risingat

to

walUwedgey

combination

the

to

just

lies the force


from

the

arch

nothing but that of


in the
seen
shape of its
the question
we
pass from

when

claim

itself which

and

itself is

be

Basilican

as

rest

this

in

us

succeeding
each superior

The

may

And,
single arch

by

which

reason

they

arch

voussoirs.
of

observed

of the
power
is undoubtedly that of the

of

power

the

"

call it.

described

the

foundations.

is that part of
arch
between

plain

columns

may

have

for

"

it tails down

the

meet

be

to
finally

bring them

of the

to

system

wall where

as

most

will ms^e

pages

which

solid resistance

in the

rest

columns

in the

meet

to

an

as

its chief

of

the

attention.

In

wall
them

the
arches
prevents
the crowning
under

they that stand midmost


sends
in the system
which
so
weight downwards
safely from roof to wall, from wall to arch, and
column
and
foundation
they are, in fact, the
;
No
wonder
greater wedges that key the whole.
of

pressure

that

with

at

chose

rich

it is

this

the

sense

of

part

builders

the

of

these

fit

fisibricas

most

had

which

put

into

their

hands

new

architecture,and drawing by this device all eyes


what

to

important and precious decoration


command, in the lovelystain of fresco or
of mosaic
covery
sheen
:
praisingthus the dis-

the

their

the

wall

artistic

sure

churches
receive

the

was

combination

indeed

the

they had

main

element

contrived.

in

the

to

static

BASILICAN

ARCHITECTURE

23

general forms, it is
evident that the name
of
Basilica,"given to the
first Roman
out
withof importance,was
churches
not
with
meaning, and
justicebe
may therefore
this whole
applied,as we have used it,to distinguish
Passing

from

structure

to

^'

type

of

builders

architecture.

For

whether

or

no

the

as
themselves, and
consciously, took
their model
the Pagan Court
of Justice,the name
it shares
with
the
early churches
represents a
observed
real correspondence. It has often
been
that the Roman
Court of Justicewas
but an inversion
the
of the
Roman
Temple ; the wall enclosing
Now
the wall.
columns, instead of the columns
this was
offered distinct advantages to
a plan which
the firstchurch
builders.
They set aside the difficult
almost
and expensive elements of the vault and dome
complet
using the latter only in the timid and inentirely,
form of the quarter-sphereabove the apse ;
and, roofingtheir churches
throughout with wood,
made
the transverse
convenient
a
length of beam
Breadth
of the principalnave.
measure
they easily
on
or
gained by adding parallelaisles,one
more,
each side,and height,in due proportion,they safely
wall on
the sound
reached
by raisingthe clerestory
constructive
principlealready explained. Height
indeed became
increasingly
necessary, as the practice
from
Eastern
be presently
"derived
to
sources,
noticed
of placing a matrmeumy
or
gallery,over
An
the
aisles graduallymade
in the West.
way
atrium^ or fore-court,borrowed
perhaps from that
of the Roman
house, was laid out before the church
porch, and in these great elements the main lines of
"

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

24

venience
conwas
temple were
complete. Nor
The
wanting to such an arrangement.
the cancelli^
apse, with an adjoiningenclosure behind
the like
served
for the Bishop and
his clergy as
positionhad done for the Praetor and his officials in
the secular Basilica,
while nave
and aisles still gave
of those who
for the attendance
came
ample room
in Christian churches
the proclamation
to wait
on
convenience
of the new
law.
This
enough to
was
of the Basuican
the adoptionand permanence
secure
form of the new
plan as the originaland normal
buildings.
The
first sites of these buildings,too, were
not
without
significance.Before they gained liberty,
by
the Edict of Milan, to appear
thus openly in public
assembly, the Christians had worshipped for near

the

new

hundred

three

Not

years in the vaults

the
infrequently

ancient

these

sacred
adorned

beside

decoration.
the

In

of

eleventh

found
the

in

coasts

century,
Italian

many
of

great

brought

we

find

and

which

new

paid by

churches

Sicily.
religiousevent
influences

this architectural
visit

subterranean

this relation of the

to

origin of the
and
continued^ to be a
crypt, which
ecclesiastical buildingsat least as late as

confessio

the

over

placesof worship, doubly


and
of the
resting-places
martyrs,
and precious
with not a littleprimitive

superior churches

feature

built

were

subterranean

the

as

churches

new

Catacombs.

of the

the

to

of
bear

history. In
Empress Helena

the

such

as

from

the
upon

the

fourth
the

may

Alps

be
to

century
course

of

of the
consequence
to the sacred places

BASILICAN

ARCHITECTURE

25

of

Jerusalem,the Cross,as a material form, took new


possessionof men's
minds, and soon
brought its
modification
first
to the ground plan of the Basilica,
in

of

rearrangement

mere

the

internal columns

in

and
neighbourhood of the cancelli^
then, more
boldly,as a true transept projectingexternallyon
each side of the church.
Nay iurther,the Empress
her return
on
to
Italyclaimed to have found, not
of Christ,
the Cross only,but also the sacred Tomb
which
Church
of
the
over
a
Holy
sumptuous
Sepulchre was
presentlybuilt. This gave at least
of the
immense
to the use
impulse in the West
an
second
churches
form, in which
great constructive
built on a polygonal or circular plan recalling
were
the classic tomb, as that of the Basilica proper
had
representedthe Court of Justice. These two forms

the

of the Basilica proper

"

and

of

the Rotunda

"

were

used

the
contemporaneously but not indifierently,
latter being appropriated,
to memorial
as was
natural,
tian,*
Chrisof ideas peculiarly
chapels,or, by a sequence
adopted as the typicalplan of the Baptistery.

The

built

churches

their roof
proper.

arrangements
If round, the

radiatingrafter system
treated

if taken

as

Basilican
cut

to

sides
dome.
the

the

point

above

in

met

This

problem
*

from
roof
\

if

those
was

plan derived

second
of

laid

of wood

on

side

each
polygonal,

was

and

the

bent

till all the

forward

the

centre, forming thus


was, in fact,the Western
of the
cupola, of which

Cf. Romans

Basilica

the

containing walls of the


clerestorybeing, as it were,

from

nave,

this

on

vi. 4 ; Colossians

ii.

polygonal
solution
we
12.

of

shall

26

ITALIAN

ARCHITECTURE

presentlyhave
exemplified in

to

more

close

it formed
Nor

the

model

the

Brunelleschi's

of

it be doubted

can

builders' view

between

that

during

Basilican

the

all the
and

age

profoundlyinfluenced
covering architectural spaces
Mausoleum

The

dome.

well

was

centuries

that

with

that

in

lay

sance,
Renais-

the

of

every

Theodoric

of

famous

device

this

and

of

Eminently

sav.

Baptisteryof Florence, which


research
has with
authorityassigned to the
of the fourth or opening of the fifth century,*

recent

the

much

Italian mode
solid roof.

alone,

its

with

prodigious block of Istrian


Ravenna
at
to
speak to us of that
stone, remains
the various
enduring Roman
solidityfrom which
but slowly and succesarchitectural
elements
sively
were
disengaged and vitalised.
As we
have thus inevitably
anticipatedsomewhat
also note
final
the course
of time, we
here one
may
of ecclesiastical building,late but
form
important,
cupola

which

rose

on

of Basilican

were

Italian soil

Architecture

rightto

more

Italian

an

ingly made
use

one

bell-tower

or

the

from

cut

would

way
seem

had

of

treat

the

to

the
date

East.

true

in the

originof
*

See

absence

this form

we

only late

of

the

panile,
cam-

have

we

and

linger-

ecclesiastical

Their

carry

the

bells themselves

the sixth

from

to
building of towers
earliest plan
eighth. The
probablyquadrangular,as in

and

"

and

the

towers,

passedaway
church, which
because

here

invention
in

yet the direct influence

ere

century, and

them

from

campanile

several of the

of

the
was

Ravenna

positiveproof of the
perhaps be allowed
may

DespottiMospignotti,op. Au

BASILICAN

to

it derived

suppose

was

inroads

late

some

and

it

that

had

set

every

one

on

his

defence.

living in towers
continued, we know,
the beginning of the thirteenth
centurv
as
for dwellmgbeing then built in Florence
"

houses
in

sources

habit of

The
as

civil

from

27

fairlyenough the house of the time, as


barian
built in Italy after the barcommonly

represents
that

ARCHITECTURE

and

be

can

earlier times

much

churches

for

exception
terrace

there

at

to

no

reason

to

that

suppose

provided near
their clergyor
guardians formed
any
The
the common
rule.
or
solaioy
open

the

become

the

top of these

houses

towers,

would

thus

rally
natu-

belfry proper, while the lower


the lodgingof the campanarius and his
storeys were
be
a
fiimily. Such
pointed out,
theory, it may
would
several well-known
admirably with
agree
features of Italian campanili : such as their position
near

the

foundation
divide

them

the

door

distinct
a
church, yet on
of their own
which
; the string-courses
into several storeys, and, not
least,the
of

the

fact that some


even
significant
are
only
yet not
habitable,but actuallyoccupied by the very class or
people for whom
they were, no doubt, originally
it is certainly
of high interest if we
built. And
may
them
thus regard
vival
as
a
true, though modified,surof the earlycivil architecture
of Italy.
from the
and, firs^
Passingfrom forms to details,
campanili to the facades with which at a later date
find in this important
to be associated,
we
they came

part of the Basilican

church

not
to
simplicity,

poverty, of ideas suggesting that it haa


the attention

which

not

its commanding

yet

say
ceived
re-

position

28

ITALIAN

might

well

broken

only by

ARCHITECTURE

claimed.

have

few

rather

below, a porch belonging


the

cloistered

itself : such

fa9ade.

atrium

are

the

Above, a bare wall,


windows
insignificant
;

rather

than
chief

the

to

that

to

of

of

features

structure

the

of

church

Basilican

the

have come
perhaps the examples which
down
do not
to us
fairlyrepresent their stylein this
particular. The
high bare wall,for instance,may
have
ration,
deconever
received,or may have lost,some
of panelled marbles
as
or
mosaic, for which
it was
hold
certainlywe
yet designed. And
may
that there is something interestingand
significant
in the details which
The
still appear.
windows,
lifted so high, are arched
and pillared
in the prideot
the

But

constructive

new

device

and

columns

the

of

the

porch look back to their origin in the classic


and forward
that later day which
to
was
peristyle,
them
to see
carried,as in the Pisan Romanesque,
the whole
church
in abundant, if not
front
over

begins already to
by a cornice
times
so

rest

the

of

exterior

shallow

connected
pilasters
later
of hanging arches, which
architects
developed and used

the

show

Lombard

and

The

decoration.

extravagant,

freely.
If

we

are

as
Baptistery

outer

walls

to
a

of

take

the

typicalone,
churches

polygonalplan were

example
it would

built

decorated,as

on

the

of

show
the

Roman

Florence
that
second

the
or

buildings

of coloured
marbles.
been, in an arrangement
Widely typicalor not, this case, like the structure
local school
it belongs,founded
to which
at least a
of appliedpolychromy, and so influenced
succeedhad

ARCHITECTURE

BASILICAN

ing

Fiesole

Jacopo

Miniato

at

of

hgzdts

Domenico

San

at

San

of

The

time.

sopra

Florence

"

29

of the Pieve

Arno, San
to

Badia

ancient

the

at

Salvatore

or

Empoli

San

and

only neighbouring

mention

all derive character from


this source, and
examples
have
admitted
give point to the suggestion we
above
regarding the intention and, possibly,the
Basilican
of
the
facades in
original appearance
often
general.The doors in these facades,too, were
highly decorated with sculptureof an artistic kind,
in wood, as may
be seen
church
at the
commonly
"

of Sta. Sabina
Three

on

doors

the
gave

hill.

Aventine
to

access

the

typicalBasilican

church, corresponding to the internal


aisles.
and
nave
was
Within, room
time went
on
as
differing
dispositions
and

women

for the

catechumens

and

division

or

found
for

the

in
men

for
faithful,
orders,all of

of monastic
lay people and members
less distinct subdivisions of
whom
or
occupied more
where
the latter existed.
and galleries,
aisles,
nave,
Place
found
beside for the singers and
other
was
within
minor
the
clergy in the benuiyor enclosure
while
the Bishop and
his priestssat in the
cancelliy
in the episcopalchair,
tribune
or
apse, the former

and

altar.
was

whole

latter in concentric

the

The

both

internal

harmonious

structural

decoration
and

system

columns, commonly

rows

the

of seats
of

these

behind

the

churches

the
splendid. It touched
through the nave and aisle
spoil of classic buildings.

richlyveined and coloured shafts struck an


its risingscale in
which
found
introductory note
wall casing,the bewildering opus verthe marble
These

micu/alum
of

the

capitals

decoration

paschal

chair,
that

great

of

and

Italian

not

the

the

in

carried

its

pulpits,

many

detail

Architecture

freely

rose

without
time

for

the

reinforced

canddabrum,

period,

colour,

was

which

that

by

and

pavement

clerestory, while

and

apse

chord

the

tesseUtcd

the

of

classic

when

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

3"

the
these

the
the

into

the

in

the
the

be

the

of

further

ripe.

like

ciborium,
episcopid
life

new

this, its

regions
of

to

its

Thus

gained

promise
should

mttifs

cancelli,

beside.
had

harmonic

rare

the

of

carving

with

altar

mosaics

the

second

light

and

advances

CHAPTER

III

BYZANTINE

ARCHITECTURE

Authorities

Couchand,

zauHneSy

1842

Texier

JSyzantinef
civile

867

1895

the

ON

as

style

of

Byzantium,
influence

not

Italy

of

but

Roman

conditions

for

the

in

the

change

and

but

by

the

to

capital,

new

at

the

once

exercised

of

was,

Oriental

making
never

potent

profoundly

influence

deeply

could

of

in

Thenceforward

Empire

Syria, during

Architecture

the

This

they

as

Rome

Province,

art.

merely,

Byzantium

at

Already
era,

and

Greek

Provinces

Syrian
felt

life

its

Empire

of

seat

fashion.

Italian

Pltalie^

Italiana.

became

called,

was

the

on

modifying
course,

it

as

dans

Bosphorus,

and

tecture
Archi-

Centrale,

Syrie

from

inevitable,

was

L* Architecture

the

of

the

Vogu6,

Arte

century

of

shores

Orient

delT

Storia

fourth

By-

Pullan,

la

de

de

transference

the

centre

LesArts

Venturiy

De

religieuse

et

Bertaux,

and

864

tTEgRses

Chotx

the

themselves

have

done

centuries

of

in

capital.
the

had

preceding

first
been

modified

Asian,

and

our

by local

especially

ITALIAN

32

ARCHITECTURE

Persian,methods

of
in

These

construction.

tions
innova-

at
positionto assert themselves
the
Byzantium, where, as models, they became
now

were

fertile

potent and

the

just what
and

The

source

Imperial

felt suitable

Eastern

to

the

of

buildingstyle;
had been seeking,

new

architects
needs

and

situation of

the

capital.
of

essence

the

solution it brought to the

problem,as
solved by

Byzantine stylelay in the


problem of the cupola.This

seen, had been evaded rather than


builders of the basilicas and baptisteries.

have

we

the

Their

supported,it is true, vaults in the


but supported them
on
a
shape of a quarter-sphere,
semicircular wall ; their baptisteries
were
polygonal
and bore a corresponding polyrather than circular,
gonal
churches
vault,not a true dome
; their round
were

roofed

apses

with

Gralla Placidia

wood.

Even

the

Mausoleum

of

nearest
comes
Ravenna, which
to
shows
the true
its four
solution,
a hemisphere minus
form
a
opposite segments:
interestingas
very
perhaps the earliest of all the Italian volte-a-vekij
full dome, nor
fair solution of the problem.
but no
this problem
Stated in its simplest terms
be
may
called that of squaring the circle
that is,
relating,
the circular base of a hemisphere to the rectangles
presented by an ordinary architectural plan. Or,
more
deeplyand exactly,given a square, on the
Basilican
plan, whose
angles are defined by four
each
siaes are
at
columns, one
corner, and whose
formed
by the four equal semicircular arches these
build a cupola of diameter
to
equal
support ; how
side of the square, and, above all,
how
to one
to place
at

"

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE

it

the base

on

whole

formed

shall form

The
source

solution
as

remote

one

by the four arches so that the


static combination.
satisfactory

is believed
as

33

the

to

Persian

have

Palace

from

come

of

Sarvistan

(fourthcentury, b.c.),
by way of the Khalibi of the
it was
Hauran
in Syria, to
Byzantium, where
origin to the
eagerlyadopted and gave immediate
It consisted,
in general
Byzantine Architecture
whose
in a new
of an element
essentially,
application
have
importance we
alreadynoticed in speaking of
the

Basilican

Basilica

Architecture.

In

the

ordinary

wall-wedge (see above, p. 22),though


important in function,was
as
yet simple in form.
When
the Basilican builders essayeda round
church,
the wall-wedges,necessarily,
in one
curved
became
direction to meet
of the circular plan.
the exigencies
So fiir,
however, no new
great import
step of any
had been taken.
of the wall-wedge
But to conceive
not
as
capable of free distortion,
or, that we
may
taneously,
of being bent
in two
directions simulanticipate,
hold in hand
round and forward, was
to
the secret
of the ancient problem and the new
bination.
comThe
easily
square of the four arches was
base by
and simply brought to the circle of the dome
advance
this curved
of their intermediate,or corner,
and complex form
in this new
wall-wedges,which
of pendentiveSy
the unfortunate
have received
name
if they hung from the dome
instead of supporting
as
it as they actually
The
do.
pendentive then, or
doubly curved wall-wedge,was the secret of the new
the simpler
architecture
in all its consequences,
as
form had been of Basilican building.
the

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

34
And

how

the circle
been

the builder of the Galla

by

the

to

even

was

great these consequences


sacrificed to the
not

polygon

in

as

the

were

square

First,
it had

as

Chapel,or
Baptisteries.This
Placidia

it was
of course, that the dome
raised upon
means,
free to display
the full height of its vault and the
of its true
form
as
a splendid crown
sweeping curve
to the buildingit covered.
Nay further,in the new
combination, made possible
by the pendentiviswhich
joined it to the adjacentparts of the structure, the

assumed

dome

and

true

Subtly built

supports.
hollow

pottery laid in

were,

felt the

functional

it often

was

relation
with

to

its

of
spirals

always it seemed
lightenough to float in air,while in realitysending
its greater or lesser weight steadily
the falling
down
of arch and
curves
pendentive,till it met and, as it
mortar

safe

; and

resistance

of

the

foundations

columns.
through the upward thrust of the corner
The
form of the pendentive
wall-wedge in its new
it one
had thus not only set the dome
free but made
No
and the arch.
with the column
longer dead, as
it had been
at Rome,
this,the third great element
of architecture,found
last its true
at
place and
function
of an even
as the crowning member
mightier
whole.
In the

new

sacrificed
On

this

to

order of
the

thingsthe

circle

oppositeview,

as

and

square
the circle to

was

as

little

the

square.
circle of the

taking the
of a Byzantine building,
cupola base as the true centre
then the doubly curved
wall-wedges we call the
themselves
the
pendentives prove
means
potent
whereby that circle generates the square on which

BYZANTINE

it rests, and

The

Cross

Greek
and

square

elevation
generalised
vital

strong and

that

fjiving
Santa

feature

"

but

"

are

south

The

dome.

that

true

massive

and

north

section

static

bination
com-

it attracted

and

Basilican

of the

and

apse^

function,

central square with its immense


and
to
west
east
by such half-

mighty

from

central

meaning

new

"

on

five

of the

cupola, and you


these buildings.

that

half-dome

cupola, is flanked
not
domes, which
only
eftect
of magic that
as
that

been

Sophia,the

in air

had

itself the

to

the

was

Cross
each

on

of

described

have

we

in

equal quadrangles
normal
plan or

Latin

with

cube

each

inscribed

into, five

cube

developed from

cross

the

as

Raise

crown

squares,
gain the

the

is

accordinglythe

Basilica*

united

relation stillto

"

church
thelSyzantine

So

in functional

itself subdivided

becomes

"

of the

35

quadrangular plan that

the whole
it.

stands

thus

ARCHITECTURE

of

of its

add
seems

greatlyto the general


to hang that dome
^*

supports,

as

is

seen

in the

fact

piecesof

take their place


masonry
the thrust of the great
to balance
thus used, is not so much
copied

apse,
the Basilicas

abutting
the
derivative,
greatest

as

and
vitalised,

the

arch

vault

its
suggests at once
buttress arch of the Gothic

builders.

Fruitful,then, in its structural combinations,the


new
stylelent itself admirably also to decorative
effect. Byzantine decoration is essentially
Basilican
Roman, nay, in certain details these builders are
or
more

Roman

than the Romans

double

which
tor instance,
capital

of the

broken

of the Basilicas

classic entablature

held

long

the

reminiscence
after its use,

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

36
had

been

discarded

at

Rome.

The

carving of

these

capitals^
however, is in lower relief than the West
this change betrays
had
hitherto thought of, and
Oriental
influence.
Not
shade, it would seem, but
effect aimed
the main
at : light gained,
light was
in the later Gothic style
of France, by making
not
as
glassin great spaces take the place of wall surface,
windowbut by multiplyingthe number
of small
openings in the upper part of the building,and
round
the bases of the cupolas. For colour,
especially
then, the Byzantines depended not on transmitted
from
but on reflected light: lightthat,falling
above,
thrown

was

vast

open

back

the
in great floods of colour from
less
the numberof the inlaid pavement,

spaces
and orders

ranks

of

in the

marbles

columns,
and, above all,in a sheen like that of gold,of silver,
lit up the triumphs
and
it met
and of jewels,where
These
effects of light
of mosaic
wall and dome.
on
found

colour

and
screen

and

rare

their focus

ciborium

seemed

in the sanctuary, where


fire with concentrated
on

radiance, as if to represent the departed Shekinah


of the Jewish temple, the insufferable splendour on
which
none
might look and live. Indeed, if we
must
as

select

above

surelybe

one

element

from

all characteristic
mosaic.

For

calculated,and

of

this

this decorative

scheme

art, it must
great wall spaces

Byzantine
these

passed upwards,
with
to clothe
an
as
easy yet clinginggarment of
of cupola or
pendentive.
light the subtlest curves
of mosaic
The
art
working, indeed,received one of
of Byzantine
the advent
its chief impulses with
were

Architecture.

from

them

it

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE

37

influence
and continued
Consideringthe immense
of these
Eastern
building forms
essentially
upon
much
Italian Architecture,we
have
not
spent too
time
the analysisof Byzantine construction
upon

influence,however, and its


effects we
must
now
speak ; and the first thing to
be said is that these were
not
regularnor consecutive,
but proceeded in distinct movements,
reaching Italy
from different directions,
and spreadingin her building
schools
various
and
from
often
widely separated

and

decoration.

Of

that

centres.

first of

The

these

Ravenna, and the earliest appearance


Byzantine styleis to be referred to
539,

A.D.

when

city of

naturally,the

was,

Ravenna

of

the

Italo-

mencing
period com-

the

the

became

seat

Exarchate, the capitalof the local governor


Italian
who
represented in the
province the
the obvious
Emperors of Constantinople. Hence
of the

inevitable

and

by Greek

here
learned

result.

the

new

Basilican

of the

that

Not
way

at

the
or

once

From

rated
deco-

local architects

spread widely
Rome, the originalseat

which
at

or

soon

style.
native

school

of architecture

before
altogether
the

nrst

Italian

this

gave

Byzantine

methods

held

vasion.
in-

their

teristic
proved able to impose their characforms
on
buildingserected in the Eastern
San
Vitale
in
of Ravenna, consecrated
manner.
of this compromise.
As
instance
547, is a notable
it appears
the most
a whole
Byzantine church of its
its plan is not that of the Greek
age in Italy. Yet
own,

and

even

built

were

craftsmen, and

methods

left their mark

and

Churches

even

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

38

Cross, but a polygonlike that


itself derived
from
Baptisteries,
Italian

Temple

such
sources,
of Minerva

Lorenzo

at

Milan.

Basilican

the

earlier

and

purer
in the

studied

be

as

may
Medica

of

Rome, or in San
plan to elevation,

Passing from
find that the cupola of San Vitale,
built of hollow
we
materials,is brought to the angles of the polygon
rather
niches
than
which
true
are
by members
double
the
columns
have
the
pendentives. Yet
their carving is Byzantine, the choir blazes
capital,
of the whole
is unwith
mistakable.
mosaics, and the enect
at

It

is

this

if

as

had

church

been

and
the details ordered
and
planned by an Italian,
the
from
the East.
building raised by craftsmen
Other
examples of the same
compromise, varying
in its result according to the circumstances
however

of each
in

be

case, may

Istria,famous

where
the
apse

inscribed
feature

in
;

windows

and

are

of Paranzo

Duomo
;

that

Grado,

of

alike remarkable

Grado, with an
quadrangle a specially
tine
Byzan-

S; Maria

of

church

its mosaics

for
and

pavement

in the

seen

of

internal

"

at

Rome

in

the

churches

of S.

fuori le
Rotondo, S. Agnese, San Lorenzo
double
S. Giorgio al Velabro, "c., where
mura,
capitals,triforium
galleries{matronea)yand other
the superpositionof the new
details show
stylein

Steiano

of its notable

some

miserable

the seventh
-"a

not

prey
only

the

upon

native

tecture
archi-

Italy.

of
The

features

as

condition

of

the

country

during

eighth centuries
and pestilence
it was
to
war, famine,
suspended building operations almost
and

greater part of the

"

close

The

opening

times,
in

the

To

East.

might
period and

Arts

the

for

disastrous

this

quieter

saw

century

architecture

when

Italy under

influence, rudely
the

of

ninth

of the

pro^rous

from

hope

some

of

renewal

second

this

driven

continued

whose

in

couraged
dis-

but

military kind,

craftsmen

Greek

immigration
lain.

of

those

entirel)r,save
the

39

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE

and

vived
re-

Byzantine

of

by

more

stimulus

its former

westward

the

more

once

wave

have

important

two
be ascribed
iconoclasts,may
constructive, in the
one
tripleapse in the churches, as

of

violence

the

sequences
con-

of

introduction

"

the

Cosmedin

(772-95)
improvement

of
;

Rome,
and

the

rebuilt
other

hencefiirward

on

this

at

S.

Maria

in

Adrian

I,

plan by

decorative,
noticeable

in
in

the

distinct
art

of

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

40

sculpture.

is also the

This

in church

opus vermiculatum
Leone
no

givesway
as
seen
opus sectiUy

richer

the

in

doubt

San

Prassede

derived

from

does

not

in

Capella of
and

that

affected

work

sad

during

the

was

tine
Byzan-

this

revival

in

mosaic,

SS. Nereo

and
to

contrast

San

of

source

(S.Marco

Ravenna

which

notice

to

Rome

which, at least in
showed
ed Achilleo),
condition

new

to

pavements

the

Rome^

some

have

to

seem

in

at

It is curious

art.

the Basilican

when

time

its

flourishing

fifth and

sixth

centuries.
in
advance
future, however, held further
the eleventh,twelfth,and, in part, the
store, when
thirteenth
centuries,brought Byzantine influence
climax
all its splendid consequences
in
with
to
a
of the
Italy. As San Vitale is the chief monument

The

first age
St. Mark's
in this great movement,
at
so
stands for the time
of its full development.
Venice
When

the

compare

we

earlier this appears


Basilican, like any
Mark's

St.

squares

did

Never

the

Vitale

with

the

is essentially

early Baptistery,and
craft

shows

covering almost all


developing thence
balanced

building

San

at once.

Byzantine only by
while

later

of

East

and

for

appears
fashion's sake $

the

cupola everywhere,
its spaces
this form, and
with
through its pendentives the
its symmetrical Greek
Cross.
its power
more
on
fullyshow

Italian soil.
And

not

less in decoration

this power

felt.

Mosaic,

than
the

in

construction

crowning gloryof
recovered
from
its long
Byzantine interior,now
decay thanks very much, it is said,to the symwas

"

BYZANTINE

pathy, taste,
Abbot
to

the

of

1088,

ARCHITECTURE

opportunity of

and

MontecassinOy

title of

the

under

who

sat

as

Victor

41

Desiderio,

that

1086

Pope from
IIL, and
Italian

first

gave
soil.

impulse to this revival on


of the
Hence
the splendiddecorations
in this kind
Palatine
Chapel and the Zisa at Palermo, of the
Cathedrals
of
Cefalu, Monreale, Messina, and
Salerno, of the Abbey of Grottaferrata,and, not
least,of St, Mark's
itself,which
brings us back
of the whole
movement
to the starting-point
fairly
in the chief city of the Adriatic,
in the
the lands
it held
Venice, in fact, from
Levant
the
and
the correspondence it kept with
East, occupied now
something of the position ot
Ravenna
hundred

in

the

Byzantine

before

years

it

was

which
influence,
passed thence
Lagoons and the valleyof the
not

the

sole

of

centre

primary Byzantine
way

in which

Greek

Constantinople came
What

of

movement

the
to

Po.

of Greek

centre

the

the

Venice

nor
movement,
influence
it diffused

traditions
to

called

and

of the

towns

But

the

five

was

was

the

the

only
practiceof

a"Fect Italian Architecture.

secondary Byzantine
must
at
impulse was, in fact,so important that we
least touch upon
it before we
close this chapter.
This secondaryinfluence came
through the schools
of Moorish
Architecture,the daughter of the Byzantine
by legitimatedescent ; and easilyrecognisedas
that the first
such, even
by those who do not know
builders
from
Constantinople. In
came
mosque
this secondary Byzantine style,
call it,
we
as
may
the main
constructive
of column, arch, and
group
may

be

the

ITALIAN

42
dome

is fairly
preservedand

plan,here

the

on

and

Cordova,

of

tradition

as
multiplyitself till,
whole
the
rectangle

to

fill

to

comes

subordination

or

in

Christian

Only

the
among
^which it defines.

quincunx
pendentive similarly
multipliesitself in groups
arched or niched forms,defyinggeometricanalysis
which
description,
hang in clusters from the eoges
the roof like the work
like
of bees, or in corners
naves

many
The

or

tends

distinction

without

of

it

central.
frequently

free from

set

column

use, the

at

ARCHITECTURE

^as

"

stalactites of

the

"

natural

some

There

cave.

is

preferthe pointed form or that of the


horseshoe
which
for the arches,especially
the latter,
ends
of the style.
by becoming a chief character
tendency

Similar
Moors

to

variations

are
type
elaborate
stucco

substitute

marble,

and

instead

of the

Sicilyin
this

from

traditional

ninth

the

race, and

and

the

splendoursof
centuries

tenth

Norman

succeeded

who

to

that

bounds

the

kingdom

of the

two

influences from

Rome

of

to

narrowly,as
The

same

as
Italy,

and
were

well

harbours

form

the

of

what

tiles,

mosaic,
ruled

was

perors
Emstill the

were

power

by

architects.

Hence

alike,and especially
be

to

came

called

the

direct and seconboth


dary
Sicilies,
with those
Byzantium combined
what
is known,
perhaps too
school.

Arabo-Sicilian

tendency acted
through Venice
of Genoa

hardlyless

true

or

Hohenstaufen

and

liberal patrons of their artists and


in the island and on the mainland
within

for carved

work

pottery in bowls

iridescent

use

the

where

seen

and

influential

upon
as

central
from

less

upper

the rival States

West,
closelyin

Pisa in the
or

and

which

touch

BYZANTINE
with

many

South

the

dome

the

ARCHITECTURE
and

East.

Hence

pendentives as
cruciform
plan ; the

horseshoe

the

on

arches

use

43

the appearance
central feature
of

or

of

pointed

the

or

decorative

forms, the appearance


of elaborate stucco
work
in S. Ambrogio, Milan, and
at
Cividale,or of majolica plates in campanile or
eaves
arcade,as at S. AppoUinare Nuovo, Ravenna
(a.d. 8so),
A

final result

when, during
these Eastern
the

as

native

of

Byzantineinfluence

twelfth

the

decorative

methods

thirteenth

formed

seen

centuries,
and inspired

Cosmati, who worked widely


and with success
in geometrical mosaic
which
they
appliedto the decoration of marble slabs,columns and
in
arches
cloister,
fe^ade,
a church
pavement,
many
This
inlaid work,
pulpitand paschal candlestick.*
of which
and
examples may be seen at Rome
many
throughout Latium, shows a singularcorrespondence
with that of Monreale
and the Cappella Palatina at
Palermo.
The
orienti lux*^ risestto our
*^ab
lips
with
marble
thus
we
as
see
patientlyilluminated
elaborate
gold and colours, like the page of some
missal ; but it is the declining day that shines here,
the sunset
sheds these
of Byzantine influence which
last bright
of Italian architectural
the course
rays on
dawn
I
what
with
history. Yet
hope of a new
of Orvieto,
For the afterglowreddens on the marbles
*

school

and

was

Succession

Giicomo, 1205-10

of the

the

of

Cosmati:

1162;
Lorenzo,
; Laca, 1231-35
;

Cosma, 1210-35
Cosma,
Giacomo,
Giacomo,
1276-77;
1231-35;
1293 ; AdeodatOy 1294 ; Giovanni, 1296-1303.
;

ITALIAN

44

"

where
on

and

faiaiiy

hr
as

Jacopo

ages,

neither
now

to

given

the

riches
service
but

knew,

engages

Thus

was

the

us

"

Ronnano

1293.
it

bringing

city

Cosma

in

school

Byzantium

study

di

cathedral

the

and

ARCHITECTURE

to

is still

join

to

distant

of

ancient

of

building

which
describe.

the

wonderful

this

to

work

at

lands

and

Rome

progress

craft

such
of

this

PART

SYNTAX

THE

IN

ITS

OF

THREE

II

ITALIAN

LATER

ARCHITECTURE,

COMBINATIONS

CHAPTER

THE

LOMBARD

Authorities

di

ArchHtettura

Lmfftbarda^

1829

harde:

Cattaneo,
VI.

Mille

al

Italiana

WE

through
Gothic.
dawn
dav

in
the

in

Tnis

is

for

what
with

of

us

the
now

we

foreign

to

its

ages

which

examine

approach
the

triiunphs,

practice

deli*
ArcU-

of
and

upon

and

these

our

plan

case,

owed
the

had

anew,
that

much

secular

has

to

already

point

of

and

it

view
"

prepared
the

full

millennium.

study

another

its

its

centuries,

Architecture
it

and

styles

two

of

Italy

development

second

the

in

Lombard

both

ninth

of

tecture
archi-

when

triumphs

creation

from

Byzantine
indeed

was

all

eighth

early

dat

^tma

period

chief

Romanesque,

former

period

obliged
that

the

ItoRa

in

Origiui delP

the

its
the

the

The

lorn-

1901.

won

of

Architecture

Vcnturi,
Le

approach

now

Arclutettura

circa;

Lmbarda^

tettura

Dominazimie

F Architecture

sur

Rivoira,

la

Corroyer,

Etude

DilP

Quintino,

San

durante
;

Dartein,

Romane;

Arte

ROMANESQUE

Cordero

Italiana

secoh

IV

is
to

well,

find,

Romanesque,
the

craft

stimulus
of

of

Italy,

ITALIAN

48

ARCHITECTURE

of their combination, and


out
definitely
another
of
therefore
but
instance
essentially

arose

fruitful influence

ever

Greek

of the

the

upon

was

the

Latin

genius.
A

words

rew

ere

of

proceed

we

technical
chief

details

historymay

of

the

new

cityof Lombardy,

had

from

the

Maximian

(286-305) made

character

place
and

style. Milan, the


architectural
ance
import-

third

close of the

called builders from

and

the

examine

to

of

be out

not

it the

Rome

a.d., when
of his power,

century
seat

ern
beautifythe norththis period belongs the
fine
capital. To
rotonda of San Lorenzo, which, whether
built for a
bath
Christian
the
or
a
church, shows
sufficiently
erected
then
and
the
quality of the structures
It
capacity of the architects who
designed them.
has been
under
Honorius
thought, too, that when
(a.d. 404] the seat of power
passed to Ravenna,

Milan
the

well

as

much

from

the

Rome

was

Italian element

native

owed

as

the arrival

to

city of

Lombards

the

to

drawn
in

the
of

there

North.

The

upon,

and

Ravenna

that
school

capable builders
coming of the

in the

of Milan

as

it would

late sixth century, and their choice


the stream
set
capital,
flowing again,

This, it
opposite direction.
will be remembered,
in fact, just the
time
was,
when
took
a
place in the art of
great decline

building at
have
and

moved
carried

fruit of

Eastern

in

seem,

many

the

Ravenna.

Her

best

northwards, obedient
with them, we
be
may
a

lesson learned

teachers.

by

craftsmen
to

the

sure,

new

the

the Adriatic

must

call,

ripened
under

LOMBARD

THE

ROMANESQUE

49

first Lombard

The

rulers,Autari, Teodolinda
the barbarians we
and Agilulfo(583-615),were
not
are
They encouraged the art of
apt to think them.
building,which began to improve again at Milan as
it declined

at

(636-52) and
of edicts

in

employed

dissolvingon
to

recompose
when
another

the

probablyonly

were

completion

themselves
was

of

one

from

temporary,
of

piece
diverse

work

elements

called

laid
legislation

fevour

the

not
for, so that we
are
of peras
yet of anything in the natiu-e
manent
Guilds*
the less,
Masonic
None
however,

think

this

of

commaciniy or workmen
designing and
erecting buildings.

associations

These

to

Rotari
successors,
the authors
Luitprand (712-44),were

favour
in

Their

Ravenna.

the

foundation

for future

tectural
archi-

to the enlightened
progress, while testifying
with
which
this art was
regarded by the

Lombard

kings. Important buildingsof the time


be seen
Brescia ; S. Maria
at San Salvatore,
may still
delle Cacce, and the crypt of S* Eusebio, Pavia ;
the Pieve of Arliano, Lucca
Toscanella;
; S. Pietro,
S. Teuteria,Verona, and
S. Giorgio in Valpolicella;
in Valle,Cividale.
S. Maria
took
A
place in the time of
great advance
the
Lombards
Charlemagne (774 a.d.). Under
followed the old constructive lines,
and
the commacini
improvement. With
only in sculptureshowed some
the new
the opening of the ninth
centunr
ment
movebecomes
marked, just at the time when we
noticed
a
corresponding revival under Byzantine
influence

at

Ravenna.

Emperor

the

schools

For
of

Milan

the

Frankish
great
and
Ravenna
now
D

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

so
combined

their

The

forces.

old

afresh,and the art of


commacini
went
mproved. The
their northern
at Milan,
centre
studied

problems were
construction
rapidly
far

and

from

near

where

they worked
well on the fabric of the earlier S. Ambrogio for the
Bishops Angilbert and Auspert (824-8 1). Viterbo
also employed them, and we
hear of a certain Natale
di Lombardia, magistercasariusj
at Lucca
(805).* In
full of varied activity,
and
short this century was
the period when
the distinctive character of the
was
Lombard
we
are
Architecture, of which
presently
its decisive appearance.
made
to speak in detail,
The
full development of the
new
stylebelongs
eleventh

the

to

remarkable

It thus

century.

under

opens

social

the

religious

and

the

the
building,which marked
millennium, and coincides
of Bjrzantine
highestwave

favourable

to

beginning

of the

art

of

second

latest and

also with

that

influence

which

from

came

remains

unique

because

the

Venice.

Italian

among
it
school

conditions,

so

St. Mark's

buildings,precisely

did not
represents
suppress
native building craft,but stimulated
it to generous
successful
and
commacini
cast
now
rivalry. The
about

for

and

Ravenna
the
at

ideas

new

Venice

schools

the

among
; and

the

result

of

was

Rome,
seen

in

triumphs of the Lombard


Romanesque
of Milan, now
S. Ambrogio
rebuilt,or San
supreme

in

successors

whose

of

commacini

*The

the

early Lombard

maestri

century,

Modena,

may
tnd

be

seen

the

Milan.

in

and

Antelamo

of

work, dating from

times

twelfth

the

to

had

their

Ctmpione,

the fourteenth

Cathedrals

of

Parma,

LOMBARD

THE

Michele

of

ROMANESQUE

Pavia, where

of ideas and
characteristic

find

we

51

that

munity
easy comwhich
of methods

fertile fusion

of the

style.
But it is time that from historythus briefly
traced
should turn to examine
the Lombard
we
Romanesque
with the view of seeine what
itself,
distinguishedit
from earlier styles,
and
constructive
to what
ciple
prinare

it owed

its

repeat that this

again shows,
Rome

and

influence

of

was

and

progress

Romanesque,
the

result

Byzantium
Roman

as

of

alike
school

Let

success.

its
a

us

historyagain and
fusion

contributed.

to

which
The

in the
first,
of the two
originalground-plans of the
in the
which
asilica and Baptistery,
stillnormal
are
Bvzantium
often
and
does,
Romanesque.
may,
lend a dome
to
tne
crossing,but these cupolas are
generallybuilt in the Roman
polygonalform. Many
of the smaller
in the country,
churches, especially
still roofed in wood
arcades supported
are
over
nave
after the ancient
Basilican mode.
bv simple columns
There has been an
indeed, not very successful,
attempt
form with districts
to associate this particular
and
churches
rites prevailed in
where
Roman
the
distinction from
the Ambrosian, but it is better to
artistic meaning only in such
see
details,and the
architectural
methods.
persistence of the Roman
The
Byzantine,on the other hand, may be traced
in the common
central element
of the cupola,raised
its pendentivesor niches, and in
on
over
a rectangle
the distribution
of the whole
a
ground plan, on
of seven
scheme
however, from this modulusjwhich
the

appears,

Ssrsistence

was

counted

twice.

The

same

Eastern

influence

52

ITALIAN

appears
the nave

in the

ARCHITECTURE

flat interlaced

decoration.

abundant
a

and

placein

Cathedral

the

the

this

must

sculpture of

of Athens

and

selves
them-

complex

to

the

be

found

forms, which

animal

monstrous

Lombards

North

the

tripleapse,
and frequent

the

mosaics

If the

brought anything of
architecture
they favoured
such

of

prevalentfashion
the occasional
galleries,

in the

hold

buildings.But
Baptisteryof Civi-

these

the

(a.d. 737) lead us rather to trace them also to a


Byzantine original.
from ground
then, the Romanesque arose
Plainly,
that
had
been
happily prepared by an antecedent
fusion of buildingstyles. The
questionof its own
distinct character
swered.
remains, however, as yet unan-

dale

We

must

now

the

examine

heart

of the

the most
important instance of fusion such
stvle,
nave
as
we
indicated,the germinal root from which
the Romanesque
took its triumphant development.
One, and one only,of the four great architectural
had as yet remained
left it,
elements
Rome
where
untouched
by all the progress of the Basilican or
The
new
day of Lombard
Byzantine schools.
and summoned
that ancient spell,
architecture broke
its place with
the column, arch,
the vault to take
and
the chief glory of the
dome, nay, to become
handed
its
had
The
catacomb
on
Romanesque.
the
form
to
there, like a soul bound
crypt, and
of
the hour
awaited
the altar,the vault had
under
new

and

resurrection
in the

birth

The
whatever

release.

of the

vault
its

That

hour

had

now

struck

buildingstyle.
had been
dead in classic days because,
form, cradle or groined, it was, like
new

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

54
almost

everythingelse,cast
The

cement.

moulded

or

methods

new

in

yielding
rigid,un-

di"Ferent.

were

vault, they aimed first at reproducing


the classic forms
on
something like the old
the
that dealt with
scale,but by sheer building-craft
The
extreme
ordinary materials of brick or stone.
of such a task was
why,
probablythe reason
difficulty
been attempted,'save
for a thousand
years, it had never
limited scale proper to a confessio
the
or crypt.
on
very
in size as the
Gradually,
then, the crypts grow
and their characterbuilders gain skill and courage,
istic
As

applied to

the

invades

architecture

progress of the Romanesque


studied in three stages. First
a free ambulatory was
crypt

vaultingsptem
^as nearest

"

led

"

and

roofed

and

S.

Antimo,

builders

where

had

model,
and

nearer

Next,

borrowed

if

did

they

more

central

in the

transepts

or

chancel

that

these

Ravenna,
probably

was

it in

Lorenzo

at

the

Milan.

traditional wooden

aisles

nave

the

find

rather

the
vaulting displaces

the

original

from

Vitale

San

be

may

the

show^

ideas

not

The

Stefano, Verona,

oiena, which

near

indeed

about

San

at

as

circular aisle of San

the

their

roof

in this way,

itself.

church

the

^at

"

S. Antimo

reached
this latter stage has already been
and
at
the style shows
its full strength,the
last,where
"

central

itself

nave

to

comes

be covered

in the

same

and

Romanesque builders fairly


grasped,
resolved,the problem brought them by
finally

time

and

way.

what

To
vault

Thus

the

the

that
cover

progress

of their

problem was.
quadrangular
a

of the

Roman

form

art.

Let

space

with

involves

this

us

now

see

groined
diffiodty
a

"

"

ST.

ANTIMO,

PROVINCE

OF

SIENA

"

THE

LOMBARD

that the
fore

diagonalarches

weak

with

when

under

ROMANESQUE

of

the

bounding arches
higher than the level
the

of

of these arches

crowns

the vault
of the

kept

easily
brought it as
when
even
diagonals,

to

Stated

the

semicircle

in these

its solution

recalls

terms
at

once

the

their

of the

quence
conse-

no

ruin if risked
spells
building. The
by striking
difficulty

common

sblved

is of

there*

but

cement,

use

architects

which

weakness

conditions

the

Lombard

we

and
elliptical,

be

must

55

vaults

from

centre

capitals.From
a slightdoming
given to
high as the meeting point
column

these

latter arches

were

strong and sufficient form.


the problem of the vault and
a

that of the dome

as

resolved

Nor
is this likeness
by the Byzantine builders.
from
the same
merely superficial.Both commence
the bounding arches of a rectangle
originaldatum
columns
^and each attempts
restingon four corner
in its own
tine
way to roof in the resultant space, Byzanarchitecture
and Romanesque
using the dome
the groinedvault. Nay, most
interesting of all,even
the latter form of the problem in its resolution shows
how
much
Italywas still in debt to G)nstantinople.
When
we
speak of the Romanesque vault it is too
littleto call it a compromise, in which
the spirit
of
For the fact
forms.
Byzantium acts upon iRoman
is that,except in a
form
very generalsense, the new
of the vault was
derived
from
not
Roman, nor even
Rome.
The
Roman
groined vault was generated
of two
by the interpenetration
equal semi-cylinders.
rather
But, as the result of the slightstilting,
or
architects to
horseshoeing given by the Lombard
their transverse
and the doming of the vaults
lu-ches,
"

"

ITALIAN

56

them

ARCHITECTURE

of the semibring all to the crown


circular diagonals^
sdl quality,
or
even
idea,of interpenetration is lost,and the eight resultant faces of
the vault are of necessity
treated in the new
style
here
flexible wall-sur"ces
be kept back
as
to
or
brought forward there,as the conditions of the case
require. Thus, then, from their bearing on
may
the columns, and bounded
by the four containing
arches on which
also they rest, sensitive,
too, to every
least change of form
be called to
these arches may
sufier,the segments of the vault reach out to cover
over

to

"

the
form.
this

intermediate

whole
And

space

wall-surtaces

such

with

their

then,

new

instinct

roof

with

they but that which their


the bounding arches of the rectangle,
place between
and
their reaching and
covering functions,declare
them
and almost
be
^the wall-wedge in a new
to
final form, with, it
of the
be, a reminiscence
may
in their upward curve,
but asking
Byzantine dome
no
longer the aid of any cupola to help them in their
all sufficient
task : pendentives indeed, but now
own
themselves
to
as
roofingelements, plastic in the
builder's hand, with a grasp, too, that weds
arch to
column
in a new
unity,and with a reach that allows
them
aisle and nave
to
meet
freelyand firmlyover
alike*
vault begins to live again, and
Thus
the
of that
does so through admitting*a fresh function
in the case
form
had alreadydone so much
which
of
life,what

new

are

"

column

the
secret

And
all the

and

and

arch

and

dome*

Here

lies the

true

Romanesque Architecture*
hence, then, follow immediatelyand naturally
worth

of

subordinate

characteristics

well

known

as

of

distinctive
advance
diminish

ROMANESQUE

LOMBARD

THE

of
as

angular
style. The
wall-wedges,due to the desire to
the
for statical reasons,
as
possible,

the

the
much

57

Lombard

diagonaldiameter of the space to be vaulted,gave a


from
of the capitals
importance to the corners
new
these wall-wedges spnmg,
which
and which
they
now
fullyoccupied* Gradually a distinct member
was
developed here, supported at first byia kind of
o"F into the pilaster
bracket tailing
or
wall, and later
the angle. Thus
at
by
by a separate colonette
the demand
of the compound
wall-wedge
d^ees
met
or
was
by the supply of a compound column
of members
ing
pillar,
consisting
answering to the boundarches and modified
pendentiveswhich composed
Another
the vault*
important development next
followed.
members

If
for

distinct
their

arches

demanded
like

discrete

necessitywas
felt in an oppositesense.
The
colonettes,
soon
comer
for the sake of the vaultinggroins,
introduced
might
be reallypart of the new
not
visibly
svstem, but were
their
from
till moulded
so
diagonal ribs sprang
of the vault,
capitalsand, crossing at the centre
bound
the whole
togetherin an evident unity. In
these moulded
static combination
diagonal arches the new
found itsclearest outward
expression. Basilican and Byzantine Architecture
had depended for
and
their
efiects upon
of arches
the tnultipUcation
columns
in order
and
series,sometimes
by their
itself from
superposition.Romanesque distinguishes
it seeks and
the earlier stylesby the combinations
effects with
the same
elements
pillarbecoming
: the
and the arches not
a cluster of diverse members,
only
support,

the

58

ITALIAN

bounding
beneath

The

the

ARCHITECTURE
vaults

but

interlacingthemselves

their span.

be found
work
in
principlemay
at
Lombard
should expect,
decoration,
which, as we
derives its characteristic forms;from
those naturally
evolved in the course
of construction.
The
shapes
of the horseshoe
and of the sickle,
often given to
so
decorative arches,are a plainexample of this,coming
and
as
thejrdo from the stilting
doming expedients
used

same

in connection

with

the

new

vaults.

In

the

the

diagonalarches of the vaultingare represented


in decoration
by the interlaced arcades of
the typical
Lombard
facade,as lin many churches at
Pavia,and the compoimd columns of these interiors
in the
externallyand decoratively
deep
appear
mouldings about the doors and windows.
last detail is so
This
deeply characteristic of
mediaeval
ture
as
distinguishedfrom classical architecthat we
be allowed
in
to spend a moment
may
The
esque
Romantracingit more
exactlyto its source.
practiceof vamting made thicker walk and
deeper buttresses a necessity,to resist the new
same

wav

thrusts

from

reduction

within.
of the

This
space

tended
available

to

able
consider-

for doors

and

a
new
windows, and introduced
problem : that of
vaults from
providingsufficient lightunder the new
narrowed
these
openings. Now, at Byzantium,
they had lit their churches from above by circles of
the Ixise of the
at
comparatively small windows
remember
that this place
we
cupolas,and when
coincides with the positionof the internal ornamented
of the classic lacunar work
(see
squares
have been
above, p. i6),we begin to see what must

ROMANESQUE

LOMBARD

THE

the

origin of splays as applied to


thence to door openings. Pierce the
bottom

of such

row

of small window
shed

to

the

lacunars

and

openings,not

greatest

amoimt

of

you

59

window

and
in the

centres

have

circle

merely splayedso as
light,but steppedon

with
successive square
splaysas if surroimded
at first simplyapplied
mouldings. These then were
as
they stood to window
openings generally as at
S. Piero in Grado, Pisa
^and then rounded
at the
anglesand carried over jambs and arch in sympathy
with
the
of
the
form
compound
Romanesque
the

"

"

column

"

San

^as at

of combination
as

it had

It is the principle
Michele, Pavia.
tion
and
fusion applied in decora-

alreadybeen

in construction.

speak of the originand develo{H


of the cornice
portant
imand
ment
arcade, so constant
If we
a
part of Romanesque decoration.
mention
it now
it must
only be to point out in a
word
the
significant progress
in which, from
a
vanni,
S. Gio^as at
simple eaves-line of pensilearches

Space fails us

to

"

Ravenna
where
bardy,

itself,
and,

"

the

^we

reach

colonette

the apse

arcades

alreadybegins

of Lomto

show

last,the triumph and riot of such


decoration at Pisa,Pistoia,
whole
and Arezzo, where
and arches,
facadesare covered with these columns
galleryover
gallery,arcade above arcade. Such
extreme
examples can only be defended and, with
character
of
the
true
difficulty,
brought under
the styleon
this groimd, that, in the region of
ornament
to which
tive
theybelong,static and construcrelaxed if not suspended altoconditions
gether,
are
offence,moralitymight be in a
as, without
and
the forces practically
non-existent
^iryjtale,
at

ITALIAN

6o

which

of

instead

bound
such

many
the

ARCHITECTURE

of

members

the

Romanesque
when

of
scattering,and formed
shaft
splendid compound

column.

true

that

path

it is a
excess,
leads to decadence
which

such
dom
freebegins to use
danger-signal warning off the

Lombard

the

the

world's

Architecture

great

styles
"

and

combining ;
sought therefore
the
deep window
the

endless

Tuscan

less is it

the

decoration

to

did

None

its
in

division

fa9ades.

the

not

decay.

win

its

laced

Not

place

by multiplying

noblest

mouldings
and

and

of

tiresome

among
but

of

Pavia,

Milan, rather
repetition of

by
be

must

ornament

arcades

so

or

than
these

CHAPTER

THE

GOTHIC

Authorities

ROMANESQUE

Renouvier,

Enlaert,

Origines

Gothlque

P Architecture

Gothique
Del

Mospignotti,
Studt

Supino,
Primaziale

1896,

THE

title

it

as

distinct

from

di

style

general
did

in

the

other

de

Despotti
1889

Arte

nella

delP

Arte^

San

GalganOy

recognised

indeed,

have

led

complete

constructive

which

in

In

that
here

we

freed

tradition,

nor

especially, completely
and

structure

Italy

who

architectural

detail.

of

entirely

Romanesque

adopted

those

which

define

to

nature

never

as

whole-hearted

the

with

with

France

and

serve

may

pecuhar

the

decay.

development

rarely

chapter

outset

and

single

Stor,

Architecture

the

became,

develop

MilanOy

VAbbazia

this

of

the

from

from

might

891

Opere

Arch"

"c.

deal

yet

in

Canestrelli,

Gothic

itself

di

die

intomo

(Pltalie

Introduction

Italie^

en

ments
Monu-

P Architecture

de

Dion,

Duomo

Pisana^

les

sur

Vilies

Francises

Itaftey 1894

en

Notes

quelques

de

Gothiques

189$

the
an

acute

ornament,
arch

expedient

enthusiasm

used

it

to

system

was

form,
which

found

from

and
this

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

62

historyor
pointed arch had an ancient
Italian soil. The
of development, on
use, if not
Rome
of the Plautii,
between
cupola of the Tomb
the early Empire,
dates
from
and
Tivoli, which
of its dome, and the
this arch in the section
shows
remarkable
be said of a still more
early
same
may
Yet

the

"

Florence.
have

had

covers

the

Benedictine

Order

which

that

cupola

The
much

do with

to

the

Baptistery of
is supposed to

first revival

of the

Ages, and a recent


pointed arch in the Middle
example
authority* tells us that the earliest known
of
is to be found in their convent
of this "esh use
Subiaco,dating from
But
there

the

beside
was

another

the

direct

eighth century.
of

stream

more

distant

classic tradition
source

whence

Romanesque builders and


The
pointed arch was
engaged their attention.
of
ruins
in the
in the
ancient
East; it appears
tinople,
it travelled easily
to ConstanThence
Khorsabad.
who
known
and became
to the Byzantines,
their pupils of the Arabian school,
it on
handed
to
at
in the
be seen
Mosque of Ibn-Tulun
as
may
Thus,
Cairo (a.d. 876) and other earlv examples.
the secondary Byzantine influence,
chieflyunder
exercised
the Saracen
art
which
Italythrough
upon
Sicilyand the maritime cities of Pisa and Genoa,
this

form

reached

the

the
known
to
more
once
pointed arch became
An
Italians.
earlyinstance of its use in decoration
at
the fa9ade of S. Paolo
a
ripa d*Arno
appears on
Pisa,a church founded in the year 805.
the

"Archinti

(Chirtani)DegH

vol. ii. p. 478.

Stm

ueW

Auhiuttura,

THE

But

jp

GOTHIC

the decorative

63

ROMANESQUE

use

of

this

is tively
comparato be employed

torm

it comes
unimportant ; it is when
in construction,and
to
shape, in sympathy
with
its own
peculiarfunctions,the other members
of the
of architecture,that we
find the true
power
the
Gothic
pointed arch to create
a
style. That

earlier
^

Romanesque

this innovation

Lombard
the

vault

what

was

is evident.

builders

met

and

We

gave
have

resolved

occasion

for

how

the

seen

the

problem

of

by using containing arches struck from a


The
higher centre.
pointed arch, then, would
tiful
naturallyappeal to them as a form not merely beauin itself but strong, and, above
all,available
the
to
same
constructively
end, as a variant or
alternative to the plain stilting
ing
or
slighthorseshoeto
they had first devised, and still continued
employ. Both the horseshoe and the pointed arch,
thus used, were, essentially,
nothing but alternative
methods
of securing a pleasing form
in the stilts
that were
to
pecially
keep the bounding, and esnecessary
the transverse, arches
nearlyas high as the
of
these
the diagonals when
semicrown
were
the necessary
condition
of stability.
circular,
It follows,of course, that where
the pointed arch
is thus used in vaultingit must
impose its own
strong
and elegant form on
the walUwedge% or
component
surfaces
of the vault it contains,which
find
now
their highestdevelopment and furthest reach. They
had
already, in the earlier Romanesque, proved
themselves
their
supple and adaptable, but now
limits are
defined
outer
by arches as supple and
themselves.
adaptable as
Henceforth, then, it

64

ITALIAN

mattered
of the

what

not

square

or

vault

must

might

be

to

space

ARCHITECTURE

oblong
keep

be the

covered
nor

"

relation which

the

even

those

to

shape or proportions
curved^
or
^^rectangular

of

the

its

partments
adjoining com-

of the

plan,possibly
very different. The
bounding arches,if pointed,could reach any height,
the vault faces,sensitively
while
alive to their new
followed
the lead given them, and
brought
liberty,
Architecture
into
a
new
unity that of Gothic
they composed.
part of the building which
every
mony
Plainly,a better balance of parts and a higher harthus
added
in proportions were
to
mere
of
and
man
the reach
stability,
put within
every crafts"

"

cared

who

The

first

to

learn and

the

use

towards

movement

the

use

have
to
seem
describingwould
Italyas earlyas the tenth century.

been

the

Duomo

d*Arno
sense

bring
combine

and

the

Church

of

their

intermediate

well with

those

arcades
of

the

have

we

occurred
At

San

the pointed arch


in
possess
in the aisles,
where
; the former

methods.

new

Pisa

Paolo
a

in
both

ripa

constructive
it is used

to

high enough

to

great central

nave

the latter
loftycolumns
;
it seems
used
where
in the nave
as
an
tentatively,
aid to an
to
serves
irregidarstilt which
equalise
arches that rest on columns
or
unequal length. Now
of Pisa was
the Duomo
dition
planned in 1063, and, traof San
the model
Paolo, which
says, upon
therefore have been earlier still. For proof of
must

which

rest

this relation

much

it is not

more

necessary
form
hx
as

in its present
of its first consecration

church
date

on

the

to

carry the latter


back as 805, the

use

of the

pointed

THE

ROMANESQUE

GOTHIC

65

at San Paolo, frank and


arch, clumsy and hesitating
is quite sufficient for our
free in the Duomo,
pose.
purtolerable certainty
Thus
reach
with
an
we

idea of the
method

from

centre

diffiised ; the

was

reasons

date

and, approximately,the
in Italy.
to prevail
An

examination

pointed arch

of

the

vaulting of

execution, and

curved

carried round

disturb

not

these

the
clusions.
con-

it

probabilitythat
methods
Romanesque

the

difficult of

most

applicationof

initial

an

first where

occur

were

is

constructive

new

for its earliest use,


that use began
when

actual

the

vaultingwill

to

There
would

the

which

aisles such

as

were

How

chancel.

the

therefore

in

times
some-

great that

in the clumsy expedients


be seen
was
difficulty
may
used
architects
in the roofingof the
by Lombard
Salvatore,Brescia (eighth century),
crypt of San
and

even

San
to

as

Ste"no
what

late

the crypt,

be

church, shows
tiny curved aisle.

However
'

vault

built

S.

it may
on

TTriniti,
Florence, where
but

pointed

have

pointed

in the apse of
gives great interest

century

This

subterranean

now

tenth

at

seen

earlier
its

the

Verona.

at

may

as

been
arches

part of a much
and
vaults in
arches
once

first
soon

introduced,the
made

way

as

find it in the western


its power
to be felt. We
came
of S. Piero alle Scale,
substructure
Siena,and, in a still
semidevelopedform, in the ancient and now
subterranean
buildingof the Badia a Settimo,near
foimded before 988,and the
This Badiajwas
Florence.
vaultingin questionwould seem, therefore,at least,
the firsthalf of the eleventh
to date from
century,
more

"

66

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

Here, in

these

earlydays,we

find the

pointed vault

but roofingevery transverse


only in the aisles,
vault to
bay throughout,leaving the round-arched
alone.
axis of the central nave
the longitudinal
cover
Such development would
surelypoint to a long previous
historyof experiment, and would show that
in the age we
have assigned
have been moderate
we
ing
to the pointed practice in Italy,It is also interestto note
that,judging by tne examples cited,the
the
of
same
pointed vaulting followed
progress
that
taken
as
course
by the earlier Romanesque
in the
the
of
form.
curve
Commencing
apse
(S. Trinit^), it graduallyoccupied the aisles (S,
itself
Piero alle Scale),and finsuly
the principal
nave
(Badia a Settimo).
vexed questionsin the historyof
One
of the most
relates to the reciprocal
influence
Gothic Architecture
each
of Italyand France
other, in the matter
upon
Italians
of the
new
style of Romanesque. The
with justiceclaim that its elements, and even
may
in the earlyconstructive
of the
its first advances
use
with them, and may
point with
pointed arch, were
of Rodolib
pride to the express statement
justifiable
cler,
Gabro, the contemporary (eleventhcentury)chroniSan
that
from
Gugliemo carried with him
not

Novara

to

Dijon

l"nd

of Italian monks

and

tects
archi-

it is said,
shown
skill,
was
who
of St. Benin, and
brought to

building
Burgundy the

Italian

On

whose

methods

of

construction.

in the

the

other

that the great period of


hand, it is undoubted
development in the Italian Gothic coincides with
the coming of the Cistercians ; and that we
must

THE

here

reckon

coincidence

something
plain, for the

with
is

style in Italy are,

many

of

associated

with

the

than

more

best

them,

for this Order.


provided there
be forgotten that the pointed arch

Hist been

67

ROMANESQUE

GOTHIC

men

buildings of this

the
Yet

had

great

abbeys

it should

from

the

not
venr

Benedictines,of which

ITALIAN

68

if the

had, as
could

where
for

the

thev

full

their

churches

new

turn

we

it would
have

must

found
naturally
scope
talents than just in the
which
pious liberality

more

everywhere raisingfor
When

the

examine

to

the

monuments

selves
them-

French

influence

indeed, that

seem,

for less in

counted

than

this architecture

tercian
supposed. Take for example the CisAbbey of San Galgano, in the province of
of the fa9ade is purelyLombard
What
remains
a
plain and severe
beauty, and the whole

Siena.
of

Grothic

of

interior shows

the

which

is worth

notice

the

if the arch

the wall-beam

domestic

that

system,

as

as

voussoirs

arch

"Tuscan*'

by

too^

were

lost in
the
at

of

of technical

often

are

held

was

radre

Libanori's

to

hooks

stone

buildine of the time shows

palacefagade.

cut

on

of
a

It

detail,
the

on

is,they radiate from


round, not pointed.

just such

racter
cha-

Italy; many
with
pointed form
San Paolo, Pisa.

matter

of the aisle roof

row

transitional

that

the

stylenever
the aisle arches
combining
marked
stilt,
justlike those

centre

Cistercians

often

has been

that

And

noted

have

displayof

erectiqn of the
was

Reform.

during the eleventh


was
likely,
brought Italian architects
proficiencyin the followingage,

reasonable

but

were

have

we

progress

century
to

Cistercians

the

Order

ARCHITECTURE

the

one

And
story
clere-

Italian

as

almost

statement

every
that the

Curzio, of Chiusi,may lack


when
confirmation
itself,
compared
; but the Abbev
with such a buildingas the Palazzo Tolomei
at Siena,
Italian,
distinctly
enough the same
appears to show
and we
local,origin.
may add even

architect

was

certain

THE

GOTHIC

ROMANESQUE

Leaving, however,

point, we

the

I from

Gothic
the

lany

at

this difficult and

least affirm

had
Roffltuiesque

year

1150

onwards

69
much

without

its great

disputed
that

reierve

period

through

the

in

lulv

first half

ITALIAN

70

thirteenth

of the
well

known

is

Italyitself,
yet

which
well

This

century.
of

out

monuments

might

ARCHITECTURE

prove

it
and

be

matter

too

not

series of great

the

such

are

any country
their situation in
as

proud of;
only
the neglect
remote
country
placescan in part excuse
which
with
they have been treated by foreigners,
and
the consequent
misapprehension of this great
Italian styleby those who
have never
known
of, far
less studied,its chief glories. The
splendid line
at
begins with the Church of S. Maria a Fiume
Ceccano
(1160), and comprehends, among
many,
such buildings
at Casauria
as S."Clemente
( 1 176) of
the Benedictines, and
di Arabona
S* Maria
of the
Cistercians, both in the Abruzzi
; Fossanuova,
Frosi*
near
Piperno (1187-1 208); Casamari, near
San
Viterbo
none
Martino, near
Galgano,
; San
$
Velletri.
Siena; and Valvisciola,
Italymay surelv/"
claim

that

Gothic

her

be

studied

and

reckoned

witnj

oft
here, rather than in the better known
buildings
later times, the cathedrals and churches of the great
richer indeed
but not
so
cities,
brighter
pure, and
but

with

shows
For
it did

the

only in

its

decadence
north

colours

autumn

of

which

every

great

art

decay.
set

the

in

earlier in

much

Alps.

At

first it is

Italythan
not

very

during the thirteenth centurv


a
many
church
at
Viterbo, Anagni, Piperno, Ferentino,
and elsewhere
continued
Amastno
worthilythe stvle
had inspiredthem.
The
of the great abbeys which
revealed
as
by these names, had Latium
movement,
for its land of departure,and only by degrees led on
the cathedrals of Siena, Orvieto, Florence,and
to
marked,

and

THE

GOTHIC

ROMANESQUE

71

Milan.

Progress here is undoubted, but hardly


pleasing,for in these later examples of the fourteenth
century purityof styleis lost,and a world of decadent
takes its place. Yet
it is from
ornament
examples
like these,and
because
they lie on the
very much
main
of travel,
that v^e have been accustomed
routes
form

to

ideas of Italian Gothic.

our

Even

such

lesson

however,
buildings,

teach, and

to

style is at its height


full strengthhas come,
must

that

as

be looked

not

in

former

art,

style,no

no

find

as

own

artistic

an

/"

but before
self-sufficient,
after it has passed,purity
compromise ; either such

style,not yet sure of itself,


promising grafton the stock of

other

longer

"tal combination

and

strong,

about

casts

for

when

support

to supersede. ^
ever
thought
regard to Gothic Architecture,then, there
Italian styleof buildingwith which
do not
we
it associated,either in growth or decay, from its

the forms

among
With
is

or

When

their

the

that

or

it is

for,but

which

timidlyappears

is this.

it

have

dawn

under

it had

the Basilican

Florence, let

for

arcades

of Pisa tillits close

Bigallothe
drops,as it were
coming Renaissance
by anticipation,
veil of its round
arched
what
is
the
style over
and pleasingGothic
and essentially
a pure
internally
vault
bination
scale,the like comas, on a larger
^very much
at

us

say,

where

in

the

"

formed
at

Siena

on

such

a
or

later date

S. Maria

the great Certosa


association it is easy and

della Neve

(1470),or

of Pavia.

an

useful

classification of these

natural

decadent

Gothic

at

we

to

Now
found

developed
imperfectly

VasiKcan
buildings. The
type
have
already noticed at Pisa,and,

of
in

ITALIAN

72
another
such

it appears
also in many
churches-"
S. Pietro of Perugia where
the combination
sense,

as

"

is due
forms

ARCHITECTURE

to

later additions.

The

Gothic

Byzantine

for
with
S. Antonio
of Padua
class,
its chief example.
The
know,
Romanesquey as we
stands originally
in a much
closer relation than any
other styleto the Gothic, which
is but its special
of the pointed arch.
development under the power
in Italythat it would
So much
is this the case
be
difficult to find any building,
of the best period,
even
whose
Gothic entirelydistinguishes
itself from
the
stylewhich gave it birth. A crowd of examples at
once

second

to

occur

in its decline
forms

the

what

prove

which

of

even

Gothic

Italian

out

is

used

it

natural

more

yet

that

largely
Milan, for

more

At

arose.

instance,the cathedral facade is built on Lombard


lines ; at Florence, the vast nave-bays of S. Maria
del Fiore tell the same
tale,for this dispositionor
in later Italian Gothic, arises from
parts, so common
a

new

insistence

what

on

we

noted

as

of the

one

originalprinciplesof the Romanesque, where pillars


in the Basilican or Byzantine,
not
as
are
multiplied,
but collected into compound
evitable
columns, with the inresult that wide
to

divide these

The

and

even

wider

clustered

supports.
fact that Gothic
unquestionable

reached

come

spaces

in

Italythe

Architecture

sufficient life and

splendid
its reign in France, was
development which mark
and
aims
of
probably due to the varying views
never

French

and

lines almost
studied

them

Italian
from

by

builders.

the

The

former
of

the

"

**

saw

and
beginning
style,
preference, especiallyin the

ROMANESQUE

GOTHIC

THE

73

latter on the other


diagonals of their vaults. The
hand were
always devoted to the use and develop*
of surfaces,as we
have tried to keep before us
ment
constantlyby studyingeach successive style,above
all,in the characteristic form it gave to the wall^
wedge. The result of this nation^ differaM|||||he
of Gothic

by

as

lines

Italynot
surraces

late and

gl^^^Vcay

by eating away the waSMMIRher,


corrosive,leaving only the structural
themselves, as

assert

wall

the

alone

cherished

were

and

their survival

and

at

last the

in

skeleton-leaf

in

the vaulting
especially
the great opportunity for
much

these

sacrinced,

was

laid "iir ground for the

triumph

but
as

To

painted decoration.
A

the

ended

some

to

in France

while

that

was

of another

style:

appearance
the revived

classicism of the Renaissance.

"

Gothic," in the
word, can
only find
building of churches
"

esoteric

French

full scope,
; when

we

sense

however,
come

to

of

the

in

the

civil and

of construction
simplicit)r
must
nearlyalways reduce styleto the question of
have
Hitherto
given
we
appropriate ornament.
scarcelya passingnotice to the civil architecture of
its remains
dating from times earlier
Italy,oecause
than
the Gothic
period are few and unimportant.

architecture

domestic

One

or

two

houses

and

well-heads

in Venice

show

Byzantine influence in their


and rich carving. Some
at Pisa seem
inlaid marbles
and
the
Saracenic
modelled
buildingsof Sicily,
on
a town
Viterbo, Perugia,San Gemignano, and many
inhabited by
beside, have examples of the homes
the early and
who
palmy days of the
men
saw

earlyand

immediate

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

74

Romanesque
loHy,because

considered
in

It is iar otherwise
the

in
neglected, even
and
insignificant.
common
of
the Gothic
period, even
much

examples

decadence.

centuries

During

many

the

thirteenth

splendid

civic

teenth
four-

and

and

domestic

asscmblici
or
erected for Communal
buildingswere
of
multitude
privatedwellings. In the bewildering
of Siena
least select those
at
such examples we
may
ing
varyand Venice
offeringthe masterpieces of two
as
of Siena, built of travertine
Palaces
styles. The
divided
by colonettes
windows
with grouped Gothic
and
even
of white
marble, tend to the Romanesque
in the sculptured
as
the Lombard
appears
manner,
the springing of
leer from
beasts that still lean and
and display only a secondary
admit
the arches
; they
influence
arches

of the

East

themselves,

and

the

fine leaf-forms

in the

occasional

in

of

these

flat reticu-

THE

lated

GOTHIC

on

direct,

constant

show

the

bears

the

and,

with

flower-pot

eminently
the

nothing

last

carried

triumph

but

capital

successful,
great
the

over

hollow

cornice

the
;

of

ornament

mar^ehouse-

fr^ffeprzan-

the

that

flood

coliunn

Byzantine

Palace

of

Doge

the

composite
the

style
rising

which

Gothic,

Venetian

of

original,

Daring,

complete.

of

fiill

arches

the

characteristicVRnedan

shines

of

the

borrowed

the

monument

charm

white

the
;

colour

all,

ogee

upstanding

an

taste

over

is

chinmey

in

of

the

is

influence

latter
Here

of

At

borders*

their

commanding.

forms

inlays

75

this

flames

Moorish

have

tium,

hand,

and

same

singularly
fronts

other

double

the

defines

which

ornament

Venice,

ROMANESQUE

as

in

sance.
Renais-

CHAPTER

VI

RENAISSANCE

ARCHITECTURE

Authorities

1485

Vitruvius,

of

155

Die

De

the

Vasariy

Kircben

1882

Albcrti,

preface

to

der

Renaissanci

in

with
V

Serlio,
his

LaspeTres,

Mitul-Ita/ieM,

TAe

mentaries
com-

Architettura^

Via

Renaissana

Italy

tt ArcJnUttura^

JrchiUdura^

period

Anderson,

Trattato

ArchiUctun

tki

of

1898.
^

architectural

THE

Florence

in
is

century

signalised

part

for

first

non

ars

return

fit saltuniy and

style,as distinguished
from
what
certainly evolved

from

The

Gothic

builders

the

legacy

of

The

four

main

petrified, had,
combined

left

had

and

great,

had

as

architectural
as

the

we

have

column

yet

the

its

and

only

been
arch

the

of

decoration,

was

it.
successors

problem.
Rome

which
extricated

by

in

true

substance

their

vival,
re-

building

unsolved,

elements
seen,

classic

preceded
to

merely

as

the
is

however,

new

of

to

at

fifteenth

the

general

the

This,

of

thought

of

by

appeared

quarter

commonly

here

Rome.

of

methods

the

department

one

which

change

and

Basilican

RENAISSANCE

builders, the

Bjrzantium,
Romanesque

ARCHITECTURE

ccdumn
the
and

arch

column

however,

full

realisation

"

elements

should

incomparable
the

rest.

tale, tbetc

be

would

of

the

dome

still

that

vault

and

the

gain,

awaited

and

not

as

all

dome

in

some

lose, in

the

still

and

"

and

in

of

supreme

which

the

powers

ring,

One

in

those

hy

schools.

joined,
to

crown

Slaves

arch

Gothic

combination,

awaits

and

77

four

add

its

beauties

of

Eastern
their

new

ARCHITECTURE

ITALIAN

78

submission,each assuming final character from its


of
the mighty whole.
fittingplace as member
Brunelleschi's
Somddiing like this was
dream,
if not
which
he realised,
fully,yet how nobly in
In that dream
the cupola of Florence.
sance
Renaisarchitecture

born.

was

Brunelcathedral,to which
leschi brought his dome, was
decadent,and
already
when
he finds himself
free,as at oan Lorenzo, it
the Central
is upon
Byzantine motifth^t he counts
for the realisation of his dream.
Once
then,
more,
the repeated phenomenon
of Italian art,
meet
we
revives under
its spirit
in which
the breath of Greece
The

and
was

of

Gothic

the

Even

of the East.

first Romaic,

the

Council
union

of

of

whole

the Renaissance

Roman, encouraged by the


in Florence,and symbolised in
city(1439), whose decrees for

then

teaching of Greek
the

as

that

East and

West

were

extended

in both

signed by the Emperor of Byzantium


the Pope of Rome.
The
architecture
as well as
discards the Gothic
of San Lorenzo
vault,affirms
its pendendves,
with
the Byzantine combination
and roofs its aisles with volte-^'Vela^
which
but
are
modifications
of the central motif. It was
no
mere
the Hypnerdtomachia that
to
caprice which
gave
style its Greek title ; or
singulartext of the new
and mosaic
led the Malatesta
which
to bring marble
of
church
S. ApoUinare at Ravenna
from
to their
The
San Francesco
at Rimini, deigned by Alberti*
central in the new
Romaic
spiritwas
architecture,

languages,and

"

"

it vivified ^e

Yet

to

what

whole.
did it

bring life ?

To

the

Roman,

ARCHITECTURE

RENAISSANCE
the national
to

wholly dead

never
spirit,
again. This

revive

and

79

the

was

age

and
of

ready
discovery
literary
now

prisesof that enthu^


siasm
the book
of Vitruvius,^'De
Architecwas
tura
(found 1414), which
mightilyencouraged a
BruHere
new
study of the classic monuments.
well
nelleschi,seeinghis cupola from without
as
which
as
within, found that drum
distinguished
;

the chief

among

''

his

chief

alike

work

Giovanni

its rival

or

his followers

its prototype of
San
Constantinople; and hence

from

at

resumed

Roman

the

vaults of tion,
penetrathe Gothic form,

which
or

even

of their

to prefer to
they came
in
to the semi-Byzantinevolte^-^ehiy
buildings,while the same
source
gave

decorative

the

between

device

column

Lorenzo

the

and

Brunelleschi,and
to mark
an
epoch :
period of Renaissance

of

Next
**

age
the

follows

of the

new

date of the

return

to

tuated

school

of

in

the

has

of

classic
this

San

Albert!

the

school

be considered
may
first or constructive

Architecture.
called

been

the

sixteenth

motif and

^*

the

gplden
from

close
The

century.

detail

is

now

accen*

gains strength in

movement

Milan, which
substituting,in great
and

Empire.

which
be counted
style,
may
fiillof Constantinople to the

first quarter
and

that of

what

of the

the

recalls in

names

their work

them

entablature

broken

the late

chief

the

are

the

arch, which

buildingsof

Michelozzo

and

of

many

Da

Vinci

measure,

individual

had
for

succeeded

the

more

the
in
gular
irre-

times.
training of former
Vitruvius, now
book
printed,was, of course, the text^Doric,Ionic,Corinthian
) the Classic Orders
"

ITALIAN

8o

studied

were

"

and

there

of all
way
But Bramante

done

formulae

in the

have

stylemight
the

ARCHITECTURE

of the

*^

De

tectural"
Archi-

real

was

danger that the


into pedantryand

hardened

new

gone

imitation.

mere

leads this age as Brunelleschi


in Bramante
lives the
former, and

the

had
free

forms
spiritof the Greek world and lifts his Roman
and living power*
More
to the height of free art
he was
fortunate
than his predecessor,
free to design
his

based his

plan for

best fitted
view

"

from

church

great

to

but

St. Peter's
and

bear

left for

foundation

the

the

on

displaythe

another

to

build.

Cross

Greek

dome

and

he

This

had
idea

he
as

in
is

peculiarto Bramante, but belongs to the spirit


of the whole
style. Brunelleschi had early(1420)
used
if
it in his Capella dei Pazzi
at S. Croce, as
done
for the Duomo
he might have
what
to show
not

of Florence

had

hands

his

been

free.

San

Gallo

repeatedit (1485) with

exquisitetaste in his noble


delle Carceri
di
S. Maria
at
Pistoia,as Francesco
he
Giorgio did in the same
year at Cortona, when
built S. M. del Calcinajo. Could it but keep lines
architecture
like these the new
was
livingand safe.
The third period,
includingthe rest of the sixteenth
as
surelyopened and ruled by the genius
century, was
of the great Michel
Angelo as the first had been by
mante,
BraBrunelleschi, and the second
by Bramante.
however, had not altogethersaved his time,
with Milani,* between
and we
must
now
distinguish,
the party of tradition
-ralladio,
Sansovino,and San"

"See

Hoepli.

his

excellent

Manuaie

t Architettura^ Milan,

ST.

PETERS,

RO.ML

:"

":

"*"
"

"

ARCHITECTURE

RENAISSANCE
micheli

followed

^who

"

in

formal

8i

the precepts
spirit

Vitruvius,and Michel Angeio who


reaction,and gathered a school whose

stood

of

for the

lay in

power

for
makes
which
recovery of that individuality
The
life and progress.
spiritof their great leader
alone would
essentiallv Greek, as his statues
was
the

show
he

re-affirmed

his

own

the

account

plan

an

proof. At St. Peter's


Bramante, designing on

further

not

tnere

were

"

of

apse with
it looked

semidome

to

close

Constantinople.
did not
live to complete^
is now
fered
interhis masterpiece,
and
the great cupola,
Latin lines of the building
with by the nearer
Maderno
But still,
in spitedi
carried out.
which
is it set
or
all,it stands
hangs rather,so lightly
is
the king of domes, as its ^^ sister" at Florence
the acknowledged queen : and how
deeplythis age~
long problem of the dome preoccupiedthe architects
the

building where
This, unfortunatelv, he

to

"

"

of

the

is seen,
alone but in

time

Angeio

not

in

the

that

of

his followers

Michel

of

work

as

well.

Perugia, for instance,has left us his fine


S. M.
di Carignano at Genoa, where
the slight
the inthe classic entablature,
sistenc
attention spent on
and the subordithe Greek
nation
on
ground-plan,
Alessi

of

of

dome,

to

the

plainlywhere
days and in that

Barocco

and

eminence

show

in these

The

all

of the

the

stress

of

success

of

the

thought felt

school.

seventeenth

century may

be

to
Flamboyant Gothic, Just as
the analogy the buildingsof the eighteenth
the
century, graceful but frigid,suggest
lives in
The
Barocco
Perpendicular manner.

compared
complete

to

the

"

"

'

82

ITALIAN

ARCHITECTURE

curved

lines,which

Piazza

of St

Bernini

and
Peter's,

lays out

grandly in

Borromini

twists

in

the
his

undulating"^ades" Lesser hands try the tortured


eflSxts of elliptical
and other eccentric arch-forms,
these in papier-machf
mask
and, still unsatisfied,
and
plaster,fashioned in billowing clouds, Aying
aU
angels and wind-blown
draperies. Yet amia
this excess
rises (1660) S. M. della Salute at Venice,
where
masculine
the
intelligenceof Longhena
attempts
of the

once

double-curved

base of the dome

less

the

none

task.

addition

clever

His

radiatingbuttresses
is characteristic

it seeks

when

art

ancient

the

more

of

the

to

solve the great

to

the

device
the

about

age ; and

of

resources

And

problem.

could
eighteenth century Mondovi
boast the buildingof her Santuario,where
Francesco
Gallo (1733) raised a cupola,stillthe not unworthy
in

even

the

those

or

successor

All

Florence

at

Rome*

and

is left us
little space
to
speak of the
splendidcivil and domestic architecture which Italy
owes

too

to

days was

a
certainly

as

dade^ as that of Gothic


of the earlier

towers

courtjrardof

the

the
the

which
out.

heart
backs

Its main

brackets

modification
times

had

of

these

of the insula

been

an

expansion

dwelling and defence.


palazzo
fifteenth-century
the

insula:' the

open

The

street

and

built

sented
repreon

space

looked

of its

surrounding towers
fabric,hanging forward

or

on

heavy

towards

thie

and
recalled,
times
somegalleries,
enclosed, the ancient
system

tiers of

actuallv
wooden

Palazzo

of

of

the

over

courtyard in
movable

The

Renaissance*

the

balconies and

hoardingswhere

of

the

"

ITALIAN

84

inhabitants
view

ARCHITECTURE

had

of festal

been

from

foundation

the

and

sun

in war,

processions,or,

sure

this modification

But
ground for defence.
Houses
to development.
but

seek

to

wont

built

were

hence

air,the
vantage
soon

led

lines,
projection,

these

on

without

be forbidden.
to
which, on the street front, came
We
of the new
speak chieflyof Florence,the centre
and feel that here if anywhere the architects of
style^

the Classic revival touched

they so
Italyhad
the

Since

revered.
never

foundations

Medici

and

(1440) ;

the

such

seen

and

the

which
this
eaves

fiUerv
the

the

Rome

ancients

livingrock
Pitti (1440)
"

It is
(1490) Palaces.
Romans
repeated in these
with the
to impress them

seen

all the
in

strengthabundant
grace
and
deep loggiewith

shelter ; abundant
fronts come

of

that

Strozzi

than

are

as

of

of

of the

fabrics

full static pause of the


buildingswhich does more
character

days

masses,

the

Classic

secret

eye has an
discoveryof their subtle

their

details.

cences
reminisAnd

to

wedded, in the wide


and
their kindlyshade
in the courtyards whose

charm
to

decorative

rest

is

on

arches

so

wide

and

pleasurein the
For these galleries
curves.
in the Pompeian manner
frescoed
decoration
was
revived and adapted by the best artists of the time^
and
houses
the
fronts of such
shone, simplex
on
decoration of jra^//^, strong
the delightful
m"ff^i/iiV,
enough to brave all weathers and justso fine as duly
ne

to

tnat

the

prepare

visitor

ever

for

renewed

what

awaited

his eye

within.
This
but

came

architecture
to

possess

keep only to

did

not

the

quiet places of

the

cities,

the country

ARCHITECTURE

RENAISSANCE

well.

as

Buontalend,
school,

Angelo's
Villa

the

thus

Pratolino

of

Francesco

for

and

best

Michel

dei

Medici
ing
follow-

and

sixteenth

the

in

houses.

these

Among

Villa

the

infinite

showan

centuries

CoUodi,

of

Palace

century

and

supported
where

architects'

and

ideas

Architecture
fresh
and

success

attain.

air

to

and
of

stress

as

and

amid

these
life

modern
in

our

own

architecture

fair
wake

day

she

itself,

landscape

grounds
leave

we

scenes,
her

the

carnr

Italian
in

strength,

recover

is

gardens;

immediate

then,

bv

themselves

of

their

Here,

rest

eighteenth-

waterworks

and

unity.

charming

Viterbo,

surrounding

domain

the

coimtry

at

the

their

elaborate

Villas

and

which

by

into

these

make

and

in

such

Lante

distinguish

enhanced

statuary

Villa

Pistoia,

Caserta

way

of

number

the

near

of

magnificent

the

built

the

of

one

85

"

to

has

ere

strive
been

the

this

storm

for

able

such

to

INDEX

OF

BUILDINGS

AND

LOCALITIES

Amasino,

Florence,

70

Aiiagni,7o

26,

Badia

Arabpna,

S.

Arezzo,

Maria

Bigallo,

temple

Athens,

of

Minerva,

Cathedral,

26,

Palazzo

5a

TOb

Bttigmidy,

6, 31-44,

Mosque

Casamari,

S.

S.

Ibn

Cefald,

Duomo,

Chiusi,

Cundo

in

70

valle,

43,
ao,

S.

Jaoopo

84

35,

Arno,

sopra

Lorenzo,

San

Miniato,

San

Salvatore,

Sta.

Triniti^

53

29,

6c,

66

\^13aof

Pratolino,8c

Fossanuova,

Abbey

S.

ol, 70

66-^

its Gothic,

EicpoLi,

S.

M.

49

Grado,
63,

di

Carignano,

Duomo

Grottaferrata,

Pfeve

Caldnajo,

del

41

Hauran,

the,

33

80

Sepulchre

66

of,

as

99

Khorsabad,

Lucca,

70

Badia

81

of, 38

78,

of, 41

Benin,

Fbkbntino,
Fiesole,

72,

62

^,
M.

of, 29

Pieve

62

50
of

79

("//.)

29

jBRUSALEU,theHoly
Dijon,

29

((//.)*781

77

70

Mosque
a

28^ 6a, 79

36,

San

Genoa,
5a

41,

80

84

of, 68

Sophia,

Cortona,

Giovanni,

France,

70

79.81

Cordova,

78, 79,

41

Constantinople,
Sto.

S.

58

Tulim,62

Flume,

Baptistery,

M.

55,

of, 85

M.

74

Strozzi,84

65

of, 70

Palace

Cividale,

5a,

Qemente,

Ceccano,

S.

of

Abbey

Casauria,
Caserta,

49,

66

Byxaatium,

Cairo,

Salvatore,

7fl,

Medici,

"

S.

84

66,

7x

Duomo,

16

Pitti.

BREsaA,

6s

di, 70

59

Assisi,

76, 78, 83,

27,

Settimo,

Arliano,

49

73