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Sitamarhii

ioZrjkt dh rygVh esa vofLFkr fulxZ dh ykM+yh lhrke<+h] tgk¡


dYiuk ds 'krny QwV iM+rs gSa] ogk¡ u dksbZ igkM+ ;k igkM+h gS vkSj u
iqjkrkfÙod egÙo dk dksbZ LFkku] ij fgUnqvksa ds fy;s bldk ogh egÙo gS
tks bZlkb;ksa ds fy;s jkse dk vkSj eqlyekuksa ds fy;s eDdk&enhuk dk]
D;ksafd blh feV~Vh dh csVh lhrk gSa ftUgsa lksus dh yadk Hkh ugha fuxy
ldhA lhrk gh bl Hkwfe dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gSa A tudru;k esa ,d rjQ
;fn lkjh dkseyrk ,oa lq"kek fleVh gqbZ Fkh rks 'kkS;Z Hkh mlh :i esa
fo|eku Fkk A cM+s&cM+s ;ks)k ftl /kuq"k ds Li’kZ&ek= ls Mjrs Fks] mls os
izR;sd fnu vklkuh ls LFkkukUrfjr djrh Fkha A ;gh bl Hkwfe dk xq.k gS %
^^otzknfi dBksjkf.k e`nwf.k dqlqeknfi**A

txUekrk Jh lhrk dh iq.;izkdV~;LFkyh gksus ds dkj.k Hkkjr gh


ugha] lEiw.kZ lalkj ds fgUnw&/keZkoyfEc;ksa ds fy, lhrke<+h ,d egÙoiw.kZ
rhFkZLFkyh gS A eghus esa 'kk;n gh dksbZ ,slk fnu gks tc ckgjh /kekZuqjkxh
;k Ik;ZVd vius thou dks d`rkFkZ djus dh vfHkyk"kk dh iwfrZ ds fy,
lhrke<+h ugha vkrs gksa A

;gk¡ ds gj Hkkx ls jke ds ijkØe ,oa lhrk ds R;kx dh izfr/ofu


vkrh gS A ou gks ;k miou] dqaM gks ;k ljksoj] rky gks ;k ryS;k] xSy gks
;k xfy;kjk] xk¡o gks ;k uxj & lHkh dqN jkee; gSa] jaxe; gSa] vkuUne;
gSa rFkk jle; gSa A /kkfeZd lfg".kqrk ;gk¡ dh ewy laLd`fr gS tks euq"; dks
euq"; cuk;s j[kdj mlds g`n; esa mnkjrk] lnk’k;rk vkSj laosnu’khyrk
txk;s j[kus dks izsfjr djrh gS A

;gk¡ ds eafnjksa esa vkt Hkh v/;kRe] n’kZu] lkfgR;] laxhr] J`axkj]
lTtk] Hkksx&jkx] mikluk vkSj HkfDr dh ijaijk fn[kkbZ iM+rh gS A ;gk¡ ds
nsoky;ksa esa tc mRlo vkSj ioZ euk;s tkrs gSa rc laLd`fr tSls Lo;a ik¡oksa esa
2

uwiqj ck¡/kdj muds izkax.kksa esa fFkjd mBrh gS A mruh nsj ds fy, n’kZdksa
dk lewg HkkSfrdoknh thou&/kkjk ls dVdj nwljs yksd esa igq¡p tkrk gS
tgk¡ mlds eu esa lfg".kqrk vkSj ekuo&izse dh Hkkouk dk foLrkj gksrk gS A
;gk¡ dh feÍh esa mikluk] lk/kuk vkSj laosnuk,¡ lkdkj gksrh gSa A bl
ifjos’k esa HkDr vius Hkxoku~ ds lkFk l[kk cudj [ksyrk gS rks l[kh
cudj ;qxy&Lo:i ds lehi igq¡prk gS A og lgpj cudj muds lkFk
jkl jpkrk gS] rks laxhrK cudj mudh yhykvksa dk xku djrk gS A
blhrjg og jlksb;k cudj muds fy;s idoku cukrk gS] f’kYih cudj
muds vklu vkSj izfr"Bku dks ltkrk gS] dhrZudkj cudj mUgsa v[k.M
ukn lqukrk gS] ekyh cudj vius vkjk/; ds fy, ukuk izdkj ds iq"iksa dks
xw¡Fkrk gS vkSj ekrk cudj muij okRlY; dh o"kkZ djrk gS A HkDr vkSj
Hkxoku~ dh ,slh izseewyd vuU;rk vkSj Hkyk dgk¡ gS \

vk’p;Z gS fd ,slk gksrs gq, Hkh lhrke<+h dks 1959] 1967 ,oa 1992
esa lkEiznkf;d naxksa dh Hkh"k.k =klnh >syuh iM+h Fkh A lu~ 1970
ds n’kd esa uDlyokn dk izkjEHk lEHkor% lhrke<+h ls gh gqvk Fkk] tc
1989 esa ,d Hkwifr dh gR;k muds iq=ksa ds lkFk dj nh xbZ Fkh A

lhrke<+h dk vrhr viuh miyfC/k;ksa esa egr~ vkSj mnkRr gS A ;g


uxj ftruk ikSjkf.kd gS] bldh nkLrku mruh gh fnypLi vkSj jkspd gS A
fdaonUrh ds vuqlkj txTtuuh lhrk ds lkFk&lkFk ^egkHkkjr* esa of.kZr
ikapky ns’k ds jktk nzqin dh iq=h nzkSinh dk Hkh tUe&LFky gksus dk xkSjo
lhrke<+h dks izkIr gS tks vc uol`ftr f’kogj ftyk esa gS A iqjk.kksa vkSj
izkP; bfrgkl esa bldh lq[;kfr lqy{k.kkiqjh ds uke ls gS tgk¡ pUnu&lh
/kjrh lksa/kh mUekn Hkjh izk.knkf;uh 'kfDr fc[ksjrh jgrh gS A bldh feV~Vh
bruh dksey gS ekuksa ckxerh] y[kunsbZ vkfn i;fLofu;ksa us /kfj=h ds
uouhr ls bldk fuekZ.k fd;k gks A ;gk¡ dk lcls mTToy i{k lkfgR;
vkSj laLd`fr dk jgk gS A bl vapy dh lkfgfR;d moZjk'kfDr bruh gS fd
3

rqylhnkl us **tkudheaxy^^ ds ys[ku&Øe esa ;gk¡ dh yksd&laLd`fr ls


izsj.kk yh Fkh A ;gha ds vke] dsys] o yhph ds fuHk`r fudqatksa esa jk"Vªdfo
jke/kkjh flag fnudj us ^jloUrh* tSlh J`axkfjd d`fr dk iz.k;u fd;k
Fkk A rqylh vkSj fnudj dk bl {ks= esa izokl lk{;lEer gS A izkphudky
esa ;gk¡ laLd`r vkSj eSfFkyh dk izHkwr lkfgR; iz.khr gqvk Fkk A vkt Hkh
jpuk/kfeZrk dh og ijEijk dqafBr ugha gS A ckcw t;fd’kksj ukjk;.k flag]
jkts’oj izlkn ukjk;.k flag vkfn us vk/kqfud fgUnh lkfgR; ds bfrgkl dks
bl {ks= dh izfrHkk ls izdkf’kr fd;k gS A

eSfFkyh ¼lhrk½ dh Hkwfe fefFkyk dh viuh vyx dgkuh gS A bldk


mYys[k ^fo".kqiqjk.k* esa vk;k gS A ^fo".kqiqjk.k* dh ,d dFkk ds vuqlkj
egf"kZ ofl"B ds 'kki ls e`r jktk fufe ds 'kjhj dks xaxklkxj ds rV ij
,df=r egf"kZ;ksa us eFkuk 'kq# fd;k A bl Øe esa 'ko ls ,d HkkLdj
ckyd dh mRifRr gqbZ A ml ckyd dh mRifRr eFkus ls gqbZ] blfy,
mldk uke ^fefFk* iM+k A fefFk&}kjk LFkkfir lkezkT; gh ^fefFkyk*
dgyk;k A bl fonsg ;k rhjHkqfDr {ks= ds fy, ^c`gn~ fo".kqiqjk.k* esa ckjg
ukeksa dk mYys[k gqvk gS%
^^fefFkyk rhjHkqfDr’p oSnsgh usfedkuue~ A
Kku’khya d`ikihBa Lo.kZykaxyi)fr AA
tkudhtUeHkwfe’p fujis{kk fodYe"kk A
jkekuUn dVh fo’oHkkouh fuR;eaxyk AA**

lkSeuL;] fouezrk ,oa vifjxzg dh lefUofr gh fefFkyk dh laLd`fr


gS A laLd`fr uke gS leLr lh[ks gq, ml O;ogkj dk tks fojklr esa feyrh
gS vkSj mlls O;fDrRo dk fodkl gksrk gS A fefFkyk dh laLd`fr dh viuh
xfjek gS A ;gk¡ dh lkaLd`frd ijEijk esa o.kkZJze dk vkxzg jgk gS A
fefFkyk ds yksx oS".ko jgs gSa] fdUrq muds eu esa f’ko vkSj 'kfDr ds izfr
4

vlhe J)k dh Hkkouk Hkh lekur% ekStwn jgh gS A ,slh lkaLd`frd ekU;rk
gS fd f’ko fefFkyk ds d.k&d.k esa O;kIr gSa A gj ?kj esa xkSjh gSa A
xkSjh&iwtu dh ijEijk vc Hkh fefFkyk ds ?kj&?kj esa pyh vk jgh gS A
dgrs gSa fd yksd&laLd`fr dh tM+ esa /kkfeZd ijEijk gksrh gS ftldk
leUo; yksd&lkfgR; vkSj dyk esa ik;k tkrk gS A fefFkyk dh laLd`fr
vkSj eSfFkyh lkfgR; ,oa dyk dk fuekZ.k vk;Z laLd`fr] nzfoM+ laLd`fr ,oa
fdjkr laLd`fr dk fefJr izfrQy gS A

fefFkykapy dh yyuk,¡ ioZ ,oa R;ksgkj] fookg] ;Kksiohr vkfn ds


lkekftd vkSj /kkfeZd voljksa ij fofo/k izdkj ds fp=ksa ls ?kj dh nhokjsa
vyad`r djrh gSa A fefFkyk fookgksRlo ds fy, izfl) gS A ml volj ij
Hkxorh&x`g ,oa ^dksgcj* esa fp= cukus dh lkaLd`frd ijEijk gS A

yksd fp=dyk esa n{k eSfFky yyuk,¡ lekt esa lEeku dh n`f"V ls
ns[kh tkrh gSa A fefFkyk esa dU;kvksa dks dyk dh f’k{kk vfuok;Zr% nh tkrh
gS A ;g ijEijk vc /khjs&/khjs yqIr gks jgh gS A eSfFky yyukvksa&}kjk
cuk, tkusokys yksd&fp= oSfnd vkSj ikSjkf.kd vk[;kuksa ls lac) gksrs gSa]
ij ,sls fp=ksa esa lkef;d izlaxksa] izkd`frd thou&n’kZu vkSj lkekftd
rÙoksa dk Hkh lekos’k gksrk gSA bl n`f"Vdks.k ls fefFkyk dh yksd&fp=dyk
dks rhu Jzsf.k;ksa esa foHkDr fd;k tk ldrk gS & /kkfeZd] vkyadkfjd vkSj
lkef;d ;k ;qxhu A

/kkfeZd fHkfRr&fp=ksa esa f’ko&ikoZrh] jk/kk&d`".k] fo".kq&y{eh]


nqxkZ&dkyh] dkyh] jkty{eh] ljLorh] n’kkorkj vkfn dh izeq[krk gS A
fp=ksa ds nk’kZfud rF;ksa ls yksd&ykspu lrr m}sfyr gksrk jgrk gS A os
vadu ykSfdd ,oa ikjykSfdd thou&ijaijk ds |ksrd gSa A fHkfRr&fp=ksa esa
oj] dU;k] gkFkh] eNyh] flag] rksrk] eSuk] lw;Z] panz] dey] 'ka[k vkfn mjsgs
tkrs gSa A bu fp=ksa ds vyx&vyx nk’kZfud rF; gSa ftudk lkekftd
5

thou ls ?kfu"B laca/k gS A gkFkh&?kksM+k ,s’o;Z ds] lw;Z&pUnz nh?kZ thou ds


vkSj gal&e;wj lq[k&'kkfUr ds izrhd gSa A ^vfjiu* dh ijEijk esa fefFkyk
dh laLd`fr dk okl gS A ozr] R;ksgkj vkSj fofo/k laLdkjksa ij ^vfjiu*
dk<+uk vfuok;Z gS A ^czãiqjk.k* esa ^vfjiu* dh ppkZ Hkwfe 'kksHkk ds :i esa
dh x;h gSA dykRed Hkkouk ds vfrfjDr i`Foh dks mitkÅ cukus vkSj
tknw& Vksuk ls Hkh ^vfjiu* dk laca/k ekuk tkrk gS A ;gh otg gS fd
fo/uksa ds fuokj.k ds fy, ;Kkfn ds volj ij ^vfjiu* dk<+s tkrs gSa A
lkaLd`frd egÙo&n’kZd gksus ds lkFk gh ^vfjiu* vuq’kkflr vkpj.k dk Hkh
izrhd gS A

ikSjkf.kd dFkkvkas ds vuqlkj =srk ;qx esa ,d ckj vuko`f"V ls vkØkar


fefFkyk esa ?kksj vdky iM+k Fkk A tc turk ^=kfgeke~&=kfgeke~* djus yxh
rks iztkoRly fefFkys’k lhj/ot tud us _f"k&eqfu;ksa ds ijke’kZ ls gysf"V
;K dj vius gkFkksa ls gy pyk;k Fkk A muds gy ds ^fljkmj* ls HkXu
?kM+s ls ,d ckfydk izdV gqbZ A ml fnO; ckfydk ds izkdV~; ds lkFk gh
vkdk’k ls ve`r&rqY; o"kkZ gksus yxh vkSj fefFkykapy /ku&/kkU; ls Hkj
x;k A gy ds ^fljkmj* ¼lhrk½ ls mRiUu gksus ds dkj.k ckfydk dk uke
^^lhrk** iM+k vkSj ml nsoh dh vorj.k&LFkyh gksus ds dkj.k gh bl
iq.;&Hkwfe dk uke ^^lhrkegh** gqvk A dkykUrj esa Hkkf"kd ifjorZuo’k ogh
'kCn ^^lhrke<+h** gks x;k A nqfHkZ{kdky esa fnO;xq.k&laiUuk] f’k"V vkSj
lqy{k.kk lhrk ds izknqHkkZo ds dkj.k gh ^lhrke<+h* dk ,d vU; uke
^lqy{k.k* j[kk x;k A mlh le; ls fefFkykf/kifr dks ^lhj/ot* ¼ftldh
/otk esa ^lhj* vFkkZr~ gy dk fpg~u gks½ dgk tkus yxk A

jktk tud dk vius gkFkksa gy pykus dk vFkZ ;g gS fd tula[;k


ds c<+rs ncko vkSj vUukHkko dks ns[kdj mUgksaus d`f"k&ØkfUr dh igy dh
Fkh] d`f"k {ks= dk foLrkj fd;k Fkk vkSj os vius ;qx ds fof’k"V
6

d`f"k&vkUnksyu ds izorZd fl) gq, Fks A chloha lnh esa iz/kku ea=h
yky cgknqj 'kkL=h us ^^t; fdlku** dk ukjk nsdj d`f"k ds fodkl dk
vkUnksyu pyk;k Fkk A muds fu/ku ds i’pkr~ iz/kku ea=h bfUnjk xk¡/kh us
mls ^^gfjr ØkfUr** ds :i esa vkxs c<+k;k Fkk A mu iz;Ruksa ds QyLo:i
gh vkt ge vUu&{ks= esa vkRe&fuHkZj gks ik, gSa A =srk esa jktk tud us
d`f"k dks loksZPp izkFkfedrk nh Fkh vkSj vius /ot ij ^^lhj** ds fpg~u dks
lksp le>dj izfrf"Br fd;k Fkk A ml ;qx esa ^lhrke<+h* dk {ks= oU; {ks=
Fkk A ^^fiijkgh** esa ihiy ds ou jgs gksaxs A ^fiijkgh* dk vFkZ gh gS ihiyksa
dk ou A ;gk¡ ckxerh] v/kokjk lewg dh ufn;k¡] y[kunsbZ vkfn NksVh&cM+h
vusd ty/kkjk,¡ gSa A bl {ks= esa tud us Hkjiwj d`f"k&Økafr dh Fkh vkSj
mudk vfHk;ku lQy gqvk Fkk A

lkekftd ifjorZu ds y{; dks tud us cM+h prqjkbZ ls vkxs


c<+k;k Fkk A ;K vkfn oSfnd dk;ksaZ dks egÙo u nsdj mUgksaus czg~eokn ds
fl)kUr dk iks"k.k fd;k Fkk A czg~e ,d gSa] QyLo:i iztk Hkh ,d gS A
tud dk ;g n`f"Vdks.k n’kZu dh yksdksUeq[krk dk ifjpk;d gS A oSpkfjd
/kjkry ij mUgksaus deZdkaM dks izeq[krk u nsdj lEiw.kZ iztk dh ,drk dk
izfriknu fd;k Fkk] bl rF; ij /;ku nsus dh vko’;drk gS A

tud nsgoknh ugha Fks A os vkRek dks izeq[krk nsusokys czãoknh Fks A
mUgksaus o.kZ] tkfr vkfn ds Åij vk/;kfRed ewY;ksa dks izfr"Bkfir fd;k
Fkk A muds }kjk ;g ekU;rk [kafMr gqbZ Fkh fd 'kjhj rFkk mldk lq[k gh
lc dqN gS A ^nsgokn* ;g Lohdkj djrk gS fd HkkSfrd lq[kksa dh izkfIr gh
thou dk ije y{; gS A tud us HkkSfrd lq[kksa dh txg vk/;kfRedrk
vkSj Jzs; dh izkfIr dks thou dk vkn’kZ crk;k Fkk A blls ladh.kZrk feVh
Fkh] lkekftd dVqrk dk ifjgkj gqvk Fkk] lkeqnkf;d ifjorZu dks u;h vkSj
lqxe jkg feyh Fkh rFkk lekt ds lHkh oxksaZ esa iw.kZ leUo; LFkkfir gqvk
7

Fkk A vk/;kfRed ewY;ksa dh izfr"Bk vkSj nsg vFkkZr~ HkkSfrd lq[kksa dks xkS.k
dj nsus ds dkj.k gh mudks ^fonsg* dgk tkrk gS A d`f"k dk fodkl 'kkfUr
vkSj ikjLifjd lg;ksx ij fuHkZj gS A muds fcuk fujkin d`f"k ugha gks
ldrh gS A

egkjkt tud us ftl d`f"k&laLd`fr dk fodkl fd;k Fkk og bl


{ks= dh vewY; /kjksgj gS A lhrke<+h esa vkt Hkh d`f"k dks loksZPp izkFkfedrk
nh tkrh gS vkSj d`f"k&deZ dks lEeku dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tkrk gS A ;gk¡ dh
turk ewyr% d`"kd gS vkSj d`f"k ls gh vius dks larq"V j[kuk pkgrh gS A
ck/; gksus ij vFkkZr~ [ksr [kks nsus ;k i;kZIr tehu u gksus ij gh og dksbZ
nwljk dke djuk pkgrh gS A ;fn [ksrh ls mls [kkus&ihus&Hkj fey tk;s
rks og mls NksM+dj dksbZ nwljk dke ugha djuk pkgrk gS A 'kkfUr vkSj
lg;ksx ;gk¡ vkt Hkh xk¡oksa esa ns[kk tkrk gS A bl {ks= ds yksx lnSo vius
dks v’kkfUr] minzoksa rFkk vijk/kksa ls nwj j[kuk pkgrs gSa A

iz’kklfud n`f"V ls ;g bykdk fcgkj ds 'kkUr {ks=ksa esa loksZifj gS A


d`f"k bl {ks= dh lH;rk vkSj laLd`fr gS tks mruh gh iqjkuh gS ftruh
lhj/ot fonsgjkt tud dh fopkj/kkjk A ;gk¡ ds yksx HkkSfrd lq[kksa ds
ihNs ikxy ugha gSa A os vkRelarks"kh vkSj feytqy dj jgus okys gSa A muds
LoHkko esa dkseyrk vkSj e/kqjrk gS A tSls tud us jkT;&foLrkj ds fy,
dHkh dksbZ la?k"kZ ugha fd;k] cfYd vius jkT; dh iztk ds iks"k.k vkSj
laj{k.k dk vkn’kZ mifLFkr fd;k oSls gh ;gk¡ ds yksx vkt Hkh dyg ,oa
}a} ls foeq[k fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa A os vkik/kkih ugha] thoup;kZ dh lgtrk ds
vH;Lr gSa A

;g cM+k vuks[kk {ks= gS ftldh laLd`fr tud ds ;qx ls ysdj


vkt rd cgqyka’kr% v{kq..k gS A vk/;kfRedrk dks ;gk¡ lnSo izeq[krk nh
xbZ gS A
8

ckS) /keZ vFkok tSu er dk dksbZ vkjksfir izHkko bl {ks= ij


n`f"Vxr ugha gksrk gS A lR;] vfgalk] d#.kk] ln~Hkko vkfn ;gk¡ ds iqjkru
thou&ewY; gSa A cq) ds e/;ekxZ vkSj egkohj ds vusdkarokn dk lkj&rÙo
bl {ks= ds yksdthou esa jpk&clk gS A

xkSre cq) vkSj ex/k ds jktk fcEclkj ds dky esa fonsg ds jktk js.kq
Fks A bfrgklosRrk crkrs gSa fd vk;ksZa ds vkxeu ds i’pkr~ ;g {ks= jktk
tud ds jkT; dk vax cuk A oSfnd fo}kuksa] _`f"k;ksa ,oa czkã.kksa dk ;g
fuokl&LFkku Fkk A bl rF; dh iqf"V lhrke<+h 'kgj ds ik’oZorhZ xk¡oksa ds
ukeksa ls gksrh gS A

iafMr misUnzukFk feJ ^eatqy* us viuh vej d`fr ^^ijk’kfDr dh


vorj.k Hkwfe** esa lhrke<+h vkSj jkedFkk ,oa czkã.k&laLd`fr ls lac)
vkl&ikl ds {ks=ksa ds fy, izpfyr LFkkuokph laKkvksas dk jkspd fooj.k
fn;k gS A jko.k ds mRrjh lhekUr] O;k?kz ?kj ¼cdlj½] iapVh ¼nf{k.kh
lhekUr½] ukfld] gys’oj LFkku ¼cSfj;k½] egf"kZ iq.Mjhd ds vkJze ¼iqukSjk½]
lM+d _f"k ds LFkku ljdk] ifFkijdVh ¼iaFkikdM+½] nsodqyh ¼nsdqyh½]
tudiqj ls ckjg dksl ij fLFkr /kuq[kk] fxfjtkLFkku] lhrk&}kjk iwftr
ikoZrh&izfrek] vgY;kLFkku] vFkjh vFkkZr~ ^vFkoZosn* ds Kkrkvksa ds LFkku]
jhxk vFkkZr~ ^_Xosn* ds xk;dksa ds fuokl&LFkku] lkeiqj vFkkZr~ ^lkeosn* ds
xk;dksa ds xk¡o] lqfrgkjk vFkkZr~ osn ;k Jzqfr ds Kkrkvksa ds fuokl]
cktiV~Vh vFkkZr~ ckt&i)fr ds Kkrkvksa dh Hkwfe] jktksiV~Vh vFkkZr~
jkt:i&i)fr ds Kkrkvksa dh LFkyh vkfn ds lanHkZ bl Øe esa Lej.kh;
gSa A

bl {ks= ds izfl) lkfgR;dkj Mqejh xzke&fuoklh MkW0 lhrkjke


^nhu* vkSj izfl) lar Jh nsofj;k ckck dh izR;{k ckr&phr ds vk/kkj ij
;g rF; miLFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gS fd cktiêh esa ikf.kfu ds xq:
cks/kk;ku _f"k dk vkokl Fkk A ;gkWa ^panzljksoj uke dk ,d tyk’k; gqvk
9

djrk Fkk] ftls yksx ^panzlj* dgk djrs Fks A cks/kk;u _f"k ds uke ij og
ljksoj ^cq/klj* ds :i esa Hkh tkuk tkrk Fkk A cks/kk;u _f"k us mlh lj ds
fudV ikf.kfu dks nh{kk nh Fkh A mlh txg ikf.kfu ds O;kdj.k dk tUe
gqvk Fkk A nsofj;k ckck us cryk;k Fkk fd ogk¡ ,d vR;ar izkphu f’koky;
Fkk ftldk mn~?kkVu njHkaxk egkjkt djusokys Fks] fdUrq fdlh dkj.ko’k os
mifLFkr ugha gks lds Fks] vr% ml f’ko eafnj dh izfr"Bk nsorkRek nsojkgk
ckck ds }kjk gqbZ Fkh A ;g ckrphr 1970 ds vklikl cukjl esa xaxk dh
/kkjk ds chp gqbZ Fkh] tc ogk¡ ckck chp /kkjk esa uko ij jgk djrs Fks vkSj
n’kZukFkhZ uko ls muds ikl igq¡prs Fks A ckrphr dh 'kq:vkr esa gh ckck us
dgk Fkk fd ^lhrke<+h* rks fl)ihB gS A

lhrke<+h vkSj blds fudVorhZ {ks=ksa dks Hkwxksy dh ekj Hkh lguh
iM+h gS A ck<+ksa dh fujarjrk us ;gk¡ dh [ksrh] thou&i)fr vkSj ;krk;kr&
O;oLFkk dks cgqr izHkkfor fd;k gS A laLd`fr vkSj lkfgR; dh ;g Hkwfe
izkd`frd vkinkvksa dks >syrh jgh gS ftlls bldh lgt igpku ckj&ckj
Eyku gqbZ gS A lhrke<+h vkSj blds bnZ&fxnZ ds bykds dh orZekudkfyd
[kafMr igpku 'kk;n 1934 ds HkwdEi ds ckn cuh gS A izkd`frd foink ds
:i esa ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk ls lhrke<+h Hkys gh lfn;ksa ls ifjfpr gks] ijUrq
HkwdEi dk >Vdk bls loZizFke lu~ 1934 ds tuojh ekg esa yxk Fkk A og
dEiu dgus dks rks dsoy Ms<+ feuV dk Fkk] ijUrq mldk izHkko cgqr gh
izy;adkjh ,oa fo/oaldkjh fl) gqvk Fkk A Hkwdai dk ,ihlsUVªy VªSDV
lhrke<+h esa gh Fkk tks iwoZ&nf{k.k rd QSydj e/kqcuh gksrs gq, vkxs pyk
x;k Fkk A ;gk¡ dh yxHkx lHkh bekjrsa ,oa lM+dsa {kfrxzLr gks xbZ Fkha A
lhrke<+h ds ^VksiksxzkQ* esa dqN bl rjg ds ifjorZu vk x;s fd ,slk yxus
yxk fd vc fdlh Hkh izdkj dk iqufuZekZ.k dnkfi lqjf{kr u jg ik,xk A
txg&txg tehu QV xbZ Fkh vkSj ckyw fudy vk;k Fkk A xk¡oksa esa Hkkjh
rckgh ep xbZ Fkh A
10

lhrke<+h esa Hkwdai dh fouk’k&yhyk dks ns[kus rFkk ihfM+rksa ds chp


py jgs jkgr dk;Z dk fujh{k.k djus egkRek xk¡/kh ,oa ns’kjRu MkW0 jktsUnz
izlkn Hkh vk;s Fks A bl Hkwdai ls phuh dk dkj[kkuk cqjh rjg {kr&fo{kr
gks x;k Fkk ftlls {ks= dh vkfFkZd izxfr ij xzg.k yx x;k Fkk A fdlkuksa
dh fLFkfr cnrj gks xbZ Fkh A ;g bykdk xUus dh 'kkunkj [ksrh ds fy,
fo[;kr jgk gS] fdUrq vkt vkS|ksfxd foiUurk vkSj d`f"k dh n;uh; fLFkfr
ds dkj.k bldh vfLerk ladVkiUu gS A

Hk;] vk’kadk vkSj vfuf’prrk ds blh okrkoj.k esa lhrke<+h


vuqeaMy dk eq[;ky; lu~ 1936 esa 'kgj ls 5 fd-eh- nf{k.k Mqejk
LFkkukUrfjr dj fn;k x;k A 11 fnlEcj]1972 dks lhrke<+h dks ftyk dk
ntkZ izkIr gqvk A lhrke<+h dks ftyk dk ntkZ izkIr gksus ds i’pkr~
ftu ftykf/kdkfj;ksa@vkj{kh v/kh{kdksa dk inLFkkiu ;gk¡ gqvk gS mudh
lwph ifjf’k"V&3 esa layXu gS A ;g lwph lwpuk dk vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds
izko/kkuksa ds rgr esjh /keZiRuh Jherh uhy dey fLkUgk us izkIr dh gS A
bl ftys esa vusd ,sfrgkfld o /kkfeZd LFkku gSa A ;gk¡ ds gj
ikSjkf.kd eafnj dk viuk vyx bfrgkl gS A os jkek;.k rFkk egkHkkjr&
dky dh ?kVukvksa ls Hkh lEc) gSa A lhrke<+h uxj ds iwoZ esa pØeqfu dk
vkJe pØxzke] if’pe esa iq.Mjhd eqfu dk vkJe iqukSjk] mÙkj&if’pe esa
egf"kZ dfiy dk vkJe dijkSy rFkk nf{k.k esa [kM+dk eqfu dk vkJe
[kM+dk gS A ;g nq%[kn gS fd dky ds izHkkoo’k _f"k&eqfu;ksa ds vf/kla[;
vkJeksa ds vo’ks"k feVrs tk jgs gSa A lhrke<+h ls vkB fd-eh- dh nwjh ij
vofLFkr gS jhxk] tgk¡ fdlh le; ^_Xosn* dh _pkvksa dks tkuus okys
fuokl djrs Fks A orZeku jhxk ^^_pk** dk viHkza’k gS A crk;k tkrk gS fd
cktiV~Vh xzke esa ckt&i)fr ds Kkrkvksa vkSj ’kgj ds e/; esa vofLFkr
jktksiV~Vh esa jktlw=&i)fr ds fo}kuksa dk okl Fkk A lkeiqj esa ^lkeosn*
ds xk;dksa dk te?kV Fkk rks vFkjh xzke esa ^vFkoZosn* ds Kkrk jgrs Fks A
orZeku lqfrgkjk tks ^Jqfr/kkjk* dk viHkza’k gS] osn&Kku dh /kkjk ls lai`ä
11

fo}kuksa dk LFky Fkk A ;g 'kgj xanxh] lM+ka/k] ty teko] is;ty&ladV


vkSj ttZj lM+dksa ls ijs’kku gS A ukxfjd lqfo/kkvksa dk ?kksj vHkko >sy
jgs bl uxj ds fuokfl;ksa ds fy, rks vc ,sfrgkfld fojklr dh Le`fr gh
Fkkrh gS] fdUrq ;s fujk’k ugha gSa A vius nhIr vrhr ls 'kfDr ysdj turk
thou&laxzke ds ekspZs ij MVh gqbZ gS A og u fdlh jko.k ls Mjusokyh gS
vkSj u vfXuijh{kk ls e¡qg eksM+usokyh gS A mlesa loZalgk lhrk dh 'kfDr
lfUufgr gS A mldk n`<+ fo’okl gS fd lhrke<+h dk /kS;Z v[kaM jgsxk vkSj
;gk¡ ds /kkfeZd&lkaLd`frd dsUnz tuthou ds eukscy dks Eyku ugha gksus
nsaxsA vkLFkk ds mu vkJ;&LFkyksa ls fu%l`r ÅtkZ yksdthou dks dHkh
v'kDr ugha gksus nsxh vkSj i;ZVdksa dks izsj.kk nsrh jgsxh A mu thoar
LFkyksa dh tkudkjh cgqr t:jh gS D;ksafd /kkfeZd] lkaLd`frd] ikSjkf.kd]
,sfrgkfld rFkk izkd`frd lkSan;Z dh vikj laHkkoukvksa ls ifjiw.kZ gksdj Hkh
lhrke<+h dks vc rd ns’k ds i;ZVu&ekufp= dk leqfpr LFkku ugha fey
ik;k gS A psruk txkusokys mu dsUnzksa dk fuEufyf[kr laf{kIr fooj.k gekjs
jk"Vªh; thou dh lksbZ 'kfDr dks mn~cq) dj ldrk gS A

;g LFkku lhrke<+h jsyos LVs’ku ls yxHkx 1-5 fd0eh0 nwj gS A


Tkkudh& fdaonUrh ds vuqlkj vkt ls yxHkx 500 o"kZ iwoZ ;gk¡ l?ku ou Fkk A
eafnj
v;ks/;k ds ,d lk/kq chjcy nkl dks ;g vUr%izsj.kk feyh Fkh fd bl txg
ij lhrk dh ewfrZ gS ftls jktk tud us lhrk dh Le`fr essa xkM+k Fkk A
vkarfjd mUes"k ls izsfjr gksdj lk/kq chjcy nkl v;ks/;k ls lhrke<+h vk;s
Fks vkSj mUgksaus [kqnkbZ djkdj jktk tud&}kjk xkM+h x;h ewfrZ dks tehu
ls fudkydj bl LFkku ij ,d eafnj dk fuekZ.k djk;k Fkk A ;g LFkku gh
vkt tkudh&eafnj ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS A bl eafnj ds fo’ks"k d{k dk
iqufuZekZ.k LoxhZ;k jk/kk nsoh /kkuqdk dh iq.;&Le`fr esa djk;k x;k gS A ;gk¡
Jh jke&tkudh dh HkO; ewfrZ;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk Hkjr] y{e.k vkSj 'k=q/u dh
ewfrZ;k¡ Hkh lqlfTtr gSa A tkudh&eafnj ds d{k ds ckgj Hkxoku~ f’ko dk
12

eafnj gS ftls nwj ls ns[kk tk ldrk gS A cjlkr dk ikuh ;gk¡ bl rjg


Hkj tkrk gS ekuksa LoxZ ls mrjrh gqbZ xaxk f’koth dh tVk ls Nyd iM+h
gksa vkSj ogha mudk mn~xe gqvk gks A

fl) nf{k.kksUeq[kh
Jh guqeku&efUnj uxj ds e/; Hkkx esa fLFkr nf{k.keq[kh Jh guqeku th dk eafnj
fl)ihB ds :i esa lEiw.kZ Hkkjr rFkk usiky ds HkDrksa dh vVwV vkLFkk dk
dsUnz gS A bl eafnj ds laca/k esa ;g fo'okl izpfyr gS fd ;gk¡ ek¡xh xbZ
eukSfr;k¡ fu’p; gh Jh guqer~ d`ik ls iw.kZ gksrh gSa A izfro"kZ ckgj ls cM+h
la[;k esa n’kZukFkhZ ;gk¡ vkrs gSa A dgk tkrk gS fd ns’k esa ,dek= ;gha
nf{k.k&eq[kh guqeku&eafnj gS A

Jh tkudh& uxj ds xqnjh jksM ij fLFkr ;g eafnj tkudh&foykl eafnj ds


foykl&eafnj
uke ls tkuk tkrk gS A bls Lo0 jkefoykl th us fufeZr djok;k Fkk A
blesa Jh lhrk&jke] y{e.k ,oa guqeku dh ewfrZ;k¡ gSa A eafnj ds ik’oZ esa
f’ko&ikoZrh rFkk xksLokeh rqylhnkl th dh Hkh izfrek,¡ LFkkfir gSa A ;g
eafnj eeZjh okLrq&dyk dk mRd`"V uewuk gS A bldh cukoV tSu okLrq&
dyk ls izHkkfor gS A ;gk¡ pkSdksj eeZjh iVksa ij lEiw.kZ ewy okYehfd&
jkek;.k vafdr gS A

lhrke<+h ls yxHkx vkB fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij ,d NksVk&lk xk¡o


iqukSjk iqukSjk gS A yksxksa dk dguk gS fd ;gh og LFkku gS tgk¡ egkjktk tud us
fefFkyk esa lw[kk iM+us ij Lo;a [ksr esa gy pyk;k Fkk vkSj ogha ij Hkwfe ls
,d dy’k esa vorfjr gqbZ Fkha /kjrh dh csVh&lhrk A

,d lkQ&lqFkjs LFky vkSj nks xqykch xqEcnksa ls lqlfTtr] gjs&Hkjs


gys’oj&LFkku %
isM+ksa ls f?kjk gqvk gS gys’oj&eafnj A ;gha ij fonsgjkt tud dh lqanj
13

izfrek gS ftlesa os gy pyk jgs gSa vkSj egkjkuh lqu;uk uUgha iq=h dks xksn
esa fy;s [kM+h gSa A jktk tud ds eq[keaMy ij izlUurk dh js[kk;sa ped
jgh gSa vkSj ekrk lqu;uk ds psgjs ij ekr`Ro dk xkSjo ned jgk gS A jktk
tud dh bl izfrek ds ikl gh ;’kksnk eS;k dh Hkh izfrek gS tks cM+s Lusg
ls vius iq= dUgS;k dks eD[ku f[kyk jgh gSa A ikl gh gS guqeku&eafnj
ftlesa iou&iq= guqeku~ dh HkO; izfrek LFkkfir gS A

blh eafnj esa ,d LFkku ij jktk tud dh nwljh izfrek gS ftlesa os


viuh iq=h dks xksn esa fy;s cSBs gSa vkSj lkFk esa xq# fo’okfe= Hkh fojkteku
gSaA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd iq=h dk ukedj.k fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj og
/kjrh&iq=h ^^tkudh** dh laKk /kkj.k dj jgh gS A guqeku eafnj ds lkeus
gh gS f’ko&eafnj tgk¡ lqUnj f’kofyax lq’kksfHkr gS A gys’oj&eafnj esa izos’k
djus ls igys xk;=h 'kfDrihB gS] ftls vkpk;Z Jhjke 'kekZ us cuok;k
Fkk A iapeq[kh galokfguh xk;=h dh ;g lqUnj izfrek g`n; esa 'kfDr vkSj
vkRefo’okl dk lapkj djrh gS A bl eafnj esa izos’k djrs gh eu esa
vuk;kl J)k dk Hkko tkx`r gks tkrk gS A ;g LFkku i;ZVu dh n`f"V ls
vn~Hkqr gS A ;gk¡ vk/kqfud i;ZVu dh lqfo/kkvksa ls lqlfTtr /keZ’kkyk]
'kkSpky;] ikdZ vkfn dh LFkkiuk fcgkj ljdkj }kjk djkbZ x;h gS A bl
eafnj dk th.kksZ)kj fcM+yk QkmaMs’ku }kjk djk;k x;k gS A

iaFkikdM+ ;gk¡ dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gS A ;g LFkku lhrke<+h 'kgj


iaFkikdM+
ls 8 fdyksehVj mÙkj&iwoZ dh vksj vofLFkr gS A ;gk¡ ,d fo’kky ikdM+
dk isM+ gS A bl izlax esa izfl) gS fd tudiqj ls fonk gksdj txUekrk
lhrk dh ikydh blh jkLrs ls xqtjh Fkh vkSj blh ikdM+ ds isM+ ds uhps
og j[kh xbZ Fkh A izpfyr tudFkkvksa ds vuqlkj lhrk tudiqj ls fonk
gksrs gq, bl fopkj ls fd dgha esjh ekr`Hkwfe /kkU;&'kwU; u gks tk,] vius
14

^[kksb¡Ns* ¼vk¡py½ ls /kku fc[ksjrh x;h Fkha A d`"kdksa dk fo’okl gS fd


tgk¡&tgk¡ /kku fxjs ogk¡ de ifjJe esa gh /kjrh vf/kd vUu nsrh gS A

cks/k;ku lkj ;g og ifo= LFky gS tgk¡ egf"kZ cks/k;ku us vusd xzUFkksa dh jpuk
dh Fkh A dgk tkrk gS fd bUgha egf"kZ cks/k;ku ds f’k";ksa esa ls ,d egku~
O;kdj.kkpk;Z ikf.kfu Fks A vkt ls yxHkx pkyhl o"kZ iwoZ egku~ lUr
nsojkgk ckck us bl LFky ij cks/k;ku eafnj ds fuekZ.k&gsrq uhao Mkyh Fkh A

lhrke<h ls 6 fd0eh0 mRrj&if’pe ck?kh xzke esa ,d eafnj gS


ck?kheB
tgk¡ 108 dejs gSa A ;g LFkku ;K vkfn lEiUu djus ds fy, izfl) gS A
;gk¡ izfro"kZ olariapeh ds fnu dkQh cM+k esyk yxrk gS ftlesa vklikl
ds {ks=ksa ds lkFk&lkFk usiky ls cM+h la[;k esa yksx vkrs gSa A

;gk¡ ckck ukxs’oj ukFk ¼egknso½ dk ,d izfl) eafnj gS A dgk


iqijh
tkrk gS fd ukxs’oj ukFk egknso ds :i esa Hkxoku~ f’ko Lo;a vorfjr
gq, Fks A

xksjkSy 'kjhQ ;g lhrke<+h ls 26 fd0eh0 dh nwjh ij vofLFkr gS A dgk tkrk gS


fd fcgkj 'kjhQ vkSj Qqyokjh 'kjhQ ds ckn fcgkj esa eqlyeku Hkkb;ksa
ds fy;s lcls ifo= LFkku xksjkSy 'kjhQ gh gS A xksjkSy 'kjhQ esa eqlyekuksa
ds gtjr ekSykuk olk djhe lkgc dk etkj gS A ;gk¡ izfro"kZ bZn ds ckn
/kwe/kke ls mlZ euk;k tkrk gS A

;g LFkku lhrke<+h ls 26 fd0eh0 mRrj&if’pe esa vofLFkr gS A


lqds’oj&LFkku
bl txg ij gh 'kqdnso eqfu iwtk&ikB fd;k djrs Fks A ;gk¡ ,d fo’kky
15

vkSj izkphu eafnj vofLFkr gS tks ^lqds’oj ukFk*& 'kqds’ojukFk ¼Hkxoku~


f’ko½ ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS A

lHkkxkNhllwyk lhrke<+h ls 20 fd0eh0 if’pe esa vofLFkr ;g txg fefFkyk dh


laLd`fr dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gS A ;gk¡ ij izR;sd o"kZ eSfFky czkg~e.k bdV~Bs
gksdj iq= ,oa iqf=;ksa ds fookg r; djrs gSa A

Hkonsoiqj dk Hkonsoiqj xzke lhrke<+h uxj Fkkuk ls yxHkx 2 fd0eh0 mRrj esa
eafnj gS A ;gk¡ ,d vfr izkphu eafnj gS A ;g dFkk izpfyr gS fd bl nsoky;
esa vkusokys gj lPps HkDr dh euksdkeuk fuf’pr :i ls iwjh gksrh gS A
egUFk ijegal nkl th ls vk’khokZn ysus nwj&nwj ls yksx vkrs jgs gSa A vc
egUFk nkl th ds czãyhu gksus ds ckn Hkh HkDrksa dh vkLFkk esa dksbZ deh
ugha vkbZ gS A HkDrksa dk vkuk vuojr tkjh gS A

cktiV~Vh lhrke<+h ls ;g yxHkx 14 fdyksehVj iwoZ esa fLFkr gS tgk¡ dk


cks/kk;u ,d izeq[k LFkku gS A ;gk¡ ,d vR;Ur izkphu rkykc gS ftlds rV
ij egf"kZ cks/kk;u dk NksVk lk eafnj gS A

n;keh ftys ds csyl.M iz[kaM eq[;ky; ds ikl fLFkr n;keh xk¡o esa
,d n;keh eB gS tgk¡ f’ko dk cM+k gh lqUnj eafnj gS A ;gk¡ olariapeh
rFkk f’kojkf= ds voljksa ij HkO; esys vk;ksftr gksrs gSa A

vU/kkjh lhrke<+h ls nf{k.k&if’pe esa vU/kkjh xk¡o gS tgk¡ f’ko&ikoZrh dk


vfr izkphu eafnj gS A dgk tkrk gS fd nqfHkZ{k dky esa vU/kd uked vlqj
16

dk Hkxoku~ f’ko us uk’k fd;k Fkk] blfy, bl LFkku dks vU/kkjh egknso ds
uke ls iwtk tkrk gS A J)kyqtu fpjdky ls bl LFkku dks ^fxjfelkuh*&
^fxfjtk* vkSj ^bZ’kku* vFkok ^fxfjtk* ,oe~ ^’e’kkuh* ;k ^elkuh* f’ko vFkkZr~
f’ko&ikoZrh ls tksM+rs vk;s gSa A dgk tkrk gS fd ;gha Hkxoku~ f’ko us
ij’kqjke dks vL=&’kL= dh f’k{kk nh Fkh A

mi;qZDr izeq[k /kkfeZd LFkkuksa ds vykok dbZ ntZu NksVs&cM+s


vU; eafnj ftys ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa gSa ftuesa vUgkjh ds izkphu f’ko eafnj
vkSj ftyk eq[;ky; Mqejk ls 8 fdyksehVj nf{k.k ijekuUniqj esa fLFkr
egkRek iaxq ckck }kjk fufeZr ctjaxcyh ds eafnj dh cM+h izfr"Bk gS A
lhrke<+h 'kgj esa LFkkfir ek¡ oS".kksnsoh&eafnj] euksdkeukukFk&eafnj]
ijefl) lar fl) ckck dh dqVh rFkk l[kh&lEiznk; ds lhrkjke’kj.k th
izseyrk dh ihyh dqfV;k Hkh viuh xfjek esa de ugha gSa A

lhrke<+h eq[;ky; ls 20 fd0eh0 if’pe nsodqyh n’kZuh; LFky gS


nsodqyh
tks vc f’kogj ftyk esa pyk x;k gS A lhrke<+h&f’kogj&iFk ij ckxerh
ds fdukjs vofLFkr ;gk¡ ds Hkqous’ojukFk&eafnj dk laca/k egkHkkjrdkyhu
?kVukvksa ls gS A nsodqyh ds fo"k; esa dgk tkrk gS fd ikapky&ujs’k nzqin
us blh LFkku ij larku&izkfIr&gsrq nso&;K fd;k Fkk ftlds QyLo:i
mUgsa ohjdU;k nzkSinh izkIr gqbZ Fkh ftldk Lo;aoj Hkh blh LFky ij gqvk
Fkk A ;gk¡ gj jfookj dks ,d cM+k esyk yxrk gS vkSj nwj&nwj ds yksx
vusd euksdkeuk,¡ ysdj Hkxoku~ 'kadj dh iwtk djus vkrs gSa A nsodqyh dk
xgu bfro`Rr laizfr /kjrh ds xHkZ esa lek;k gqvk gS A izkphu bfrgkl ds
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy;s ;g 'kks/k dk ,d vPNk fo"k; gS A
17

d`"kdh; lhrke<+h fuokfl;ksa ds fy, d`f"k dsoy thfodksiktZu dk lk/ku ;k


ekufldrk
O;olk;&ek= ugha gS A ;g ,d thou&i)fr gS] thou&'kSyh gS] tks bl
{ks= ds laLdkj esa jph&clh gS A izkxSfrgkfld dky ls ;gk¡ dh laLd`fr]
R;ksgkj] mRlo] ijEijk,¡ vkSj reke xfrfof/k;k¡ fdlh u fdlh :i esa d`f"k
ls lEc) jgh gSa A lp rks ;g gS fd bl vapy ds thou esa [ksrh dks gh
iz/kkurk feyh gS ftls yksd&daB yxkrkj nqgjkrk jgk gS% ^^mRre [ksrh
e/;e cku] fu[kn pkdjh] Hkh[k funku A**

xk; bl {ks= dh turk ds fy, i’kqek= ;k ikyrw fiz; tkuoj ugha]


xks’kkyk
oju iwT; izk.kh gS A bl {ks= ds yksxksa dks Lej.k gS fd ufUnuh xk; dh
lsok djus ls gh v;ks/;k ds pØorhZ lezkV~ fnyhi dks j?kqoa’k&fo/kk;d ,sls
izrkih iq= dh izkfIr gqbZ Fkh ftudh dqy&ijEijk esa vkusokys e;kZnk&
iq#"kksRre us lqfo[;kr ^jkejkT;* dh LFkkiuk dh Fkh A

xksikyu&fo|k ds yksi vkSj xkso/k dh ifjikVh ds tkjh jgus ij Hkh


gekjs jkT; esa ftu pkj txgksa ds xksoa’k cM+s ukeh gSa muesa lhrke<+h dh
lq[;kfr lqfofnr gS A xkS&dsanzksa ds :i esa ftu LFkkuksa& 'kkgkckn] eYgrh
¼Hkkxyiqj½ vkSj cNksM+ ¼njHkaxk½ dh x.kuk gksrh gS muls bl {ks= dh xfjek
c<+&p<+dj gS A

xksoa’kh; uLyksa ds fy, lhrke<+h izfl) gS A ;gk¡ cSy cM+s] Å¡ps] iwjs
vkSj yEcs&rxM+s rFkk d"Vlfg".kq gksrs gSa A fefFkyk dh deyk unh ds
fdukjs ds xk¡oksa esa ;s cSy feyrs gSa A m/kj ^eqlgjfu;k ds cSy* ds uke ls
;g uLy [;kr gS A lhrke<+h ds esys esa ;s cSy cgqr feyrs gSa A csylaM
Fkkus dh ckxerh unh ds nksuksa ik’oksZa dh xk;sa cgqr nq/kk: gksrh gSa A lqjlaM
ds cktkj ds vkl&ikl dh xk;sa Hkh vPNh gksrh gSa A ;g ,d larks"k dk
18

fo"k; gS fd turk dh lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ lgk;rk ls lu~ 1893 bZ- esa lhrke<+h


esa ftl xks’kkyk dh LFkkiuk gqbZ Fkh og vkt Hkh fo|eku gS A xks&lsok
gekjh iqjkru laLd`fr ls lac) gS] fdUrq le; ds cnyko us mls ckf/kr
fd;k gS A ;g nq%[kn gS fd vkt xks’kkykvksa dk egÙo ?kV x;k gS A

vlaarqfyr vkgkj ysus ds dkj.k ;gk¡ ds cgqla[;d yksxksa esa jksxksa ls


LokLF;
yM+us dh {kerk ?kV xbZ gS A pkoy ds bl {ks= esa izksVhu ls ;qDr vkgkj
dh txg dkcksZgkbMªsV ysus dk izpyu vf/kd gS A lu~ 1892] 1894] 1896]
1930] 1944] 1945 ,oa 1946 ds vk¡dM+ksa ds vuqlkj bl ftys esa e`R;qnj
tUenj ls vf/kd gks xbZ Fkh A 1930] 1944 ,oa 1945 esa ^dkWyjk* ,oa
^eysfj;k* ls bl ftys esa vikj tugkfu gqbZ Fkh] ijUrq 1892&1900 ds chp
ftruh tkusa xbZa muls vLlh gtkj vf/kd yksxksa dk tUe gqvk A lp iwNk
tk; rks lu~ 1934 ds HkwdEi ds ckn bl ftys dh e`R;qnj esa vizR;kf’kr
o`f) gqbZ Fkh A

;gk¡ dk jkeuoeh esyk fo’oizfl) fojkV~ i’kq&esyk gS A dqN o"kZ


gkV cktkj
vkSj esys igys xk;] cSy] ?kksM+s vkSj gkFkh blds izeq[k vkd"kZ.k Fks] fdUrq tcls
tehankjh x;h vkSj 'kgjh lH;rk ds izlkjo’k nzqrxkeh ;kaf=d okgu vk,
gkfFk;ksa rFkk cSyksa ds izfr mnklhurk Nk x;h A VªSDVj ds ;qx esa eUnxkeh
vkSj O;;lk/; cSy misf{kr gks x, gSa A NksVs&NksVs tkuojksa ;Fkk cdfj;ksa]
dqRrksa vkfn ds izfr yksxksa dk yxko ?kVk gS A vk/kqfudrk dh pisV esa
vkdj vU; esyksa dh rjg lhrke<+h ds esys Hkh Jhghu gks x, gSa A
19

ftys ds nwjLFk xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa ftu txgksa ij xzkeh.k gkVksa ,oa
cktkjksa dh O;oLFkk gS muesa iqijh] lhrke<+h] lksucjlk] lqjlaM] cSjxfu;k
vkfn eq[; gSa A

lhrke<+h ds iqLrdky; fdlh tekus esa lkfgfR;d] lkaLd`frd rFkk


iqLrdky;
vU; lkekftd xfrfof/k;ksa ds dsUnz Fks A ;gk¡ izk;% rqylh&t;arh] dfo&
lEesyu vkfn ds vk;kstu gqvk djrs Fks A iz[;kr dfo fnudj tc
lhrke<+h esa inLFkkfir Fks rc os mu dk;ZØeksa esa Hkkx ysrs Fks A ckck
ujflagnkl dfo&lEesyuksa dk vk;kstu djkrs Fks A vkt dk ftyk
eq[;ky; lhrke<+h rc ,d vR;Ur lk/kkj.k dLck Fkk] ysfdu ml le; og
lkfgfR;d&lkaLd`frd n`f"V ls cgqr gh vkd"kZd] tkx:d vkSj thoUr Fkk A
vkt ml LQwfrZ dk vHkko gS A HkkSfrd fodkl ds dkj.k bldh psruk
dqafBr gks x;h gS A vkt iqLrdky;ksa dk vke ikBdksa ls dksbZ tqM+ko ugha
jg x;k gS A lkekftd&lkaLd`frd thou esa budh lfØ;rk lekIrizk;
gS A lhrke<+h ds vusd lkoZtfud iqLrdky;ksa esa lukru /keZ iqLrdky;]
txUukFk iqLrdky;] orZeku #UuhlSniqj iz[k.M ds csykgh xzke ds nq%[kgj.k
iqLrdky;] lqjl.M ds ^Jhd`".k iqLrdky;* vkfn Lok/;k;&ijEijk ds ,sls
vo’ks"k gSa tks ;gk¡ iqLrdh; laLd`fr ds iqu#RFkku ds vk/kkj cu ldrs gSa A

fo|ky;
lhrke<+h ftyk vUrxZr ljdkjh lgk;rk izkIr ,d Hkh mPp fo|ky;
lapkfyr ugha gS A vfirq bl ftys esa 52 jktdh;d`r rFkk 11 izkstsDV
mPp fo|ky; ,sls gSa tks ljdkjh gSa rFkk bu fo|ky;ksa ds dfeZ;ksa ds
osrukfn dk Hkqxrku ljdkjh dks"kkxkj ls gksrk gS A lhrke<+h ftyk ds
l`tu frfFk 11-11-1972 ds ckn bl ftyk esa fuEukafdr mPp fo|ky;
20

[kqys A vkt dh frfFk esa ljdkjh fo|ky; ds :i esa lapkfyr lwpuk


ifjf’k"V& 5 ij ns[kh tk ldrh gS A

izfrHkk,¡
lhrke<+h ftys esa fo}kuksa] lkfgR;dkjksa] i=dkjksa vkfn dh
xkSjo’kkyh ijEijk gh gS A ;gk¡ dh ,d egku~] fdUrq foLe`r foHkwfr
Lo0 egkegksik/;k; leh{kk pØoRrhZ ia0 e/kqlwnu 'kekZ gSa A ;s xzke xk<+k]
Fkkuk lSniqj ds fuoklh Fks vkSj t;iqj&ujs’k ds jkt iafMr Fks A t;iqj&
ujs’k budks lezkV~ iape tktZ ds jkT;kfHk"ksd ds volj ij bax~ySaM ys
x;s Fks A ogk¡ iafMr th dks mifLFkr jgus dh vuqefr mudh fo}Ùkk ds cy
ij feyh Fkh A mUgsa dqlhZ nh x;h Fkh A dSfEczt esa mudk O;k[;ku Hkh gqvk
Fkk ftlesa mUgksaus crk;k Fkk fd osn dksbZ /keZ&xzaFk ugha] cfYd iw.kZ
czãfoKku gS A ^^czãfoKku uke ls mudh ,d jpuk izdkf’kr gS A muds
jps 108 xzaFk gSa ftuesa ^osn foKku* Hkh ,d gS ftldk izdk’ku usiky&ujs’k
us djk;k Fkk A

^^dye vkt mudh t; cksy** dks nqgjkrs gq, ;gk¡ lhrke<+h dh


lkfgfR;d laink dk mYys[k vko’;d gS A fgUnh dks mUur vkSj ifjekftZr
djus esa bl {ks= dk cM+k ;ksxnku gS A t;fd’kksj ckcw] lk¡ofy;k fcgkjh]
yky oekZ] jkeykspu 'kj.k] dqat fcgkjh tkyku vkfn dh d`fr;k¡ gekjh
/kjksgj gSa A ;g vapy u dsoy ys[ku] cfYd izdk’ku dh n`f"V ls Hkh
;’kLoh jgk gS A ,d le; njHkaxk] etQ~Qjiqj bR;kfn uxjksa esa esdfeyu
dks NksM+dj dksbZ ,slk izdk’kd ugha Fkk tks lqfo/kk ds lkFk ikB~;iqLrdksa dh
vkiwfrZ dj lds A iVuk esa Hkh ckcw dkyhin ljdkj] gsepUn fo;ksxh]
eFkqjkukFk ¼,e-,u-½ ceZu ,oa ^^[kM~x foykl izsl** dh dsoy pkj nqdkusa
21

Fkha A i= fy[kus ij Hkh ogk¡ ls f’k{kdksa dks le; ij fdrkcsa ugha feyrh
Fkha A ftu yksxksa us lkgl fd;k os foQy gksdj grksRlkfgr gks pqds Fks A
bl i`"BHkwfe esa jkeykspu 'kj.k& ^^ekLVj lkgc** dk /;ku iqLrdksa dks
fy[kus gh ugha] Nikus dh vksj Hkh yxk gqvk Fkk A ml le; njHkaxk ftys
esa dsoy ,d ;wfu;u izsl Fkk A mldh NikbZ vPNh u Fkh] vr% mUgksaus
iqLrd&HkaMkj dh LFkkiuk dh A mUgksaus okjk.klh esa iqLrdksa dk eqnz.k djk;k
Fkk A mudh izo`fÙk 'kq: ls lkfgR;&lsok dh rjQ Fkh A mUgksaus lqfo/kk ikrs
gh dbZ lkfgfR;d iqLrdsa izdkf’kr djkbZa A ml le; lkfgfR;d iqLrdksa
dh fcØh mruh u Fkh] rFkkfi mUgksaus cM+h fgEer dh A vc mUgsa ,d
lokZaxlqUnj ekfld i= fudkyus dh /kqu lekbZ A cM+h lt/kt ds lkFk
mUgksaus ^^ckyd** fudkyk A tUe ysrs gh mlus ckydksa ij viuk flDdk
tek fy;k A ns’k&fons’k esa mudh dhfrZ irkdk Qgjkus yxh A bZ’oj dh
n;k ls mRlkg c<+rk gh x;k A Ldwyh vkSj lkfgfR;d iqLrdksa dh ek¡x Hkh
c<+rh xbZ A ^^ckyd** dh yksdfiz;rk ls mRlkfgr gksdj mUgksaus fo|kifr
izsl dh LFkkiuk dh A Lotkfr lq/kkj ds gsrq mUgksaus ^^jkSfu;kj oS’;** uked
ekfld if=dk fudky dj yksdfiz;rk gkfly dh Fkh A muds lkjs
dk;Zdyki bl lw= ls tqM+s gq, Fks%

^^ftldks u fut ns’k dk fut tkfr dk vfHkeku gS]


og uj ugha i’kq gS] vkSj e`rd leku gS** A

mi;qZDr lkfgR;dkjksa ds lkFk&lkFk dqN vU; ys[kdksa vkSj i=dkjksa


ds uke ifjf’k"V&4 esa nz"VO; gSa A

vkpk;Z jkeykspu 'kj.k us iVuk ds xksfoUn fe=k jksM ds fdukjs


tehu [kjhndj ^^HkaMkj** dh 'kk[kk [kksyh Fkh A mUgksaus eSfFkyh esa rqylhd`r
^fou; if=dk* ,oa ^jkepfjr ekul* dk vuqokn Hkh fd;k Fkk A
22

lhrke<+h dh moZjk Hkwfe us vius ns’k dks ,d ls c<+dj ,d jRu


fn;s gSa A pkgs jktuhfr] dk;Zikfydk] U;k;ikfydk] fpfdRlk vfHk;a=.k]
lkfgR; i=dkfjrk] dyk vkfn vusd {ks=ksa esa ;gk¡ dh izfrHkk,¡ izfl) gqbZ
gSa A vf[ky Hkkjrh; rFkk jkT; Lrj dh egRoiw.kZ iz’kklfud lsokvksa esa Hkh
lhrke<+h ds yksx pqus x, gSa mudh lwph ifjf’k"V&4 esa layXu gS A ;g
bykdk jktuSfrd usr`Ro ds fy, tkuk tkrk gS A ;gk¡ ds tuuk;dksa us u
dsoy viuh Hkwfe dks xkSjokfUor fd;k gS] cfYd iwjs ns’k dk lEeku c<+k;k
gS&mls izfr"Bk fnyk;h gS A fofHkUu lanHkksaZ esa lhrke<+h ds ftu egkiq#"kksa us
viuh izfrHkk] ;ksX;rk] {kerk rFkk ik=rk ls lq/kh tuksa dks peRd`r fd;k gS
mudh lwph yach gS A Lok/khurk&vkUnksyu esa Hkh bl bykds ds yksxkas dh
egrh Hkwfedk jgh gS A muds ;ksxnku dk ,sfrgkfld egÙo gS A bl izlax
esa Mqejh xzke ds Jh nsohckck vkSj Jh fHk[kkjh flag ds uke vxzx.; gSa A
;gk¡ ds vusd Lora=rk&lsukuh vfoLej.kh; gSa A fHk[kkjh flag dks v¡xjstksa
us ?kksM+s ls dqpy fn;k Fkk ftlds dkj.k os 'kghn gks x, Fks A lhrke<+h ds
dbZ ;qok vkanksyudkfj;ksa us v¡xjstksa ls yksgk fy;k Fkk A vktknh dh izkfIr
ds ckn Hkh mudh ns’k HkfDr iz[kj cuh jgh A mu ;ks)kvksa us ^isa’ku* tSlh
NksVh pht dks ekr`lsok ds cnys ysus ls budkj dj fn;k Fkk A Mqejh xzke
ds ckyd lhrkjke us ckydksa dh Vksyh dk usr`Ro fd;k Fkk A mu yM+dksa us
^jsy ykbu* dks vo:) djus] ukjs yxkus] fons’kh ljdkj ds dk;ksaZ esa
O;o/kku Mkyus vkSj ns’kh oLrqvksa ds O;ogkj dh izsj.kk nsus esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlk fy;k Fkk A mUgksaus vius thoV vkSj mRlkg ls v¡xjstksa dh ukd esa
ne dj fn;k Fkk A bl {ks= ds vusd ckxh usiky tkdj Hkwfexr yM+kb;k¡
yM+rs jgs A mUgksaus fons’kh lRrk ds NDds NqM+k fn, Fks A

ml taxsvktknh esa vusd efgykvksa us Hkh Hkkx fy;k Fkk ftuesa


Mqejh xzke dh Jherh jkenqykjh flUgk dk uke cgqr Åij gS A mudk iwjk
ifjokj ml Lokra«; ;q) esa 'kjhd Fkk A v¡xjstksa esa la?k"kZ djus esa lhrke<+h
us ftl 'kfDr dk izn’kZu fd;k Fkk og csfelky Fkh A turk dh dqckZfu;k¡
23

yksdxkFkkvksa dh laifÙk cu xbZ gSa A yksdla?k"kZ ds mu o`Ùkkarksa dk foLr`r


o.kZu vkxs ds i`"Bksa ij vafdr gS A

jktuhfrd vkSj
fo/kkf;dk
lhrke<+h ftyk jktuSfrd n`f"V ls laosnu’khy gS A ;gk¡ ds fuokfl;ksa
esa jktuSfrd #>ku tUetkr gS A ftys ds lkalnksa@fo/kk;dksa dh lwph
ifjf’k"V&2 esa ns[kh tk ldrh gS A

lkEiznkf;d naxk
lHkh /keksaZ ds izfr lnk’k;rk ,oa J)k j[kusokyh lhrke<+h esa ,d vksj
;fn xksLokeh rqylhnkl dh ;g ok.kh xquxquk;h tkrh gS fd%&

^^jke ds xqyke dh jhfr izhfr lh/kh lc]


lc ls Lusg] lcdks luekfu;s A**

rks nwljh vksj ije ifo= ^dqjku* dh ;g ;qfDr Hkh nqgjk;h tkrh gS
fd%& ^^vmtks fcYykgs esu’k&’kSrkfujZthe ¼’kj.k ysrk gw¡ eSa vYykg dh]
ikikRek 'kSrku ls cpus ds fy;s½** A

fdUrq foMEcuk ;g jgh gS fd bruk mnkÙk fopkj&i{k j[kdj Hkh


lhrke<+h 1959] 1967 ,oa 1992 esa lkEiznkf;d naxksa dh =klnh >syus ls
cp ugha ik;h A

bu naxksa ij fofHkUu lekpkj&i=ksa dh fVIif.k;k¡ bl iqLrd ds


ifjf’k"V&1 esa ladfyr gSa A
24

laLd`fr ,oa
yksd ioZ&jhfr fjokt

mRrj Hkkjr dh jle; laLd`fr dk uke gS & ^lhrke<+h* A ;gk¡ dh


cksyh esa ^,d opu* ugha] ^cgqopu* dh izo`fRr n`f"Vxr gksrh gS A ^eSa* dh
txg ^ge* dk iz;ksx djusokyh LFkkuh; turk vkRedsafnzr ugha gS A og
oS;fDrd ugha] lkewfgd Loj esa cksyrh gS A mldh ;g Hkkf"kd izd`fr izkphu
x.kra=kRed ekufldrk ds vuqdwy gS A

nqxkZiwtk] NB] lkek&pdsok vkfn ;gk¡ ds fof’k"V ioZ gSa tks vkf’ou
ls dkfrZd iwf.kZek rd lEiUu gksrs gSa A ;s Øe’k% 'kfDr] lw;Z vkSj ca/kqRo ls
yksdthou dks tksM+rs gSa A vkt Hkh lhrke<+h esa fefFkykapfyd jhfr&fjokt
thfor gSa A fo|k ds fy;s ljLorh ds lkFk&lkFk 'kfDr ds fy;s nqxkZ dh
Hkh mikluk dh tkrh gS A o"kkZ _rq ds lekIr gksrs gh vkf’ou dh
uje&uje /kwi /kjrh dk vkfyxu djrh gS vkSj blh ds lkFk vkjEHk gks
tkrk gS 'kkjnh; uojk= A uojk= esa nqxkZ iwtk dh 'kk’or ijEijk gS A bl
ijEijk ds vUrxZr loZ= ekr`lRrk dh vuqxwat xqaftr gksus yxrh gS A
vkf’ou ekl dh "k"Bh ls uoeh rd lqlfTtr iaMkyksa esa vkd"kZ.k dk
eq[; dsUnz gksrh gS&ekWa nqxkZ dh J`axkfjd izfrek,a A n’keh ds fnu lekjksg
viuh pje lhek ij jgrk gS vkSj lkjs ftys esa ckyd o`) uo oL= /kkj.k
dj ekWa nqxkZ ds n’kZu djrs gSa] izlkn p<+krs gSa] t; t;dkj djrs gSa rFkk
fe"BkUu ls r`Ir gksdj ?kj ykSVrs gSa A ijaijkvksa dh ckr vkrh gS rks t;arh
cka/kus ds fjokt dh vksj lgt /;ku tkuk vko’;d gS A ftl flf) ds
Åij dy’k j[kk tkrk gS mlesa tkS ds cht cks fn;s tkrs gSa A fot;kn’keh
ds fnu mlesa vadqfjr ueZ nwc dks t;arh dgdj yksx ekFks ij j[krs gSa A
;gkWa dbZ LFkkuksa ij ^v[kaM nhi* Hkh tyk;s tkrs gSa A lhrke<+h ds yksxksa esa
25

ra=&ea= esa vkLFkk gksus ds dkj.k Hkh Mk;u] ;ksfxu] izsr vkfn ls cpus ds
fy, Hkh fo’ks"k ijEijkvksa dk ikyu fd;k tkrk gS A ekrk,a vius cPpksa dh
dej esa dkys /kkxs esa yglqu cka/k nsrh gS vkSj ?kj esa izos’k }kj ij dkyk
Vhdk yxk;k tkrk gS A bu lc ds ihNs ,slh /kkj.kk gS fd ,slk fd;s tkus
ls Hkwr&izsr ds izHkko ls ?kj lalkj cpk jgrk gS A ;gkWa ,slh ekU;rk gS fd
nqxkZ iwtk ds le; ^Mk;u* dk izdksi mxz gks tkrk gS vkSj budh flf) Hkh
blh volj ij gksrh gS A bu lcls cpus ds fy, NksVh&NksVh yM+fd;kWa
vius ekFks ij vufxur fNnzksa okyk ?kM+k ysdj 'kke ds oDr ukprh xkrh
gqbZ lHkh ds ?kj tkrh gSa] ftls ^f>f>;k* dgk tkrk gS A

yksd esa izpfyr] yksd&}kjk jfpr vkSj yksd ds ifjos’k ij vk/kkfjr


xhr lhrke<+h ds lkfgR; dh okfpd ijEijk dh /kjksgj gSa A ;s yksdxhr
;gk¡ dh vd`f=e vkSj lgt thoup;kZ dk lk{kkRdkj djkrs gSa A buesa
Liafnr tuinh; laosnuk,¡ vO;kgr gSa A nqxkZiwtk dh vof/k esa ;gk¡ dh
efgyk,¡ rsy vkSj flanwj dk iz;ksx ugha djrh gSa A lIreh ds fnu iV
[kqyus ij os yky oL= ls Hkxorh dk vk¡py Hkjus ds ckn flanwj yxkrh
gSa A v"Veh ds fnu ozr j[kus] fu’kk&iwtu vkSj dq¡okjh dU;kvksa dks Hkkstu
djkus dh fpjkpfjr jhfr;k¡ vkt Hkh v{kq..k gSa A HkS;knwt vkSj lkekpdsok
HkkbZ&cgu ds Lusg dks n`<+ djrs gSa rFkk v{k; uoeh dk vuq"Bku
LokLF;&lao)Zu dk ladsrd gS A dkfrZd iwf.kZek dk xaxk&Luku /kkfeZd gh
ugha] lkeqnkf;d egÙo Hkh j[krk gS A

nhikoyh bl {ks= ds fy, ,d egku~ ,sfrgkfld ,oa lkaLd`frd


ioZ gS ftlesa vFkZ dh nsoh y{eh dh mikluk dh tkrh gS A ;gk¡ ds yksxksa
dk iw.kZ fo’okl gS fd y{eh egkjkuh ogha vkrh vkSj fVdrh gSa tgk¡ izdk’k
26

gks A thou esa vFkZ gh ugha] vkyksd vkSj LoPNrk dks Hkh egÙo nsusokyk ;g
yksdksRlo fefFkyk dh frfej&fojks/kh laLd`fr dks lkdkj djrk gS A

vkapfyd ioksZa dh Jzs.kh esa dkfrZd 'kqDy "k"Bh dks ;gk¡ NB ioZ eukus
dh xkSjo’kkyh ijEijk jgh gS A 'kgj ds Bhd e/; esa fLFkr y[kunsbZ unh
ds nksuksa fdukjksa ij dkQh J)k o HkfDr ds lkFk ;g ioZ euk;k tkrk gS A
iVuk ds ckn NB dh NVk flQZ ;gha ns[kus dks feyrh gS A vks.ke] iksaxy]
yksgM+h vkSj fcgq ftl rjg Øe’k% dsjy] rfeyukMq] iatkc vkSj vle ds
R;ksgkj rFkk mDr jkT;ksa ds yksxksa dh lkaLd`frd igpku ds |ksrd gSa mlh
rjg NB dk yksdioZ lhrke<+h tuin dh tkrh; vfLerk dk ifjpk;d
gS A lw;ksZikluk dk ;g vuq"Bku oLrqr% lw;Z "k"Bh ozr gS A lw;Z dh iwtk
fdlh u fdlh :i esa vfr izkphu dky ls fo’oHkj esa gksrh jgh gS] fdUrq
Hkkjr ds _x~oSfnd vk;ksaZ dk /kkfeZd thou rks ewyr% rstfLouh izkd`frd
'kfDr;ksa dh mikluk ij gh vk/kkfjr Fkk A mudk ekuuk Fkk fd lw;Z] pUnz]
ok;q] es?k] vfXu vkfn izd`fr ds fofHkUu :iksa ds ihNs ,d loZ’kfDreku
lRrk gS rFkk ;g lEiw.kZ txr~ mlh dh vfHkO;fDr gS A NB ioZ dkfrZd
vkSj pS= ekl esa vk;ksftr gksrk gS ;kuh lky esa nks ckj Ng&Ng eghuksa
ij A nksuksa ckj 'kqDy i{k dh "k"Bh dks gksus okyk ;g ioZ ikfjokfjd
lq[k&le`f) vkSj euksdkeuk&iwfrZ dk fo/kk;d gS A yksdHkk"kkxr ^drdh* ;k
^dfrdh* vkSj ^pSrh* fo’ks"k.kksa ls ;qDr bl ioZ dh izd`fr yksdrkaf=d gS A
lHkh tkfr;ksa] fofHkUu oxksaZ vkSj mPp ,oe~ fuEu vkfFkZd oxksZa ds yksxksa esa
;g lekur% izpfyr gS A blesa 'kq)rk ij i;kZIr /;ku fn;k tkrk gS] fdUrq
;g tkrh; foHksnksa ls eqDr gS A bls ^Mkyk NB* Hkh dgrs gSa ftlesa iz;qDr
^Mkyk&lwiksa* dk fuekZ.k vaR;t Mksetkfr ds yksx djrs gSa A ^NB* 'kCn
laLd`r ds "k"B ls O;qRiUu gS A pS= 'kqDy "k"Bh vkSj dkfrZd 'kqDy "k"Bh ls
bl ozr dh lac)rk gS A prqFkhZ dks ozrh fnu esa Luku dj 'kq) Hkkstu djrs
27

gSa A bls ^^ugku&[kku** ;k ^ugk;&[kk;* dgk tkrk gS A blds ckn iapeh


dks ozrh fnu Hkj miokl j[krs gSa A bl fnu dks yksgaMk] [kM+uk ;k [kjuk
dgk tkrk gS A feV~Vh ds crZu esa vke dh ydM+h dh vkx ij bl fnu
vjok pkoy] pus dh nky] dbZ izdkj dh lfCt;kas rFkk [khj&iwM+h dks
idkus dh izfØ;k iwjh dh tkrh gS A 'kke esa ?kj esa gh ozrh Hkxoku~ lw;Z dks
lefiZr dj fnu&Hkj dk miokl bUgha [kk| inkFkksaZ ls Hkax djrs gSa A bl
Øe esa ^[kM+uk* ;k ^[kjuk* 'kCn dk izpyu gS A ozrh iapeh dh 'kke esa fnu
Hkj dk viuk miokl Hkax ;k [kafMr djrs gSa] dnkfpr~ ;gh lanHkZ ^[kM+uk*
;k ^[kjuk* dk i`"Bk/kkj gS A bl Øe esa ^^[k¡M+uk** 'kCn dh vksj /;ku tkrk
gS A ;gk¡ ^[k¡M+uk* vFkkZr~ miokl dks [kafMr djus dk vfHkizk; fufgr gS A
^^yksgaMk** 'kCn dh O;qRifRr exgh ds ^yksgM+k* 'kCn ls gqbZ gS A exgh esa
^yksgM+k* vjok pkoy dks dgrs gSa A yksgaMk ;k [kM+uk ds fnu vjok pkoy
gh idk;k tkrk gS A blds ckn "k"Bh dks fnu&Hkj miokl j[kk tkrk gS
vkSj 'kke esa ozrh unh ;k rkykc esa vLrkpyxkeh lw;Z dks v?;Z nsrk gS A
v?;Z esa fofHkUu izdkj ds idoku] Qy] bZ[k] ukfj;y vkfn ck¡l ds u;s lwi
esa ltkdj lw;Z dks lefiZr fd;s tkrs gSa A ozrh Luku djus ds ckn xhyh
lkM+h ;k /kksrh igus gq, Qy&Qwy] idoku vkfn ls Hkjs lwi dks vius nksuksa
gkFkksa esa ysdj lw;Z dh vksj mUeq[k gksrk gS vkSj bl lwi ds vkxs mlds
ifjtu nw/k dk v?;Z nsrs gSa A ml 'kke v?;Z nh gqbZ lkexzh ysdj ozrh ?kj
ykSV vkrs gSa rFkk mudk miokl tkjh jgrk gS A blds ckn lqcg gksrs gh
ozrh vius ifjtuksa ds lkFk fQj unh vFkok rkykc ds fdukjs igq¡p dj
mlh izdkj mnh;eku lw;Z dks v?;Z nsrs gSa A 'kke esa v?;Z nsrs le; tks
lkexzh lw;Z nso dks vfiZr dh tkrh gS] lqcg esa mudk mi;ksx ugha fd;k
tkrk gS A izkr%dkyhu v?;Z nsrs le; u;h lkexzh dk gh mi;ksx gksrk gS A
lIreh dh lqcg esa v?;Z nsus ds ckn ozrh ikj.k djrs gSa ;kuh muds miokl
dh lekfIr gksrh gS A bl rjg NB ozr lEiUu gksrk gS A ;g ozr vR;ar
28

gh ifo= vuq"Bku gS A yksxksa dh ,slh /kkj.kk gS fd blesa FkksM+h lh Hkh


vifo=rk gksus ij rRdky vfu"V gks tkrk gS A lhrke<+h ftyk ds fy, ;g
yksdioZ bruk egÙoiw.kZ gS fd vkfFkZd fLFkfr vuqdwy u jgus ij dqN yksx
fHk{kkVu djds Hkh ;g ioZ eukrs gSa A dqN yksx vkfFkZd :i ls le`) jgus
ds ckotwn Hkh[k ek¡x dj NB djus dk ladYi ysdj ladV ls NqVdkjk
ikus ds fy, Hkxoku~ lw;Z ls izkFkZuk djrs gSa A bldk ekgkRE; ,slk gS fd
dHkh&dHkh csVs dks ca/kd j[kdj Hkh dqN yksx NB ozr dk ikyu djrs gSa A

fgUnqvksa ds fy, ftl izdkj gksyh ekSt vkSj eLrh dk R;kSgkj gS mlh
izdkj eqlyekuksa ds fy, bZn A bZn ds fnu nksigj ds igys yksx 'kgj ds
ckgj bZnxkg esa tkrs gSa A tgk¡ [kqyh txg vFkkZr~ tulkekU; dh izkFkZuk ds
mi;qDr bZnxkg ugha gS] ogk¡ efLtnksa esa uekt i<+us dh izFkk gS A lHkh nks
fjdvr ;kfu pkj fltnksa esa uekt vnk djrs gSa A uekt ds ckn bZeke
vFkkZr~ /keksZins’kd [kqrck ¼mins’k½ i<+rk gS] ftlesa og eqlyekuksa dks
^^fQ=k** ¼LosPNk;knku ;k [kSjkr½ dh egRrk le>krk gS A bl fnu yksx
vius fe=ksa] lacaf/k;ksa ,oa iM+ksfl;ksa dks nkor nsrs gSa A tks ftlls feyrk gS]
cl ^^bZn eqckjd** dgdj eqckjdckn nsrk gS A

g"kZ dk R;kSgkj bZn ds ckn eqlyeku HkkbZ dk R;kSgkj eqgjZe eukrs


gSa A bl ?kVuk dk laca/k bLyke/keZ ds laLFkkid gtjr eqgEen ds ukrh
gtjr bZeke gqlSu ds cfynku ls gS A blh 'kgknr dh ;knxkj esa bLyke
ekuus okys eqgjZe dh igyh rkjh[k ls nloha rkjh[k&nl fnuksa rd ekre
eukrs gSa A

bZn] eqgjZe ds ckn cdjhn] ftls bZn&mt~ tqgk Hkh dgrs gSa] euk;k
tkrk gS A bl rkjh[k dks nl cts fnu ls igys rd bZnxkgksa esa yksx tek
gksrs gSa vkSj bZn dh rjg gh nks fjdvr uekt Ng rdchjksa esa vnk djrs
29

gSa A gj fjdvr ¼D;ke&[kM+k gksuk] :dv&>qduk] dmn&?kqVuksa ij cSBuk]


lqtwn&fltnk ;k eRFkkVsduk½ esa rhu ckj rdchj vFkkZr~ vYykgksa vdckj
¼bZ’oj lcls cM+k gS½ dgrs gSa A uekt ds ckn [kqrck vFkkZr~ vfHkHkk"k.k
gksrk gS] ftls beke vFkkZr~ mins’kd i<rk gS A reke uekth bl [kqrcs dks
xkSj ls lqurs gSa A bl vfHkHkk"k.k esa og gtjr bczkghe vkSj bLekby dh
d:.k dFkk dk o.kZu djrk gS A og ;g Hkh crykrk gS fd fdl vkSj dSls
i’kq dk cfynku djuk pkfg, A ^^dkuh xk; czkã.k dks nku** okyh dgkor
pfjrkFkZ u gks A dkus] va/ks chekj i’kq dh dqckZuh ugha gksuk pkfg, A
vfHkHkk"k.k dh lekfIr ds ckn lHkh uekt i<+us okys ,d&nwljs ls xys
feyrs gSa vkSj bZn dh rjg gh [kq’kh eukrs gSa A fØlel] xqM QzkbMs] bLVj]
ljgqy] lksgjkr vkfn ioZ dh tkudkjh ;gk¡ ds yksxksa dks ugha gS D;ksafd
;gk¡ u blkbZ gSa vkSj u vkfnoklh A

laxhr vkSj u`R; ;gk¡ dsoy euksjatu ds lk/ku ugha] eqfDr&izkfIr ds


ek/;e Hkh jgs gSa A ;g vdkj.k ugha gS fd bl ftys esa ;knxkj dksBksa]
egfQyksa vkSj rok;Qksa dk vfLrRo fojy gS A ;gk¡ 'kknh&C;kg ds voljksa
ij ukp&xku dh ijaijk vo’; gS] fdUrq foykl&dsanzksa ds izfr yksxksa dk
vkd"kZ.k ugha gS] D;ksafd laxhr] u`R; vkfn dks yksdthou ifo= ekurk gS A
;gkWa coarkxeu dk ioZ ftl /kwe/kke ls euk;k tkrk jgk gS mldk D;k
dguk A ;g og fnu gS tc /kuh&fu/kZu] xksjs&dkys] ÅWap&uhp] L=h&iq:"k]
ckyd&o`) ds chp dh Hksnd nhokj VwV tkrh gS vkSj euq"; dsoy euq";
jg tkrk gS] D;ksafd og fnu&jkr fry&raMqy dh gh fpUrk esa ?kqVrk jgs A
;fn ;g vk’kadk vkSj fujk’kk ds nks ikVksa ds chp gh filrk jgs rks mlds
thou vkSj tkuoj ds thou esa dksbZ vUrj ugha jgsxk A d`"kd oxZ esa
pSrkoj] Qkxquh vkSj tksfxjk vR;f/kd yksdfiz; gSa rFkk dhrZu dj euksjatu
30

djus dh yyd cnLrwj gS A euksjFk dh flf) ds fy;s jkekpkZ iwtk rFkk


v[akM gfjdhRrZu djkuk LVSV~l flEcy Hkh gS A

lhrke<+h esa yksdxhrksa dh ijEijk dkQh iqjkuh jgh gS A yksd esa


izpfyr yksd ls jfpr vkSj yksd ds ifjos’k ij vk/kkfjr xhr dks yksdxhr
dgk tk ldrk gS A yksd 'kCn dk ewy vFkZ gksrk gS ns[kusokyk ;k ns[kus
ds vFkZ esa A

vk/kqfud fo’ys"k.k esa vc ^^yksd** 'kCn dk vFkZ xaobZ ;k tuinh; ds


:i esa ns[kk tkus yxk gS A vk/kqfud lH;rk ls nwj viuh lgt voLFkk esa
jg jgs fuj{kj ;k vYi f’kf{kr yksxksa dh vk’kk&fujk’kk] nq[k&lq[k]
thou&ej.k] ykHk&gkfu dh vfHkO;atu bu yksdxhrksa esa dwV&dwV dj
Hkjh gS A

tu thou ds lkekU; laLdkj xhr FkksM+k cgqr vius cnyrs Lo:i esa
loZ= feyrs gSa A pwafd lkjs laLdkj dh Hkko Hkwfe ,d tSlh gha gS vr,o
ewy Lo:i esa dksbZ cnyko ugha vkrk A dqN yksxksa ij ijEijk ls {ks=h;rk
dk jax dqN xk<+k gksrk gS A tSls czt dh gksyh esa tks ek/kq;Z gS og fcgkj
dh gksyh esa ugha] oSlh gha pbZrh gok tks vkuUn ^^fcgkj** esa yqVkrh gS og
^^czt** esa ugha A ;gkWa pbZrh yksdxhrksa dh ijoku dqN mij p<+dj vykirh
gS A

pbZrh xhr Hkh vU; yksdxhrksa dh rjg Lej.k foLej.k ls vkWa[k


fepkSyh [ksysr] galh vkSj mnkl g`n; ls xzkeh.kksa [ksrksa esa mits] yksdxhrksa
dh rjg gS A yksdxhrksa ds jpukdj dkSu gSa \ budh 'kq:vkr dc ls gqbZ
;g irk yxkuk eqf’dy gS A yksdxhr yksddaB dh ijEijk ij pyh gk jgh
31

gS vkSj vkt Hkh dsoy Jqfr ds :i esa ftUnk gS A jke dk tUe ,d


ikSjkf.kd ?kVuk gS tks blh ekl esa jkeuoeh ds :i esa euk;k tkrk gS&

^^cktr vuUn c/kbZvk gks jkek@vo/k uxfj;k**

pSr 'kqDy izfrink ls uoeh rd eafnjksa esa jkek;.k dk uokg ikB


gksrk gS A blh uojkr esa Hkxorh nqxkZ dh Hkh Lrqfr gksrh gS A

eSfFkyh esa pbZrk dks ^^pSrkoj** dgrs gSa A buesa olUr dh eLrh vkSj
pS= dk fojg nksuksa ns[kus dks feyrk gS A ckbZ vkWa[k eksj Qjds gs uunh@
fi;k vktq v;fFku@[kqyh&[kqyh tk;s can vafx;k@flj dlkjh djds gS
uunh@fi;k vkt v;fFkuk** ,d vkSj mnkgj.k nsa[ks&csyh pesyh Qwys
cfx;k esa@tkscuk Qwyy eksj vafx;k gs jkek@ubZ Hksts ifr;k A ia0 jke
ujs’k f=ikBh yksdxhr ds ckjs esa dgrs gSa ^^xzke xhr izd`fr ds mn~xkj gS A
blesa vaydkj ugha] dsoy y; gS A ykfyR; ugha dsoy ek/kq;Z gS A

ij] ;g Hkh lp gS fd lhrke<+h ds yksx 'kh?kz vkos’k esa vk tkrs gSa A


tc os yM+&fHkM+ tkrs gSa rc rdZ vkSj cqf) dks frykatfy ns nsrs gSa]
fdUrq mudk ve"kZ vuSfrd ugha gksrk gS A os Vsd ds fy, ej feVrs gSa A
cSjxfu;k ds oa’khlko us tufgr ds fy, vkRenkg dj fy;k Fkk A mUgksaus
vius {ks= esa yky cfd;k unh ij iqy cukus dh ek¡x euokus ds Øe esa
izk.kkgqfUr nh Fkh A ik¡p ckj fo/kk;d jgs jkepfj= ;kno Hkh bl tuin dh
mDr fo’ks"krk ds dkj.k yksdthou esa Lej.kh; gSa A iqfyl dh xksyh ls
mudk 'kghn gksuk vius {ks=h; 'kkS;Z dk gh ifjpk;d gS A ^lhrkef<+;k*
vieku] neu vkSj vU;k; dks ugha lg ldrk gS A mDr tkrh; LoHkko ds
dkj.k gh bl vapy us Hkkjr ds LokrU=~; laxzke esa c<+&p<+dj fgLlk
fy;k Fkk A ;gk¡ ds yksxksa us u dsoy /ku&tu ls vkUnksyudkfj;ksa dh
lgk;rk dh Fkh] cfYd vkRe&cfynku Hkh fn;k Fkk A {ks=h; yksdxhrksa esa
32

mudh 'kgknr dh iz’kalk ,oa v¡xjstksa ds fiV~Bw tehankjksa ds fo#) vkØks’k


dh Li"V vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gS A egkRek xk¡/kh }kjk lapkfyr lu~ 1921 bZ0 ds
vlg;ksx&vkUnksyu esa ;gk¡ ds yksxksa us [kqydj Hkkx fy;k Fkk A os tsy
x, Fks vkSj mUgksaus ykfB;ksa&xksfy;ksa ds izgkj Hkh >sys Fks A vufxur odhy]
eq[rkj vkSj v/;kid vius dke NksM+dj lR;kxzg esa 'kkfey gq, Fks A
fo|kFkhZ Ldwyksa ls fudy vk, vkSj vktknh dh yM+kbZ esa dwn iM+s Fks A
xk¡o&xk¡o esa fons’kh diM+ksa dk ngu gqvk Fkk A yksxksa us pj[kksa ij lwr
dkrdj [kknh dks vktknh dh vkokt cuk fn;k Fkk A fons’kh oLrqvksa ds
cfg"dkj vkSj ^Lons’kh* ds ladYi ls mUgksaus fons’kh lRrk dh pwysa fgyk nh
Fkha A

lhrke<+h ds yksx bl ckr ds fy;s ltx gSa fd tks Hkh izlk/ku gks
mls ?kj] ifjokj vkSj lekt Lohdkj djs A ;gk¡ ds yksx oLrqr% vki:i
Hkkstu vkSj ij:i J`axkj djrs gSa A ,d dgkor bl vkapfyd fetkt dks
ewrZ djrh gS% ^^fyih iqrh nsgjh vkSj lth /kth esgjh A** ;gk¡ dh fL=;ksa esa
esagnh dk izpyu dkQh gS A ^xksnuk* efgykvksa dk LFkk;h vkHkw"k.k gS A
lhrke<+h ftys dh efgykvksa esa izkphu dky ls ,d fo’okl izpfyr gS fd
ejus ds ckn ^xksnuk* gh lkFk tkrk gS A ^xksnuk* fefFkykapy dh laLd`fr
vkSj ijEijk dk ,d vfHkUu vax gS A xkWao esa tc dksbZ ejrk gS rks mlds
ifjokj ds izfr lHkh nq%[k vkSj lEosnuk izdV djrs gSa jksrs gSa rFkk foyki
djrs gSa A 'ko dk laLdkj nkg deZ djds djrs gSa A fQj Hkh ;g lR; gS
fd xkWaoksa esa thou 'kSyh cgqr rsth ls cny jgh gS A ;g vHkh rd ftu
phtksa dks foykflrk dh oLrq, ekurs jgs gSa] os vc xkWaoksa esa Hkh igqWapus yxh
gS A fyfifLVd] usy ikfyl] jaxhu Vsyhfotu] fQzt] okf’kax e’khus xzkeh.kksa
}kjk [kjhnh tk jgh gS A fMVtsaZV] ugkus dk lkcqu] [kk’k rsy vkSj pk; dh
fpark ;gkWa ds xzkeh.kksa dks vf/kd lrkrh jgrh gS A ,slk yxrk gS fd ;g
33

lc ckrsa rc ¼Lo0½ eSfFkyh’kj.k xqIr th ds fnekx esa ugha gS A ,slk yxrk


gS fd ;g lc ckrsa rc ¼Lo0½ eSfFkyh’kj.k xqIr th ds fnekx esa ugha jgh
gksxh tc mUgksaus dbZ n’kd igys ;g fy[kk fd ^^Hkkjr ekrk xzkeokfluh** A

xkWaoksa esa rsth ls cny jgs thou 'kSyh dk dkj.k Hkh Li"V gS A ubZ
ih<+h us flQZ [ksrh fdlkuh ds lkFk&lkFk vU; izdkj ds jkstxkjksa esa Hkh
mRlqdrk fn[kkbZ gS A xkaoksa esa ifjokjksa ds lnL;ksa dh i<+kbZ fy[kkbZ dh
Hkwfedk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gS ftlds dkj.k yksxksa esa vkjke lqfo/kk ds lk/kuksa dks
gkfly djus dh izo`fRr c<+h gS A xkaoksa ds cktkjksa dkegRoiw.kZ gksuk ,d
lkFk nks ladsr nsrs gSa A ,d rks ;g fd laiUurk ds btgkj dk iSekuk vxj
c<+rh ekax dks ekuk tk; rks xkaoksa esa lEiUurk vk jgh gS] tks ,d 'kqHk
ladsr gS A nwljk ladsr ;g gS fd ml 'kgjh fdLe dh thou 'kSyh ds izfr
yyd xkaoksa esa c<+ jgh gS ftls miHkksDrkoknh thou 'kSyh dgk tk ldrk
gS A >ksifM+;ksa esa tkrs dscy ds rkj vkSj >ksiM+ifV~V;ksa us /kqavk/kkj fcdus
'khry is; bl ckr ds ladsr nsrs gS fd vk; NksVh gks] rks t:jh ugha gS
fd lius bPNk,a Hkh NksVh gksa A miHkksx dh xgjh yyd ogkWa Hkh ekStwn gS A
vk; dh deh ds ckotwn os ml thou 'kSyh dks vikuus dks mRlqd gSa] tks
dqN le; igys rd e/;e oxZ ;k mPp oxZ dh [kkfl;r Fkh A

ijUrq ;gkWa ds yksxksa esa vHkh [kkus ihus dh vknr esa ifjorZu ugha
vk;k gS A vHkh Hkh pwM+k&ngh] d<+h&cM+h] dqEgjkSjh] jkbZrk] ikiM+&frykSjh
fofHkUu izdkj dh pVuh] r:vk rFkk Hkqaft;k ¼ftls pDdk Hkh dgrs gSa½ A
vkyw vkSj ewax dk pks[kk] vksy dh lCth vkSj pks[kk yksx [kkuk ilan djrs
gSa A ehBk esa [khj cgqr pko ls [kk;k tkrk gS A [ksr esa dke djusokyksa esa
cflvkSjk ¼jkr dk cuk Hkkr½ [kkus dk izpyu gS A pk;] dkWQh vke gks x;k
34

gS cflvkSjk ds lkFk&lkFk d`"kd oxZ pk; Hkh ysus yxs gSa A lekpkj i=ksa ds
fy;s yksxksa esa izrh{kk jgrh gS A lEiUu ?kjkuksa esa [kkuk idkus ds fy, igys
jlksb;k dks j[kk tkrk Fkk tks izk;% czkã.k tkfr ds gksrs Fks A ijUrq vc
vU; tkfr ds yksxksa dks Hkh jlksbZ;k j[kk tkus yxk gS A ekalkgkjh gksus ds
ckn Hkh fgUnqvksa }kjk xk; dk ekal ,oa eqlyekuksa }kjk lqvj ds ekal [kkus
esa l[r ijgst j[kk tkrk gS A igys tgkWa yksx tehu ij njh vFkok
ydM+h dk vklu] ftls fi<+h;k dgk tkrk gS] ij [kkrs Fks ogkWa vc Vscy
dqlhZ ij [kkus yxs gSa A lc dqN ds ckn ;gkWa ds yksx phuh esa phaVh vkSj
vkVs esa /kqu ugha ns[krs gSa A HkkX;oknh gksus ds dkj.k ;g ekU;rk gS fd
dU;k HkkX;oku gks rks nfjnz ds ?kj esa Hkh lq[kh jg ldrh gS rFkk vHkkxh gks
rks jktk ds ?kj esa Hkh jks,xh A blds ihNs vkt ds le; esa mRlkgh ijkØe
fLFkjefr Kku dh O;FkZrk dk ,d xgjk cks/k Hkh fNik gS A ogh cks/k tks
nzkSinh dks fn, dqarh ds vk’khokZn ds ihNs fctyh dh rjg dkSa?krk gS A

HkX;oUra izlw;s/kk% u Hkwja ua p if.Mre~]


‘’kwjkÜp d`rkfo|kÜp ous lksnfUr esa lqrk% A

¼csVh rqe ,sls iq= mRiUu djuk tks HkkX;oku gks] 'kwj ;k iafMr ugha A
esjs iq= rks 'kwj vkSj iafMr nksuksa gSa fdUrq ns[kks HkkX; [kksVk gksus ls os dSls
ou&ou HkVd jgs gSa½ A

lhrke<+h ds yksx J)kyq gSa] fdUrq vkt os vius 'kghnksa dks Hkwy
O;Fkk&dFkk
x, gSa A nq%[k gS fd ,d Hkh 'kghn Lekjd bl uxj esa ugha gS A vk/kqfudrk
dh vk¡/kh us thou&ewY;ksa dks >d>ksj fn;k gS A ^vfrfFk nsoksHko* dh ijEijk
ne rksM+us yxh gS A vkerkSj ij o`)ksa vkSj infoghu O;fDr;ksa dh mis{kk gks
jgh gS A fxjrh gqbZ nhokj ls cpdj pyus dh eukso`fRr fodflr gks xbZ
gS A ftu ifjokjksa ds yksx fons’kksa esa cls gq, gSa vFkok nwjLFk LFkkuksa ij
35

ukSdjh djrs gSa muesa ,dkdhiu vkSj lUukVs dk vkye gS A ogk¡ thou
Bgj x;k gS A os ifjokj vFkkZHkko ugha] LusgkHkko ls vkØkar gSa A mudh
laiUurk ,oa lqfo/kk,¡ ekuoh; laca/kksa dks yhy pqdh gSa A xk¡oksa esa vdsysiu
dh O;Fkk >sy jgs cM+s&cw<+s ^cksfj;r* ls cpus ds fy, 'kjkc vkSj vQhe dh
rjQ eqM+ jgs gSa A bu ifjokjksa ds fy, fons’kksa ls vftZr oSHko O;FkZ gks x;k
gS A ;s ^vyxko* vkSj ^vkRefuokZlu* ds ^v¡/ksjs esa* jgus dks vfHk’kIr gSa A

lhrke<+h dks izd`fr us cgqr&dqN fn;k gS A ;g ftyk HkkSxksfyd


n`f"Vdks.k ls lery gS rFkk ;g dqy 285-17 oxZ fdyksehVj esa QSyk gS A
blds mRrj esa usiky] nf{k.k esa eqtQ~Qjiqj] if’pe esa pEikju ,oe~ f’kogj
rFkk iwjc esa njHkaxk] e/kqcuh gSa A y[kunsbZ] ckxerh rFkk v/kokjk lewg dh
ufn;ksa ls f?kjk ;g {ks= ckj&ckj ck<+ksa ls fody gksrk gS A xfeZ;ksa esa ;gk¡
ty lw[k tkrk gS vkSj o"kkZ_rq esa ck<+ vk tkrh gS A bl ftys esa eq[;r%
ykse] cyqvkgh ykse] fpduh rFkk fpduh ykse feV~Vh ik;h tkrh gS A ;gk¡
dh feV~Vh esa ftad NksM+dj vU; lHkh rÙo feyrs gSa tks vPNh Qly ds
fy, vko’;d gSa A dkfrZd iwf.kZek ls gh ckxerh] y[kunsbZ o v/kokjk lewg
dh ufn;ksa ds fdukjs esgeku i{kh mrjus yxrs gSa A ;g _rq pØ cnyus
dk ladsr gS A bu ijns’kh fpfM+;ksa dk vkxeu lqjE; lqcg vkSj jgL;e;h
lk¡> jprk gS A rqylhnkl us fy[kk gS& ^^tkuh 'kjn _rq [katu vk;s**
;kuh tc [katu vk, rks le> yhft, BaM dk ekSle vk x;k gS A [katu
,d izoklh i{kh gS ftldk vkxeu lhrke<+h esa gj lky flrEcj esa gksrk
gS A ;gk¡ igys xSaMh] flYyh] pdok] pkgk vkfn vusd iztkfr;ksa ds i{kh
vkrs Fks] fdUrq vc os /ku[ksrksa dh bl ^egh* ls eq¡g eksM+ jgs gSa A mudh
foeq[krk gekjs uSlfxZd thou dks fo"k..k cuk jgh gS A
36

lhrke<+h ij izLrqr vkys[k dSls cuk] dSls ugha] ;g fo"k;


lkekU;r% fdlh ds fy, ftKkL; ugha gS] ysfdu eq>s ekywe gS fd bls
vusd lokyksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+x
s k A izkekf.kdrk] ,sfrgkfldrk]
HkkSxksfydrk] O;fDrokpd laKkvksa dh mPpkj.k&fof/k vkSj orZuh ls tqM+s
vusd iz’u mB ldrs gSa A bl ^vkys[k* dh fo/kk vkSj 'kSyh dh Hkh
vkykspuk izR;kf’kr gS A fdlh dkarkj esa ?kqlus ij dk¡Vksa dh pqHku
LokHkkfod gS A bl izlax esa eSa bruk gh dguk pkgw¡xk fd ;g vkys[k
v’ehHkwr bfrgkl ds <sj ij Bgjus ls vf/kd cgrh gqbZ thou&/kkjk dk
lg;k=h cuus ds fy, iz;Ru’khy jgk gS A dgrs gSa fd izkekf.kdrk vkSj
iBuh;rk dk ;qxir~ fuokZg laHko ugha gS rFkk ys[kdh; Lokra=~; vkdk’k&
dqlqe gS A eSaus bu rhuksa dks tksM+us dk cky&pkiY; nf’kZr fd;k gS A bl
Øe esa ,sls vfHkys[kksa dk fofu;ksx gqvk gS ftuls jkspdrk ckf/kr ugha gksrh
gS A bfrgkl us bl Hkwfe dks vuU; xfjek nh gS A /keZ] laLd`fr vkSj
bfrgkl ds ojnkuksa us bls vkLFkk dk rhFkZ cuk fn;k gS] fdUrq fueZe
fu;fr&pØ ds uhps lcdks {kr&fo{kr gksuk iM+rk gS A vkt lhrke<+h
flld jgh gS A blds xkSjo ds vH;qRFkku ds fy, ladfYir gksuk gS A ;gk¡
dh e`fRrdk dh moZjrk yksd&izfl) gS A vko’;drk gS mfpr chtksa ds
fu{ksi dh A lhrkuoeh vkSj lhrk&egksRlo ds vk;kstuksa&}kjk ge ml
lkaLd`frd d`f"k dks iqu#Tthfor dj ldrs gSa ftls vrhr esa tud]
;kKoYD;] okpLifr feJ] mn;ukpk;Z vkfn us laiksf"kr fd;k Fkk A

2
37

Sitamarhi2

lkfgR; ,oa laLd`fr ds lkFk&lkFk lhrke<+h dk mTToy i{k ;g jgk


gS fd ;gk¡ ds yksxksa us Lora=rk&laxzke esa c<+&p<+dj fgLlk fy;k A v¡xjstksa
dh gqdwer dks bl {ks= ls tcjnLr pqukSrh feyh Fkh A Lora=rk dh yM+kbZ esa
Hkkx ysus okyksa dh lhrkef<+;ksa us /ku&tu ls lgk;rk dh Fkh A xk¡o&xk¡o esa
yksdxhr cus Fks A ftu tehankjksa us v¡xjstksa dk lkFk fn;k Fkk mudh HkRlZuk
vkSj tx g¡lkbZ gqbZ Fkh A nq%[k gS fd vktknh dh yM+kbZ esa lhrke<+h ds i;kZIr
;ksxnku ds ckotwn bfrgkl esa bldk ;fRdaafpr mYys[k gh gqvk gS A vkt ds
gh ugha vkusokyh ihf<+;ksa ds fy, Hkh vrhr dh mu ;knksa dks l¡tksus dh t#jr
gS] D;ksafd foLe`fr tkrh; thou dks tM+ksa ls dkV nsrh gS A

Lora=rk dh yM+kbZ dc ls izkjEHk gqbZ] bldk lqfuf'pr izek.k vuqiyC/k


gS A ge lu~ 1857 ds fonzksg] 1919 ds tfy;k¡okykckx ds tqYe] egkRek xka/kh ds
vlg;ksx&vkUnksyu ,oa ued lR;kxzg ds lkFk&lkFk lu~ 1942 ds *Hkkjr
NksM+ks vkUnksyu^ ds o`Ùkkarksa ls voxr gSa] fdUrq mu la?k"kkZsa esa lhrke<+h dh Hkwfedk
Hkqyk nh xbZ gS A vkt ml Hkwy dk ifjgkj vko';d gS A

1857 dk ns’k ds igys Lora=rk&laxzke esa lhrke<+h ds ;ksxnku ds bfrgkl dks


izFke [k¡xkyrs gq, jksekap gks tkrk gS fd fuf’aprrk] R;kx] la?k"kZ] ihM+k] vieku dh
rax xfy;ksa ls xqtjrs gq, dksbyh ukuiqj ds rRdkyhu tkxhjnkj 'ksj vyh [kkW¡
us vaxjsth 'kklu ds fo#) ryokj mBkbZ vkSj yM+rs&yM+rs 'kghn Hkh gks x;s A
;g nhxj gS fd usiky lhek ds ikl [kSjk xzke esa lM+d ds fdukjs cuh mudh
38

dcz ij 'kk;n gh dksbZ tkrk gks A u tkus D;ksa [kk¡ lkgc ds lkFk ;g pfjrkFkZ
ugha gks ik;k fd&

**'kghnksa ds etkjksa ij yxsaxs gj cjl esys]


oru ij ejusokyksa dk ;gh ckdh fu'kk¡ gksxkA^^

J)s; 'ksj [kk¡ dh dqjckuh ls gh lhrke<+h dh yksd&tkx`fr dh 'kq#vkr


gksrh gS ftldh ifj.kfr egkRek xk¡/kh ds vkanksyuksa esa bl {ks= dh Hkkxhnkjh esa
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA vktknh ds la?k"kZ esa ;gk¡ dh turk dh ml f'kdr dk
flagkoyksdu bfrgkl&ys[ku dks u;h fn'kk nsus ds fy, vko';d gS A

tc egkRek xk¡/kh us lu~ 1914 esa nf{k.k vÝhdk esa vkUnksyu izkjEHk fd;k
x;k Fkk rc lhrke<+h ds xjhc vkSj lk/ku&foghu yksxksa us vkuu&Qkuu esa pUns
dh Hkjiwj jkf’k ckyd`".k xks[kys ds ek/;e ls mUgsa fHktok;h Fkh A

vlg;ksx 18 ekpZ] 1919 dks ykxw fd;s x;s jkSysV ,DV ds fojks/k esa 6 vizSy] 1919
vkUnksyu dks lhrke<+h esa iw.kZ gM+rky jgh A lcls vge ckr ;g gS fd lhrke<+h esa
ftl dkaxszl dh LFkkiuk vDVwcj] 1920 esa gqbZ Fkh og tujy Mk;j }kjk
13 vizSy] 1919 dks tfy;k¡okyk ckx esa fd;s x;s ujlagkj dh izfrfØ;k Fkh A
fQj vk;k lu~ 1921 dk vlg;ksx&vkUnksyu] ftlesa yksxksa us [kqydj Hkkx fy;k
Fkk A mUgksaus ykfB;ksa&xksfy;ksa dk izgkj >syk rks canhx`gksa dh ;kruk,¡ Hkh >syh A
ljdkjh ukSdfj;ksa dks NksM+dj yksx lR;kxzg esa gq, A fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk
fdlkuksa us Hkh vkanksyu esa fgLlk fy;k A xk¡oksa esa fons'kh diM+ksa dh tedj gksyh
tyh A rc pj[ks vkSj [kknh ds oL= vktknh ds izrhd cu x, Fks A foyk;rh
oLrqvksa ds cfg"dkj esa lhrke<+h fdlh ls ihNs u Fkk A blus Lons'kh&vkanksyu
dks izHkwr 'kfDr nh Fkh A

vlg;ksx&vkanksyu dks Øwj 'kklu us jkSna us dh Hkjiwj dksf'k'k dh Fkh A


ml la?k"kZ esa lk/kughu yksx Hkh lfEefyr gq, Fks A ,sls dk;ZdrkZvksa vkSj muds
39

ifjokjksa dh vkfFkZd leL;k,¡ fodV Fkha ftuds lek/kku ds fy, lhrke<+h esa
*eqfB;k vkUnksyu^ 'kq# fd;k x;k Fkk A ?kj&?kj feV~Vh dh gafM;ka ck¡Vh xbZ
Fkha A mu ik=ksa esa ,d&,d eqV~Bh pkoy ;k vkVk fn;k tkrk Fkk vkSj tc os Hkj
tkrs Fks rc dk;ZdrkZ mUgsa ys tkrs Fks A turk esa ;g izpkj gks x;k Fkk fd
xk¡/khth fo".kq ds vorkj gSa] blfy, dqN yksx *eqfB;k^ dks *fc'kqu pqVdh^ dgus
yxs Fks A fo".kq ds uke ij gafM+;ksa esa pqVdh&pqVdh vUu bdV~Bk gksus yxk A
xk¡/khth dksbZ vorkj ugha Fks] ysfdu vf’k{kk ds dkj.k jktuSfrd vkUnksyu esa
/kkfeZd vU/kfo'okl izos’k dj x;k Fkk A dgha&dgha dk;ZdrkZvksa ds fy, lkewfgd
Hkkst dk bUrtke gksrk Fkk A cM+s&cM+s gaMksa esa pkoy idk;k tkrk FkkA og
tukUnksyu blh rjg tu&lg;ksx ij fuHkZj Fkk A

bl vkUnksyu ds Øe esa vusd ukStokuksa us viuh 'kkfn;ksa esa nku&ngst


ysus ls budkj dj fn;k Fkk A mudk dguk Fkk fd *;fn ngst gh nsuk pkgrs
gSa] rks X;kjg ;k bDdhl pj[ks cuokdj ns nhft, A^ ;s pj[ks xjhcksa esa ck¡Vs
tkrs FksA vusd yksxksa us u'kk djuk NksM+ fn;k A dbZ nqdkunkjksa us xk¡tk] Hkk¡x]
'kjkc dh viuh nqdkusas cUn dj nha A ftUgksaus ugha dha] mudh nqdkuksa ij
fidsfVax dh xbZ vkSj eknd inkFkkZsa dk foØ; #d x;k A vkUnksyu dh
O;kidrk dk gky ;g Fkk fd ?kj&?kj pj[ks pyus yxs A yksx rdyh ij lwr
dkrrs gq, cSBdksa ;k vU; vk;kstuksa esa 'kjhd gksrs Fks A pj[kk flQZ izfrjks/k dk
gh izrhd ugha] cfYd vkfFkZd LokoyEcu dk ek/;e Hkh cu x;k Fkk A

vlg;ksx vkUnksyu dk izkjEHk lhrke<+h esa fnlEcj]1920 esa gqvk


FkkA 25 tuojh ls 5 Qjojh] 1921 ds chp eqt¶Qjiqj ftyk esa ftu
56 vlg;ksx&lHkkvksa dk vk;kstu gqvk Fkk muesa la[;k dh n`f"V ls lhrke<+h
lcls vkxs Fkh A Qyr% bls iwjs frjgqr ize.My ds vlg;ksx vkUnksyu ds dsUnz
dk xkSjo izkIr gqvk FkkA lhrke<+h ds ,dek= ljdkjh gkbZ Ldwy ds f'k{kd
Jh tkudh izlkn oekZ us tuojh] 1921 esa R;kxi= ns fn;k A mudk uke
MWk0 jktsUnz izlkn }kjk ekpZ] 1921 esa izlkfjr vlg;ksxh v/;kidksa dh lwph esa
40

13osa Øekad ij vafdr gS A mDr ?kVuk dks v¡xjsth gqdwer us dkQh xEHkhjrk ls
fy;k Fkk] D;ksafd blds ckn gh csylaM Fkkus ds Jh Qrg cgknqj flag vkSj
Jh egsUnz flag odkyr rFkk blgkd lkgc eq[rkjh NksM+ dj LorU=rk&laxzke esa
dwn iM+s Fks A vkanksyu rst gksus yxk A 25 tuojh dks estjxat ds fngBh xzke
ds Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag dks fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k x;k vkSj muij lHkk djus vkSj
jktnzksg ds vkjksi yxk, x, A

rRdkyhu ,l-Mh-vks-] bZ-vks-yh us Bkdqj lkgc ds eqdnes dh lquokbZ


fngBh xzke esa gh djus dk fu’p; fd;k A tc fngBh esa mlus dksVZ yxk;k rks
eqdnes dh dk;Zokgh dks ns[kus lhrke<+h dh turk meM+ iM+h A ifjfLFkfro'k
eqdnes dh lquokbZ tSls&rSls djds Bkdqj lkgc dks 1914 ds *fMQsal vkWQ
bafM;k ,DV^ ds vUrxZr Ng ekg dh dSn dh ltk lquk dj tsy Hkst fn;k
x;kA Bkdqj jke uUnu flag ij pyk eqdnek lkjs Hkkjr esa vlg;ksx ds
flyflys esa pys lcls 'kq#vkrh eqdneksa esa ,d Fkk A bldh lwpuk tc ckgj
Hksth tkus yxh rc ,l-Mh-vks-&bZ-vks- yh us ,sls rkjksa ds izs"k.k ij jksd yxk nh]
D;ksafd mlds vuqlkj muesa ^^jktnzksgkRed Hkk"kk** O;og`r Fkh A blls vkUnksyu
ncus dh ctk; vkSj mxz gks x;k A 5 Qjojh] 1921 dks yh us /kkjk 144 ds
vUrxZr ,d xzke&laxBu dk dke djusokys czg~epkjh jkej{kk uked O;fDr dks
lhrke<+h vuqe.My esas dgha Hkh 5 ;k blls vf/kd yksxksa ds chp Hkk"k.k djus ls
jksd fn;k A ml ikcUnh us vkx esa ?kh dk dke fd;k A 5 Qjojh dks gh
lhrke<+h ds *f[kykQ ckx^ esa ,d cM+h lHkk gqbZ ftlesa ckcw ;nquUnu feJ us
^^fQjafx;k** uked izfl) dfork 5&6 gtkj yksxksa ds chp lquk;h Fkh A muls
yh us /kkjk 107 ds rgr ,d o"kZ rd 'kkfUr cuk;s j[kus ds fy, crkSj tekur
nks gtkj vkSj eqpydksa ds :i esa 1&1 gtkj #i;ksa dh ek¡x dh Fkh A

8 Qjojh] 1921 dks Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag dh fxjQ~rkjh ds fojks/k vkSj


vlg;ksx vkanksyu dh lQyrk ds fy, lhrke<+h ds [kuok ?kkV esa lHkk
gksusokyh Fkh A mls /kkjk 144 yxkdj ckf/kr fd;k x;k A tc ckcw fcUns’ojh
41

izlkn oekZ fnu esa yxHkx Ms<+ cts ogk¡ igq¡ps rks mu ij 14 fnuksa rd 10 ehy
ds bykds esa lHkk djus ij ikcUnh yxk nh x;h A yh us ujflag nkl uked
laU;klh dks tks lHkk esa Hkkx ysus vk;s Fks rekpk yxk;k vkSj eap ij j[kh
ekykvksa dks vius iSjksa ls dqpy fn;k A ujflag nkl fxjQ~rkj dj fy;s x;s
vkSj Hkkjrh; naM&lafgrk /kkjk 109¼102½] 88 ds vUrxZr muij eqdnek pyk;k
x;k A bl HkM+dkus okyh dkjZokbZ ds ckotwn ogk¡ ekStwn HkhM+ 'kkUr jgh A

10 Qjojh] 1921 dks lhrke<+h esa gky gh esa [kqys ,d jk"Vªh; Ldwy esa
,d lHkk vk;ksftr dh x;h A blesa eks- 'kQh nkÅnh Hkk"k.k djusokys Fks] exj
,l-Mh-vks- us fQj /kkjk 144 yxkdj muds lkFk&lkFk Hkonsoiqj ds lwjtnso ckcw]
lR;nso ckcw] Jh tkudh oekZ] ;nquUnu 'kekZ] jkeuUnu flag ¼f’k{kd½]
Jh czg~enso ukjk;.k vkfn dks 10 ;k vf/kd yksxksa dh tekr esa Hkk"k.k nsus ls
jksd fn;k A

ujflag nkl laU;klh dks rekpk yxkus vkSj Hkonsoiqj ds lwjtnso ckcw
rFkk lR;nso ckcw ds lkFk&lkFk Jh tkudh izlkn oekZ vkfn dks fdlh lHkk esa
Hkkx ugha ysus nsus dk dkj.k ;g Fkk fd ljdkj ugha pkgrh Fkh fd ;s nwljksa ds
fy, mnkgj.k cusa A ujflag nkl us dqN fnu iwoZ gh iqfyl ds flikgh dh
ukSdjh dks ykr ekj nh Fkh] tcfd tkudh izlkn oekZ rFkk jkeuUnu flag us
f’k{kd&in dk ifjR;kx fd;k Fkk A 12 Qjojh] 1921 dks 'kQh lkgc us tc
ujflag nkl ls tsy esa feyus dh vuqefr ek¡xh rks og ugha nh x;h A

dqN gh fnuksa ds vanj vlg;ksx ds flyflys esa cgqr lkjs dk;ZdrkZ


fxjQ~rkj dj fy;s x;s A uUnyky >k ¼vnkSjh½] equhyky flag ¼fljfl;k½ eFkqjk
izlkn flag ¼[kSjok niZ½ vkSj czg~enso ukjk;.k ¼ljS;k¡½ fxjQ~rkj gks pqds Fks A
6 Qjojh] 1921 dks lhrke<+h ds ,l-Mh-vks- us pkSdhnkjksa ds ;wfu;uksa ds v/;{kksa
ds uke fuEufyf[kr vk’k; dh lwpuk tkjh dh &
42

^^eq>s bldh lwpuk feyh gS fd vusd xk¡oksa esa vlarq"V O;fDr;ksa ds }kjk
tks vius dks vlg;ksxh dgrs gSa] xzke lHkkvksa dh LFkkiuk dh x;h gS A
,sls yksx ,oa laxBu u dsoy vijkf/k;ksa dks cpkrs ,oa mudh lgk;rk
djrs gSa] cfYd pksjh] tcju olwyh vkSj jS;rksa dks ekyxqtkjh rFkk
pkSdhnkjh VSDl ugha nsus dks mRlkfgr djrs gSa] blfy;s bu cfLr;ksa esa
vfrfjDr pkSdhnkjksa dh fu;qfDr djds dkuwu dh 'kfDr dks etcwr cukuk
t:jh gks x;k gS A
vr% lHkh v/;{k ;Fkk’kh?kz lhrke<+h Fkkuk ds c[kjh rFkk f’kogj
Fkkuk ds egqvfj;k tSls minzoxzLr xk¡oksa ds uke lwfpr djsa A eSa vkerkSj
ij ftrus pkSdhnkj xk¡oksa esa jgrs gSa muds pkSxqus rd fu;qDr djus dks
rS;kj gw¡ A
vfrfjDr pkSdhnkjksa dh fu;qfDr ds QyLo:i tks vfrfjDr
pkSdhnkjh dj yxk;k tk;sxk ;FkklEHko bldk Hkkj ,sls yksxksa vkSj {ks=ksa
ij iM+uk pkfg;s tgk¡ xSj dkuwuh dkjZokb;ksa ls oSlk djuk t:jh gks
x;k gks A**

bl vkifÙktud ifji= dh rh[kh vkykspuk fcgkj&mM+hlk&fo/kku&


ifj"kn~ esa dh xbZ A

mDr ifji= ls vkUnksyu dh lQyrk ij izdk’k iM+rk gS A ;gk¡ cgqr


lkjs eqdnes iapk;rksa esa gh fucVk;s tkus yxs ftlls ljdkjh jktLo esa dkQh
deh vk;h A u’kkcUnh vkUnksyu Hkh [kwc tksj ls pyk A ikfl;ksa us rkM+h pqvkuk
NksM+ fn;k rks dbZ us gqDdk ihuk rd cUn dj fn;k A blls Hkh ljdkjh jktLo
esa dkQh deh vk;h A

egkRek xk¡/kh us bl vkUnksyu dh izxfr dh leh{kk djrs gq, 2 ekpZ]


1921 dks ^^;ax bf.M;k** esa fy[kk &

^^fcgkj mu izkUrksa esa gS tgk¡ vlg;ksx&vkUnksyu ds lUnHkZ esa cgqr gh


Bksl dke fd;k tk jgk gS A mlds usrk vfgalk dh lPph izd`fr ij[krs
43

gSa A bl izkUr esa 'kqf)dkjh dk;Z dk ,d xfjeke; bfrgkl jgk gS A


u’kkcUnh vkUnksyu us ;gk¡ bruh yEch Mxsa Hkjh gSa fd vkcdkjh jktLo esa
i;kZIr deh gksus dh lEHkkouk gS A f’k{kk&lEcU/kh vkUnksyu Hkh vR;f/kd
izxfr dj jgk gS A -------- fcgkj esa neu lcls vf/kd gS A**

31 ekpZ vkSj 1 vizSy] 1921 dks enzkl ds cStokM+k uked LFkku esa dkaxzsl
dh cSBd gqbZ ftlesa vlg;ksx&vkUnksyu ls lfou; voKk dks tksM+rs gq,
'kkfUriw.kZ laxBu ,oa jpukRed dk;ZØe dk izLrko j[kk x;k A fo’kq)
jpukRed dk;ZØe esa ftu rhu ckrksa ij /;ku dsfUnzr j[kus dks dgk x;k os
Fks& vf[ky Hkkjrh; fryd&LojkT;&dks"k esa ,d djksM+ dh /kujkf’k dk laxzg]
dkaxzsl esas ,d djksM+ lnL;ksa dks ykuk rFkk xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh {ks=ksa esa 20 yk[k
pj[ks pyokuk A

mu dkekssa dks iwjk djus ds fy, 30 twu] 1921 dh frfFk fu/kZkfjr dh


x;h A

fcgkj ds fy, 9]42]000 lnL; cukus ds vykok 9]42]000 #i, bdV~Bk


djus vkSj 1]88]000 pj[kksa dk y{; fu/kkZfjr gqvk Fkk A vkcknh ds vk/kkj ij
eqtQ~Qjiqj ds fy, ,d yk[k #i;s r; fd, x, Fks A

;g mYys[k djrs gq, dkQh xoZ gks jgk gS fd dk;ZdrkZvksa ds vnE;


mRlkg ls eqtQ~Qiqj ftys }kjk fu/kkZfjr vof/k esa tks dqy 96]000@& #i;s
bdV~Bs gq, Fks muesa 37]000@& #i;s lhrke<+h ls gh bdB~Bs gq, Fks A blds
vfrfjDr gkthiqj ls 20]000-00 rFkk 'ks"k 39]000-00 #i;s eqtQ~Qjiqj 'kgj ,oa
lnj ls izkIr gq, Fks A

lhrke<+h esa dkaxzsl ds 20]000-00 Lo;alsod rS;kj fd;s x;s A cStokM+k


dkaxzsl ds rhljs dk;ZØe pj[kk ds izpkj dks iwjk djus esa dk;ZdrkZ tqV x, A
?kj&?kj pj[ks ck¡Vs x;s A [kknh izpkj dk FkksM+k cgqr dke rks lhrke<+h ds gj Fkkus
esa pyk] exj iqijh vkSj f’kogj pj[kk vkSj [kknh izpkj ds eq[; dsUnz cus A
44

vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh cSBd cEcbZ esa 28&30 tqykbZ] 1921
rd pyh Fkh A mlesa 30 flrEcj]1921 rd fons’kh oL=ksa ds iw.kZ cfg"dkj dk
tks dk;ZØe fu/kkZfjr gqvk Rkk mls loZizFke lhrke<+h esa gh dk;kZfUor djrs gq,
fons’kh oL=ksa dks tyk;k x;k A

vkUnksyu ds nkSjku bax~ySaM ds jktdqekj fizUl vkWQ osYl dk Hkkjr esa


inkiZ.k gqvk A dkaxzsl us muds vkxeu dk fojks/k fd;k A cEcbZ esa dkaxzsl ds
Lo;alsodksa us dkys >aMksa ls mudk Lokxr fd;k] QyLo:i dkaxzsl ds lkjs usrk
fxjQ~rkj fd;s tkus yxs A

lhrke<+h esa 3 uoEcj] 1921 dks tc cfg"dkj&fnol euk;k x;k rc


ckck ujflag nkl ,oa vU; dks fxjQ~rkj djds eqtQ~Qjiqj Hkst fn;k x;k A
mUgsa ,d lky dSn dh ltk gqbZ A

27&28 fnlEcj]1921 dks vgenkckn esa dkaxzsl dk 36ok¡ vf/kos’ku gqvk A


fcgkj ls 558 izfrfuf/k blesa Hkkx ysus x;s ftuesa 22 lhrke<+h ftys ds Fks A

vgenkckn vf/kos’ku ds ,d izLrko esa dgk x;k Fkk fd tc rd


iatkc ds vR;kpkjksa ds izfrdkj vkSj f[kykQr ds mís’; gkfly ugha gksrs rFkk
LojkT; dh LFkkiuk ugha gksrh rc rd dakxzsl vfgald vlg;ksx dh vksj vf/kd
mRlkg ls pyus dks d`rladYi gSA blh Øe esa Lo;alsod laLFkkvksa ds lnL;ksa
dks 'kkfUriw.kZ <ax ls fxjQ~rkj gksus dks dgk x;k Fkk A

b/kj fcgkj ljdkj ds eq[; lfpo us 9 fnlEcj] 1921 dks lHkh ftys ds
eftLVªsVksa dks ,d ifji= tkjh dj vlg;ksx vfHk;ku dk izfrjks/k djus dk
vkns’k ns fn;k A 19 fnlEcj dks ^^dkaxszl Lo;alsod f[kykQr Lo;alsod**]
^^vlg;ksx Lo;alsod** vkSj ^^lsodny** vkfn dks xSj dkuwuh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k
x;k A
45

lhrke<+h ds izR;sd Fkkus esa Hkkjh la[;k esa dkaxzsl ds dk;ZdrkZ vkSj
Lo;alsod fxjQ~rkj fd;s tkus yxs] fdUrq turk dk mRlkg eUn ugha gqvk A
nwjLFk xk¡oksa ds yksx xBjh&eksVjh fy, dpgfj;ksa esa vkus yxs vkSj dgus yxs
fd ge dkaxzsl ds Lo;alsod gSa] ge Hkh tsy tk;saxs A

eqtQ~Qjiqj ds rRdkyhu ftyk dysDVj us tc Hkkjh la[;k esa xzkeh.kksa


dks fxjQ~rkj gksus dks vkeknk ns[kk rks fxjQ~rkjh jksd nh A

iqjkus lHkh dk;ZdrkZvksa ds fxjQ~rkj gks tkus ij u;s Lo;alsodksa vkSj


dk;ZdrkZvksa us vlg;ksx dk dk;ZØe l¡HkkykA dke rsth ls vkxs c<+us yxk A
;g ns[kdj eqtQ~Qjiqj ds dysDVj us 6&7 Qjojh]1922 dks ,d i= fy[kdj
fcgkj&mM+hlk ljdkj ds iqfyl vkbZ-th- ls vfrfjDr iqfyl cy dh ek¡x dh]
QyLo:i lhrke<+h Fkkuk esa 50 vfrfjDr iqfyl ds tokuksa rFkk ?kqM+lokj iqfyl
ds ,d nLrs dks x’r yxkus ds fy, rSukr dj fn;k x;k A

lhrke<+h esa vfrfjDr iqfyl ds inLFkkiu dh HkRlZuk djrs gq, ^^enj


yS.M** us fy[kk &

^^vc lhrke<+h esa vfrfjDr iqfyl cSBkus ds fu.kZ; dh vksj ns[ksa A ;g


fdlfy,\ lEHkkfor djcUnh ds fo#) ,gfr;krh dkjZokbZ ds fy, \
ljdkj ;g vkjksi ugha djrh gS fd turk us djcUnh vkUnksyu 'kq: dj
fn;k gS A og mlls Lo;a gh ?kcM+kbZ gqbZ gS A**

dkaxzsl dk vlg;ksxewyd lfou; voKk vkUnksyu rsth ls c<+rk tk jgk


Fkk A lhrke<+h esa lSdM+ksa vkSj iwjs ns’k esa dkaxzsl ds izk;% rhl gtkj dk;ZdrkZ
fxjQ~rkj gks pqds Fks A egkRek xk¡/kh dks NksM+ ns’k ds lkjs usrk tsyksa esa cUn
Fks A iwjs ns’k dk eukscy cgqr Å¡pk Fkk vkSj yxrk Fkk fd nks&pkj fnuksa esa
LojkT; fey gh tk;sxk fd vpkud 4 tuojh]1922 dks xksj[kiqj ftys ds
pkSjh&pkSjk uked LFkku esa fgalk dh ,d nqHkkZX;iw.kZ ?kVuk ?kV x;h vkSj xk¡/kh
46

th us lQyrk ds }kj rd igq¡ps gq, vkUnksyu dks okil ys fy;k A xk¡/kh th


}kjk vkUnksyu dh okilh Hkkjh fookn dk dkj.k Hkh cuh A

24 rFkk 25 Qjojh]1922 dks fnYyh esa gqbZ dkaxzsl desVh esa xk¡/kh us vc
dsoy jpukRed dk;ZØe lkeus j[kk tks fuEufyf[kr Fkk & ¼1½ pj[kk rFkk
dj?kk izlkj] ¼2½ vNwrks)kj] ¼3½ jk"Vªh; Ldwyksa dh LFkkiuk] ¼4½ dkaxzsl esa lnL;ksa
dh HkrhZ vkSj ¼5½ xzke iapk;rksa dh LFkkiuk A

vkUnksyu dh okilh vkSj jpukRed dk;ZØe ij tksj nsus ds ckotwn


10 ekpZ] 1922 dks xk¡/kh th fxjQ~rkj dj fy;s x;s A 18 ekpZ dks vgenkckn esa
dsoy Ms<+ ?k.Vs dh lquokbZ ds ckn mUgsa Ng lky dh dSn dh ltk lquk nh
x;h A vHkh dqN gh eghus iwoZ rd xk¡/kh dks Nwuk Hkh ljdkj ds fy, eqf’dy
Fkk] fdUrq vkUnksyu dh okilh ls muds izfr vLFkk;h :i ls mHkjs vkØks’k dk
Qk;nk mBkrs gq, yWkMZ jhfMax ds iz’kklu us mUgsa fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k A muij
ljdkj ds fo#) fo}s"k QSykus dk vkjksi yxk;k x;k A

fnlEcj] 1922 esas lhrke<+h ds fxjQ~rkj dk;ZdrkZ tsy ls fjgk gksdj


vk;s A blh eghus x;k esa dkaxzsl dk lSarhlok¡ vf/kos’ku ns’kcU/kq fprjatu nkl
dh v/;{krk esa gqvk A dkaxzsl esa dkmafly esa izos’k ds iz’u dks ysdj usrkvksa ds
nks ny gks x;s A nkl lkgc vkSj muds ny okys pkgrs Fks fd mlesa dkaxzsl
Hkkx ys ,oa vius euksuhr lnL;ksa dks Hksts A Jh jktxksikypkjh bldk fojks/k
djrs Fks A ia- eksrhyky usg: vkSj ia- enueksgu ekyoh; us nkl lkgc dk lkFk
fn;k] exj thr jktxksikykpkjh dh gqbZ A lh-vkj- nkl us dkaxzsl ls bLrhQk
nsdj ^^LojkT; ikVhZ** dk xBu fd;k A nks o"kksZa ds ckn tc xk¡/kh th tsy ls
NwVs rks dkaxzsl us Hkh blh uhfr dks Lohdkj fd;k A

1923 esa ifjfLFkfr;k¡ cny x;ha A vkUnksyu okil gks pqdk Fkk A
eqtQ~Qjiqj esa E;qfufliSfyVh dk igyk pquko gqvk A
47

lu~ 1926 esa fcgkj fo/kku ifj"kn rFkk fo/kku lHkk ds tc pquko gq, rc
rRdkyhu eqtQ~Qjiqj ftys ls ,lsEcyh ds fy, eks0 'kQh nkÅnh vkSj ckcw
';kekpj.k flag rFkk dkmafly ds fy, lnj ls ckcw jken;kyq flag] gkthiqj ls
ckcw nhiukjk;.k flag vkSj lhrke<+h ls Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag fuokZfpr gq, Fks A

xk¡/kh dk egkRek xkWa/kh us tuojh]1927 esa nwljh ckj fcgkj dk nkSjk


vkxeu
fd;k A os 29] tuojh]1927 dks eqtQ~Qjiqj vk;s A bl Øe esa gh
31 tuojh]1927 dks egkRek xk¡/kh loZizFke lhrke<+h igq¡ps A mu ds Lokxr ds
fy, lhrke<+h ls lVs Hkonsoiqj ds lwjtnso ukjk;.k flag ,oa lR;nso ukjk;.k
flag & nksuksa Hkkb;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag }kjk HkO; rS;kjh dh xbZ
Fkh A ckck ujflag nkl vkSj ckcw jRus’ojh uUnu flag Hkh muds Lokxr esa yxs
Fks A dejkSyh ds ckcw oklqnso izlkn oekZ [kknh ds /kksrh&dqjrs esa viuh QksMZ
xkM+h ysdj lhrke<+h LVs’ku ij eqLrSn FksA cSjxfu;k dh vksj ls xk¡/kh th LVs’ku
ij mrjs vkSj QksMZ xkM+h ij cSBdj jRus’ojh ckcw rFkk oklqnso ckcw ds lkFk
f’kogj ds fy, izLFkku dj x;s tgk¡ ckcw uokc flag us xk¡/kh th ds Lokxr dh
tksjnkj rS;kjh dj j[kh Fkh A jk"Vªh; Ldwy ds if’pe egUFk mfnr nkl ds [ksr
esa ,d Å¡pk eap cuk;k x;k Fkk A xk¡/khth us lcls igys jk"Vªh; Ldwy esa
ikfjrksf"kd&forj.k dk dk;Z lEiUu fd;k A rRi’pkr~ os eap ij vk;s A f’kogj
esa yk[kksa dh HkhM+ mUgsa ns[kus&lquus tqV vk;h Fkh A f’kogj esa FkSyh Lo:i mUgsa
739-00 #i;s fn;s x;s A lkFk gh lHkk esa 312 #i;s] ukS vkus vkSj Ng ikbZ dh
jkf’k ,d= djds mUgsa nh x;h A os mlh fnu lhrke<+h ykSV vk;s vkSj Bkdqj
jkeuUnu flag }kjk LVs’ku jksM ij muds gh fufeÙk cuok;s x;s iDds [kijSy
edku esa Bgjs A lhrke<+h 'kgj esa mUgsa 832 #i;s vkB vkus dh FkSyh rFkk lHkk
ls 631 #i;s nks vkus vkSj ,d iSls dh jkf’k bdV~Bh djds nh x;h A blds iwoZ
mudh lHkk cSjxfu;k esa gks pqdh Fkh A ogk¡ Hkh mUgsa FkSyh HksaV dh x;h A mlh
fnu lhrke<+h esa ckiw ds dj&deyksa ls ujflag nkl ds vukFkky; dk
f’kykU;kl gqvk A
48

fdlkuksa dks laxfBr djus ds mn~ns’; ls 1928 esa rRdkyhu eqtQ~Qjiqj


ftys dk jktuSfrd lEesyu lhrke<+h esa vk;ksftr fd;k x;k A dk;ZdrkZvksa dks
izf’k{k.k nsus ds fy, nks lIrkg iwoZ gh gkthiqj ds HkkbZ fd’kksjh izlUu flag dks
cqyk fy;k x;k ftudks izkUrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh vksj ls igys fgUnqLrkuh
lsokny dh Vªsfuax ds fy, gqcyh ¼enzkl½ Hkstk x;k Fkk A bu fnuksa os cM+s
yksdfiz; gks jgs Fks A mUgksaus lhrke<+h esa cgqr lkjs Lo;alsod rS;kj fd;s A

bl lEesyu dk mn~?kkVu ljnkj oYyHk HkkbZ iVsy us fd;kA nwj&nwj ls


fdlku Hkkjh la[;k esa Hkkx ysus igq¡ps Fks A lEesyu esa iVsy vusd fo"k;ksa ij
cksys] exj mUgksaus fcgkj dh xUnxh dks dkQh dkslk vkSj yksxksa dks blds fy,
QVdkj yxkbZ A muds Hkk"k.k ls fdlkuksa esa dkQh tkx`fr vk;h A

31 fnlEcj]1929 dh e/; jkf= dks ykgkSj dakxzsl ds vf/kos’ku esa dkaxzsl


us iw.kZ LojkT; dks izkIr djuk viuk eq[; y{; ?kksf"kr fd;k A fo/kkuoknh
dk;ksZa ls vc dkaxzsl Åc pqdh Fkh vkSj ns’k ds ukStokuksa dk cM+k oxZ iw.kZ
Lora=rk ls dqN Hkh de ysus dks rS;kj ugha Fkk A ;g vf/kos’ku iafMr tokgj
yky usg: ds lHkkifrRo esa gqvk Fkk A blh vf/kos’ku esa dkaxzsl dks tc vkSj
tgk¡ pkgs lR;kxzg rFkk djcUnh vkUnksyu pykus dk vf/kdkj fn;k x;k Fkk A
;gha r; gqvk fd vkxkeh 26 tuojh dks iwjs ns’k esa Lok/khurk&fnol euk;k
tk; vkSj ;g Hkh fuf’pr gqvk fd tks yksx dkmafly vkfn ds esEcj gSa os viuk
bLrhQk ns nsa vkSj lR;kxzg dh rS;kjh esa yx tk;sa A

lhrke<+h ls ykgkSj x;s izfrfuf/k tuojh]1930 esa okil ykSV vk;s vkSj
ykSVrs gh mUgksaus lhrke<+h ds gj Fkkus esa vkanksyu dk fcxqy Q¡wduk vkjEHk
fd;k A Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us fcgkj fo/kku&ifj"kn~ dh lnL;rk ls bLrhQk ns
fn;k vkSj os xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwe dj yksxksa esa tks’k Hkjus yxs A igyk dk;ZØe 26
tuojh dks Lok/khurk&fnol eukuk Fkk A lhrke<+h ds gj Fkkus esas mldh
tksjnkj rS;kjh gksus yxh A lhrke<+h] iqijh vkSj cSjxfu;k esa dk;ZdrkZvksa us
49

jk"Vªh; frjaxk >aMk ysdj izHkkr Qsjh djuh 'kq# dj nh A lhrke<+h 'kgj esa vHkh
u;s&u;s vk;s MWkDVj jkek’kh"k Bkdqj ds usr`Ro esa izHkkr Qsjh dk dk;ZØe pyus
yxk A bu Qsfj;ksa dk cgqr vlj gqvk A

dk;ZdrkZvksa ds vFkd ifjJe dk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd xk¡o&xk¡o esa


Lok/khurk&fnol eukus dk tks’k txk A

26 tuojh] 1930 dks lhrke<+h uxj esas Jh lwjtnso ukjk;.k flag] Jh


lR;nso ukjk;.k flag ,oa Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us vkSj f’kogj esa ckcw fcUns’ojh
izlkn oekZ us frjaxk Qgjk;k vkSj Lora=rk dk izfrKk&i= i<+k tks ;g Fkk fd
^^ge Hkkjrokfl;ksa dks Loar=rk izkIr djus dk vfoPNsn~; vf/kdkj gS] D;ksafd
fczfV’k 'kklu ls Hkkjr dk vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd] uSfrd rFkk lkaLd`frd iru gqvk
gS A** izfrKk&i= esa lR;kxzg vkfn vfgald mik;ksa ls Lora=rk izkIr djus dk
n`<+ ladYi O;Dr fd;k x;k Fkk A

ml fnu lhrke<+h esa gtkjksa yksx izkr% gh ugk&/kksdj vkSj lkQ diM+s
igu dj bdV~Bk gq, vkSj mUgksaus frjaxs >aMs dks Qgjkrs&ygjkrs ns[kk A ,slk gh
mRlkg f’kogj esa Hkh Fkk tgk¡ NksVs&NksVs cPps gkFkksa esa frjaxk fy;s vkSj >aMk
xhr xkrs ckcw uokc flag ds usr`Ro esa egqvfj;k ls vk;s Fks A vthc utkjk Fkk !

15 Qjojh] 1930 dks vgenkckn esa dkaxzsl dk;Zdkfj.kh dh ,d


,sfrgkfld cSBd gqbZ A blesa Lora=rk izkIr djus ds fy, lfou; voKk vkjEHk
djus dk izLrko ikl gqvk vkSj egkRekth dks vf/kdkj ns fn;k x;k fd os tc
vkSj tgk¡ pkgsa bls vkjEHk djsa A

ia- tokgj yky usg: fcgkj ds pkj fnolh; nkSjs ij ekpZ]1930 esa
tc vk;s rc lhrke<+h esa Hkh mudk dk;ZØe gqvk A mudh lHkk ds fy,
tkudh&LFkku ds lehi ehuk cktkj esa eap cuk;k x;k Fkk A bl lHkk dh
v/;{krk Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us dh Fkh A blh lHkk esa v/;{k dk uke izLrkfor
djrs gq, ckcw jken;kyq flag us dgk Fkk fd vxj Hkkjr dks ia0 eksrhyky
50

ds iq= tokgj yky ij ukt gS rks lhrke<+h dks Hkh ckcw uokc flag ds iq=
Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag ij ukt gS A muds Lokxr esa ckcw jkeuUnu flag us ;g
xhr xk;k Fkk&

**Hkkjr dk Madk vkye esa] ctok;k ohj tokgj us A


Lok/khu cuks] Lok/khu cuks] fl[kyk;k ohj tokgj us A^^

tokgjyky th dks Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag ds LVs’ku jksM fLFkr


Lojkt&vkJe esa muds fy, fo’ks"k :i ls cuok;s x;s Hkou esa Bgjk;k x;k Fkk
tks vkt Hkh mlh :i esa lqjf{kr gS A tokgjyky th us vius Hkk"k.k esa iw.kZ
LojkT; tks vkg~oku fd;k Fkk] og lhrke<+h ds ?kj&?kj eas izfr/ofur gqvk A

ued lu~ 1930&32 dk vkUnksyu *ued lR;kxzg^ uke ls fo[;kr gS A egkRek


lR;kxzg xk¡/kh dk ;g lR;kxzg vkUnksyu vHkwriwoZ Fkk A mudk dguk Fkk fd ftl
ns’k ds vke vkneh dh jkstkuk vkenuh 2 vkuk vkSj mlds ok;ljk; dk osru
700 #i;s gks] ;g ljklj vU;k; vkSj 'kks"k.k gS A ml ij ljdkj ued ij dj
yxkrh vkSj ,dkf/kdkj dk;e djrh gS] vr% ge ued cukdj ljdkj dh
euekuh dks [kRe djsaxs A xk¡/khth us ,d yEch in;k=k ds ckn leqnz ds fdukjs
Mk¡Mh esa ued dkuwu rksM+dj bldk lw=ikr fd;kA euq"; ds bfrgkl esa
yEch&yEch ;k=kvksa dk mYys[k feyrk gSA ,slh ;k=k,¡ izk;% Kku dh [kkst]
/keZ&izpkj] yksxksa dks vkil esa tksM+us vkSj muds nq%[k&nnZ dks nwj djus ds fy,
dh xbZ Fkha A egkRek cq)] vkfn 'kadjkpk;Z rFkk vusd lUr&egkRekvksa &
fo'ks"kr% xq# ukud vkSj vU; fl[k xq#vksa dh ;k=k,¡ yksdizfl) gSa A nwljs ns'kksa
ls vusd [kksth fo}ku~ bl ns'k esa vk, vkSj ;gk¡ ls vusd yksx oekZ ¼vc
E;kaekj½] phu] dksfj;k] tkiku vkfn nwj ns'kksa esa x, A dfo dkfynkl vkSj
rqylhnkl us Hkh [kwc ;k=k,¡ dhaA vk/kqfud dky esa jkgqy lkad`R;k;u viuh
;k=kvksa ds fy, tkus tkrs gSa] ijUrq v¡xjstksa dh gqdwer ds fo#) xk¡/khth dh
;g in;k=k vU;re Fkh A nwljs ns'kksa esa foxzg iSnk djus vkSj mu ij fot;
izkIr djus ds fy, fldUnj] usiksfy;u] paxst [kk¡] ukfnj'kkg rFkk vU;
51

vkØe.kdkfj;ksa us cM+h&cM+h ;k=k,¡ dh gSa A bZLV bafM;k dEiuh Hkh yEch ;k=k
djds ;gk¡ O;kikj djus vkbZ vkSj mlus fn, x, O;kikfjd vf/kdkjksa dk
nq:i;ksx djds gesa xqykeh dh tathjksa esa tdM+ fn;k A izdk'k vkSj vU/kdkj
QSykusokyh bu nks fdLe dh ;k=kvksa dk Hksn loZfofnr gSa A

ued lR;kxzg us xjhc turk dks vktknh ds vkUnksyu ls HkyhHkk¡fr tksM+


fn;k Fkk A bldk izosx iwoZorhZ vkUnksyuksa ls vf/kd Fkk A lhrke<+h dk vapy
ued dkuwu rksM+us esa vxz.kh Fkk A ;gk¡ /kM+Yys ls ued curk Fkk vkSj mldh
uhykeh gksrh Fkh A yksx QkSju ml ued dks [kjhn ysrs Fks A ukStoku mRlkfgr
Fks A gqdwer us ued lR;kxzfg;ksa ij [kwc tqYe <k,A yksxksa dks ljsvke csarksa
ls ihVk x;k A os gj izgkj ij *bUdykc ftUnkckn^ ds ukjs yxkrs Fks A fdrus
ekj [kkrs&[kkrs csgks'k gks x,] exj mUgsa dksbZ rkdr >qdk ugha ikbZ A ftl ns'k
dh turk bruh fgEerh gks mls dkSu vf/kd fnuksa rd xqyke cuk, j[k ldrk
gS A

12 ekpZ] 1930 dks iwoZ fu’p; ds vuqlkj ued dkuwu dks Hkax djus
ds fy, lR;kxzgh xk¡/khth us viuh ,sfrgkfld ;k=k vkjEHk dh ftls ^MkaMh ekpZ^
dgk tkrk gS A tSls&tSls os iSny c<+rs x;s ns’k esa mRdV mRlkg Nkus yxk A
lHkh cM+h mRlqdrk ls Hkkoh ?kVuk dh izrh{kk djus yxs A lkjs ns’k esa ,d
Nksj&ls&nwljs Nksj rd ØkfUr dh ygj QSy x;h A

fcgkj izkUrh; dkaxzsl us 6 vizSy ls fcgkj esa ued&lR;kxzg vkjEHk djus


dk fu’p; fd;k A fcgkj izkUrh; dkaxzsl dh cSBd esa lHkkifr MWk0 jktsUnz izlkn
us tc ;g iwNk fd eqtQ~Qjiqj esa ;g lR;kxzg dgk¡ ls vkjEHk gks rks ckcw uokc
flag us lhrke<+h ls bls vkjEHk djus dk vuqjks/k fd;k ftls Lohdkj dj fy;k
x;k A ;gk¡ 13 vizSy dks ued&lR;kxzg dh frfFk fuf’pr dh x;h A

13 vizSy dks ued&lR;kxzg dh cM+h Hkkjh rS;kjh dh xbZ A lkspk x;k


fd pqipki ued cukus esa D;k gS A cus rks ,slk fd rgydk ep tk; A funku]
52

lSdM+ksa dk;ZdrkZvksa dks xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwe dj tu&tkxj.k dk funsZ’k fn;k x;k A


f’kogj dkaxzsl vkJe ls lVs egUFk mfnr nkl dh pkj dV~Bk tehu bl dk;Z
ds fy, [kjhnh x;h vkSj f’kogj ds jk"Vªh; Ldwy dks lR;kxzg dk dsanz cuk fn;k
x;k vkSj ogk¡ ,d cksMZ yxk fn;k x;k A ued cukus ds fy, tks u;h tehu
[kjhnh x;h Fkh ml ij ^^ued xkM+h** dk cksMZ Vk¡x dj yksxksa us Li"Vr% viuh
cxkor dks foKkfir fd;k Fkk A

f’kogj esa 13 vizSy dks gtkjksa L=h&iq#"k bl vn~Hkqr lR;kxzg dks ns[kus
bdV~Bk gks x;s A 6 vizSy dks gh eqtQ~Qjiqj ls iSny py dj ,d ny ckcw
tud/kkjh izlkn ds usr`Ro esa fiNyh jkr f’kogj vk;k Fkk A izkUrh; dkaxzsl us
blh fnu lR;kxzg vkjEHk djus dk funsZ’k fn;k Fkk A ,d cts fnu esa lHkh
yksx f’kogj ds gtkjhckx uked LFkku esa ,d= gq, tgk¡ lHkk dk vk;kstu
fd;k x;k Fkk A igys ckcw jken;kyq flag] fQj Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us Hkk"k.k
fn;k A Bkdqj lkgc us dgk fd xk¡/khth NksVs dke ls dk;ZØe vkjEHk djrs gSa]
ij mlds vUnj egku~ y{; fNik gksrk gS A ,slk gh dke gS ued cukuk A

djhc rhu cts fnu esa ued cukus dk dk;Z vkjEHk gqvk A viwoZ mRlkg
Fkk] exj ljdkj Hkh fLFkfr ls fucVus dks rS;kj cSBh Fkh A ogk¡ Hkkjh la[;k esa
iqfyl rSukr Fkh A vkrad dk okrkoj.k Fkk A ued tSls gh cuk iqfyl us ckcw
tud/kkjh izlkn dks fxjQ~rkj dj fy;kA fQj ckjh&ckjh ls ny ds lHkh lnL;
fxjQ~rkj gks x;s A mu cafn;ksa esa jken;kyq ckcw] ckcw uokc flag vkSj Bkdqj
jkeuUnu flag tSls iz[;kr O;fDr Hkh Fks A tc mUgsa f’kogj Fkkuk esa ys tk;k
x;k rks ogk¡ gtkjksa O;fDr bdV~Bk gks x;s A Bkdqj lkgc us Fkkuk dh Nr ij
p<+ dj lc ls ?kj ykSVus dk vkxzg fd;k A muds funsZ’k ds ckn gh yksx
okil ykSVs A

cafn;ksa dks jkrksa&jkr csylaM ys tk;k x;k A ogk¡ ls nwljs fnu :Uuh
lSniqj ds ,d cxhps esa ys tkdj muds eqdnes dh pqipki lquok;h dh x;h A
53

Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag dks Ms<+ lky dh dSn dh ltk gqbZ tcfd ckcw uokc flag
dks Ng eghusa dSn dh ltk lquk;h x;h A

nwljs fnu iqu% f’kogj esa ued cuk A blds ckn rks lhrke<+h ds
xk¡o&xk¡o esa ued lR;kxzg gksus yxkA ued cukus ds igys yksx ljdkj dks
^^vYVhesVe** ns nsrs Fks A lkjs ns’k ds lkFk lhrke<+h esa Hkh viwoZ tkx`fr vk;h
Fkh A exj bl ckj 1920*&22 ds foijhr ljdkj us izeq[k usrkvksa vkSj
dk;ZdrkZvksa dks gh fxjQ~rkj djus dh uhfr viuk;h FkhA ,d ljdkjh vkns’k esa
dgk x;k Fkk fd lR;kxzfg;ksa dks turk dh lgkuqHkwfr ikus dk ekSdk
de&ls&de fn;k tk; A ljdkjh neupØ rsth ls pyk A 25 vizSy] 1930 dks
fcV~By HkkbZ iVsy us ok;ljk; dks fy[kk & ^^gtkjksa yksx viuh tku nsus ,oa
yk[kksa yksx tsy tkus dks rS;kj gSa A** lR;kxzfg;ksa dh rkdr dh vksj ladsr
djrs gq, egkRek xk¡/kh us ^^;ax bf.M;k** esa fy[kk & ^^Mk;jokn Hkh blds lkeus
ux.; gS A turk dk dÙkZO; Li"V gS A mls bl laxfBr xqaMkxnhZ dk tokc
egku~ d"V lgu ds :i esa nsuk gS A**

eqt¶Qjiqj esa lhrke<+h ds efg"kk<+ xzke ds MWk0 jketh izlkn oekZ vkSj
jkeruqd nsoh dks fxjQ~rkj fd;k x;k A 4 ebZ] 1930 dh vk/kh jkr dks MkaMh
ls 3 ehy nwj djknh f’kfoj esa fczfV’k ljdkj us egkRek xk¡/kh dks pksjksa dh rjg
fNidj fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k A bl fxj¶rkjh dh lkjs ns’k esa rhoz izfrfØ;k gqbZ A
lhrke<+h esa nwljs fnu gM+rky jgh] tqywl fudyk vkSj lHkk,W¡ gqbZaA ukStokuksa us
muesa fo’ks"k :i ls Hkkx fy;k A

ued&lR;kxzg vizSy ls twu rd pyuk Fkk A ckn esa tc iqfyl us


lk/kkj.k dk;ZdrkZvksa dks fxjQ~rkj djuk cUn dj fn;k rks yksxksa dh fnypLih
tkrh jgh A

xk¡/kh th dh fxjQ~rkjh ds ckn 9 ebZ] 1930 dks fcgkj izkUrh; dkaxzsl


desVh us ,d ifji= tkjh dj lHkh 'kk[kkvksa dks 16 ebZ ls fons’kh oL=ksa] u’khys
54

inkFkksZa rFkk 'kjkc&rkM+h ds fo#) izpkj djus ,oa budh nqdkuksa ij /kjuk nsus
ds dk;ZØeksa dks pykus dk vkns’k fn;k A

lhrke<+h ds izeq[k usrk vkSj dk;ZdrkZ fxjQ~rkj gks pqds Fks A cps gq,
dk;ZdrkZvksa dks LojkT;&vkJe esa cqyk;k x;k vkSj mUgsa vyx&vyx Fkkuksa esa
fidsfVax djus Hkstk x;k A

dke dks vkxs c<+kus ds fy, pEikju ds e/kqcu Fkkuk vkSj esglh cktkj esa
dksbZ Ms<+ lkS Lo;alsod Hksts x;s A f’kogj rFkk csylaM Fkkus ls dk;ZdrkZvksa ds
nks tRFks eqtQ~Qjiqj Hkh Hksts x;s A

twu] 1930 ds ckn lhrke<+h ds gj Fkkus esa dj cUnh dk dk;ZØe


pyk;k tkus yxk A iqfyl iqjkus dk;ZdrkZvksa dks fxjQ~rkj dj ysrh Fkh vkSj u;s
Lo;alsodksa dks fxjQ~rkj u djds ihVrh vkSj vkfFkZd n.M nsrh Fkh A

bl vkUnksyu dks dqpyus ds fy, ljdkj flrEcj] 1930 rd 9 v/;kns’k


tkjh dj pqdh Fkh A fcgkj izkUrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh ,d fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj
6 vizSy] 1930 ls 26 flrEcj] 1930 rd lhrke<+h ds djhc 300 dk;ZdrkZ
fofHkUu Fkkuksa esa fxjQ~rkj fd;s x;s FksA twu esa ckck ujflag nkl fxj¶rkj dj
fy;s x;s A MWk0 jkek’kh"k Bkdqj igys gh fxjQ~rkj gks pqds Fks A

vkUnksyu dh lQyrk ls ?kcM+kdj ljdkj us mlds fo#) izpkj djokuk


'kq# fd;k A 1921&22 ds fnuksa esa Hkh tc dkaxzslh dk;ZdrkZ 'kjkc rkM+h&xk¡tk
vkfn eknd nzO;ksa dks yksxksa ls NksM+us dh vihy djrs Fks rks jktLo esa deh u
vk;s blfy, ljdkj vius eSftLVªsVksa dks xk¡oksa esa Hkstrh Fkh fd os rkM+h&xk¡tk
ihus ds Qk;nksa dk izpkj djsa A vthc fnokfy;kiu Fkk A bldh cM+h g¡lh mM+h
Fkh A bl ckj ljdkj us ,d u;k rjhdk viuk;k A jktHkDr tehUnkjksa dks
mUgksaus vkUnksyu nckus ds dke esa yxk;k A xk¡o&xk¡o esa 'kklu ds nyky [kM+s
fd;s x;s A ^^veu lHkk,¡** dk;e gqbZa] fdUrq os lQy u gks ldha A
55

v¡xjsth gqdwer us 1930 ds vkUnksyu dks dBksjrk ls nckus dk iz;Ru


fd;k] ij vkUnksyu yadk esa yxh vkx dh rjg QSyrk gh x;k A ykpkj
ok;ljk; ykMZ bjfou us 22 fnlEcj] 1930 dks *;wjksfi;u ,lksfl,’ku^ ds okf"kZd
izhfrHkkst ds volj ij dgk& ^^eq>s fo’okl gS fd vkt vf/kdka’k Hkkjrh;ksa ds
eu esa tks lPph ,oa izcy jk"Vªh;rk dh Hkkouk Hkj jgh gS mldks mi;qDr egÙo
ugha iznku djuk gekjs fy;s Hkkjh xyrh gksxh] D;ksafd ljdkj }kjk l’kDr
dkjZokbZ djus ls mudk dksbZ lgt ;k LFkk;h bykt u feyk gS vkSj u dHkh
feysxk A**
5 ekpZ]1931 dks egkRek xk¡/kh rFkk ok;ljk; bjfou esa yEch ckrphr ds
ckn ,d le>kSrk gqvk ftls ^^xka/kh&bjfou iSDV** ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS A
bl le>kSrs dk ,d cM+k egÙo ;g gS fd igyh ckj ljdkj us dkaxzsl dks ns’k
dh turk dh izfrfuf/k laLFkk ekuk Fkk vkSj mlls dksbZ le>kSrk fd;k Fkk A

xk¡/kh th us 11 lw=h ek¡x&i= is’k djds viuk vkUnksyu pyk;k Fkk A


mUgsa lHkh ij fopkj djus dk vk’oklu feyk Fkk] Qyr% vkUnksyu LFkfxr dj
fn;k x;k Fkk A

fcgkj esa bl le>kSrs ds rgr dkQh /kheh dkjZokbZ gks jgh Fkh A 12 ekpZ
dks ns’kjRu jktsUnz izlkn us xk¡/khth dks rkj Hkst dj lwfpr fd;k fd iSDV ds
rgr uke&ek= dh dkjZokbZ gks jgh gS ftlls cafn;ksa vkSj turk esa cM+k vlarks"k
gS A

23 ekpZ] 1931 dh jkr ykgkSj tsy esa ljnkj Hkxr flag] lq[knso vkSj
jktxq# dks Qk¡lh ns nh x;h A blls ns’kHkj esa jks"k vkSj {kksHk dh ygj QSy
x;h A nwljs fnu Qk¡lh ds fojks/k esa lhrke<+h esa gM+rky jgh A

29 fnlEcj] 1931 ls 1 tuojh] 1932 rd dkaxzsl dk;Zdkfj.kh dh cSBd


cEcbZ esa pyh A
56

xk¡/khth us fQj ls lfou; voKk&vkUnksyu dh ?kks"k.kk dj nh A


4 tuojh] 1932 dks mUgsa fxjQ~rkj dj ;jonk tsy Hkst fn;k x;k A blh fnu
ia0 tokgj yky] ljnkj oYyHk HkkbZ iVsy vkSj lqHkk"k pUnz cksl Hkh fxjQ~rkj
dj fy;s x;s A

lhrke<+h ds lkjs dk;ZdrkZ Hkh Hkwfexr gks x;s A 20 tuojh] 1932 dks
lhrke<+h esa /kkjk 144 rksM+dj Ng Lo;alsodksa dk ,d ny ckcw rstukjk;.k flag
¼ijlkSuh x;canh½ ds usr`Ro esa frjaxk fy, ukjk yxkrk vk;k A ny ds vU;
lnL; Fks & uFkquh lkg ¼’;keiqj½] v’kQhZ jke ¼tgk¡xhjiqj½] vej flag ¼igkM+iqj½
rFkk vU; nks O;fDr A lc dks fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k x;k A Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag
ij okj.V fudy x;k A lhrke<+h esa 1930 ls gh izR;sd o"kZ 26 tuojh dks
Lok/khurk&fnol euk;k tkus yxk Fkk A bl o"kZ Hkh bls /kwe/kke ls gh eukus dk
fu’p; gqvk] gkyk¡fd dkaxzsl izfrcaf/kr gks pqdh Fkh A

26 tuojh dks gj Fkkus esa tqywl fudkyus dk xqIr izpkj gqvk A iwjh
rS;kjh dh x;h A iwoZ fu/kkZfjr dk;ZØe ds vuqlkj lSdM+ksa dk;ZdrkZ lhrke<+h
’kgj esa pkjksa vksj ls vkus yxs A fVfM~M;ksa ds ny dh rjg dk;ZdrkZvksa dks
vkrs ns[k iqfyl ykpkj gks x;h A lqcg 11cts ls 2 cts fnu rd dbZ lkS
dk;ZdrkZvksa us fxjQ~rkjh nh A 110 dks jksd fy;k x;k A ckdh dks LFkkukHkko
ds dkj.k NksM+ nsuk iM+k A 20 tuojh] 1932 dks iqu% Lo;alsodksa dk ,d tRFkk
udyh vFkhZ fy;s 'kgj esa ,sls vk;k ekuksa dksbZ ’ko dks laLdkj&gsrq fy;s tk jgk
gks A dpgjh ds ikl vkus ij vpkud ;s fpYykus yxs & ^^fczfV’k jkt ej
x;k A yWkMZ fofyaXVu gk;! gk;!** iqfyl esa [kycyh eph A lc dks rqjar
fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k x;k vkSj mUgsa ,d&,d lky dSn dh ltk gqbZ A

blds ckn rks fHkUu&fHkUu Fkkuksa esa /kkjk 144 rksM+dj tqywl fudkys tkus
yxs vkSj Lo;alsod fxjQ~rkj gksus yxs A oLrqfLFkfr dh laosnu’khyrk dks
utjvankt dj fcgkj&mM+hlk ljdkj ds eq[; lfpo us 30 tuojh] 1932 dks
Hkkjr ljdkj ds x`g&lfpo dks bl vk’k; dh fjiksVZ Hksth &
57

^^Jh fgpdkd] ,l-ih- dh fjiksVZ ds dqN lanfHkZr va’kksa dks uhps fn;k tk
jgk gS%&

lhrke<+h& tqywl ds 110 Lo;alsodksa dks Fkkuk esa jksd dj eqdnek pykus
ds fy, lkr yksxksa dks Hkst fn;k x;k A 27 rkjh[k dks nks tRFks blh mís’; ls
uxj esa vk;s A mUgsa Fkkuk esa dsoy jksd j[kk x;k A

mlh fnu fczfV’k jkt dh vFkhZ fudkyh x;h A blds fy, pkj O;fDr;ksa
dks fxjQ~rkj fd;k x;k A

f’kogj & 100 Lo;alsodksa us tqywl fudkyk A cM+h la[;k esa HkhM+ ,d=
gqbZ A nks usrkvksa dks fxjQ~rkj fd;k x;k A tqywl ds lkr vU; yksxksa dks Hkh
fxjQ~rkj fd;k x;k A rhu dks ckn esa NksM+ fn;k x;k A 'ks"k dks ltk nh
x;h A

lqjlaM & vkB dkaxzslh fxjQ~rkj gq, A pkj dks ltk nh x;h A

iqijh & ik¡p vfHk;qDr tsy Hkst fn;s x;s A iqfyl us lHkk ls fucVus ds
fy, dkQh rS;kjh dh Fkh A

csyk & rhu usrkvksa dks fxjQ~rkj djds ltk nh x;h A

lksucjlk & rhu usrkvksa dks ltk nh x;h A

cSjxfu;k & 100 yksxksa dk tqywl idM+ fy;k x;k] ysfdu dbZ yksx Hkkx
fudys A os ykfB;ksa vkSj <syksa ls ySl Fks] blfy;s nkjksxk dqN ugha dj ldkA

dkaxzsl Hkwfexr gksdj dke dj jgh Fkh A Qjojh esa vWky bf.M;k ds
izksxzke fMDVsVj yky 'kknZwy flag ¼Nn~euke½ dk xqIr vkns’k vk;k fd 15 Qjojh
dks lkjs ns’k esa ljdkjh bekjrksa ij frjaxs Qgjk;s tk,¡ A tgk¡ 15 rkjh[k dks
58

,slk u gks lds ogk¡ LFkkuh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqlkj vyx&vyx frfFk;k¡


fuf’pr dh tk,¡ A

lhrke<+h esa ;g izksxzke 15 Qjojh dks feyk] vr% Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us
f’kogj ds cjkgh txnh’k uked xk¡o esa ,d xqIr cSBd dh vkSj r; fd;k fd
18 Qjojh dks csylaM esa] 22 Qjojh dks lhrke<+h uxj esa vkSj 28 Qjojh dks
f’kogj Fkkus ij >aMs Qgjk;s tk,¡ A

rnuqlkj 18 Qjojh dks csylaM Fkkus ij >aMk Qgjk fn;k x;k A bruk
gh ugha] dkaxzsl vkJe ds tCr lkeku dks Hkh dk;ZdrkZ mBk ys vk;s A
22 Qjojh dks lhrke<+h dpgjh dh bekjr ij >aMk Qgjk;k x;k A iwjk 'kgj
^egkRek xk¡/kh dh t;* vkSj ^oans ekrje~* ds ukjksa ls xw¡trk jgk A iqfyl
gDdh&cDdh jgh A dbZ dk;ZdrkZ fxjQ~rkj gq, A

28 Qjojh dks f’kogj Fkkus ij >aMk Qgjkuk Fkk] exj blh chp dkaxzsl
dk u;k vkns’k vk x;k A >aMk Qgjkus dk izksxzke LFkfxr gks x;k Fkk] exj lk/kq
ds Nn~eos’k esa fNis nks Øakfrdkfj;ksa& olarkuUn vkSj izdk’kkuUn us dk;ZdrkZvksa
dks yydkjk fd >aMk t:j Qgjkvks A Fkkus dh Nr ij p<+us ds fy, mUgksaus
vius gkFk ls lh<+h Hkh cuk nh A muds mRlkg fnykus ij dk;ZdrkZvksa dk }U}
tkrk jgk A

28 Qjojh]1932 dks jfookj iM+rk Fkk A f’kogj ls lVs nsodqyh uked


LFkku esa izR;sd jfookj dks egknso ds n’kZu ds fy, vikj HkhM+ tqVrh Fkh A ;g
HkhM+ fnu esa 2 cts Fkkus ds ikl bdV~Bh gqbZ A tqywl dk usr`Ro ckcw ';ke yky
flag ¼tgk¡xhjiqj½ vkSj ckcw r`fir flag gjufg;k dj jgs Fks A HkksM+gk¡ ds /kh{k.k
feJth Hkh lkFk FksA m/kj Fkkus ij lksyg cUnwd/kkjh xksj[kk flikgh rSukr Fks A
HkhM+ dks ns[kdj eSftLVªsV us dsoy ,d vkneh dks >aMk Qgjkus dks dgk] exj
yksx brus ls larq"V gksusokys ugha Fks A blh chp ,d efgyk ¼djfj;k xzke ds
59

Jh 'kqHk ukjk;.k dq¡oj dh ek¡½ vkxs c<+ vk;h vkSj mlus Nhudj >aMk gkFk esa
ys fy;k vkSj HkhM+ dks yydkjrs gq, dgk fd vxj rqe Mjrs gks rks ykvks
eSa Fkkus ij >aMk Qgjk nsrh gw¡ A bl yydkj ij yksx Fkkus esa ?kql x;s A iqfyl
us ykBh pktZ ds lkFk gh Qk;fjax Hkh dj nh A dbZ vkneh vkgr gksdj ogha
fxj iM+s A

mDr xksyhdkaM ds ckn f’kogj esa vkrad Nk x;k Fkk A

xksyh dkaM ds ckjs esa ljdkj dh fjiksVZ ;g Fkh & ^^28 Qjojh] 1932 dks
eqtQ~Qjiqj ds f’kogj Fkkus esa iqfyl us xksyh pyk;h A 4 O;fDr ekjs x;s vkSj
9 ?kk;y gq, A buesa ,d ckn esa vLirky esas ej x;k A**

29 Qjojh lkseokj dks xksyhdkaM ds fojks/k esa dkyk fcYyk yxkdj


ekSu tqywl fudkyk x;k Fkk A

ml xksyhdkaM ls lEiw.kZ lhrke<+h esa tkx`fr vk x;h A lHkh Fkkuksa vkSj


cktkjksa esa gM+rky dh x;h A txg&txg /kj&idM+ gksus yxh A iqfyl ljxehZ
ls Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag dh ryk’k djus yxh A os Hkwfexr gksdj vkUnksyu dk
lapkyu dj jgs Fks A tc iqfyl dh xfrfof/k;k¡ rst gqbZa rks mUgksaus fxjQ~rkjh
ns nh A

ljdkjh neu rhozrj gksrk x;k A lkjs izeq[k dk;ZdrkZ tsyksa esa cUn dj
fn;s x;s A iqfyl yksxksa dks ijs’kku djus yxh A 26 tuojh] 1933 dks lhrke<+h
dpgjh ij >aMk Qgjkus ds iz;kl esa pkj O;fDr fxjQ~rkj gq, A

HkwdEi 1934 dk lky fcgkj esa Hk;kog HkwdEi ds fy, ges’kk ;kn fd;k tk,xkA
ml izkd`frd vkink us lhrke<+h dks volé dj fn;k Fkk vkSj jktuSfrd
xfrfof/k;k¡ Bgj&lh xbZ Fkha A turk rckg gks pqdh Fkh A ml nq%[k ls tw>us]
yksxksa dk <k<+l nsus rFkk ihfM+rksa ds chp py jgs jkgr dk;kZsa dk fujh{k.k djus
60

egkRek x¡ak/kh ,oa ns’kjRu MkW0 jktsUnz izlkn lhrke<+h vk;s Fks A Hkwdai ls phuh
dk dkj[kkuk rgl&ugl gks x;k Fkk A blls foifÙk vkSj vf/kd xgjk xbZ A
o"kksaZ ckn xUus dh vPNh Qly gqbZ Fkh] fdUrq dkj[kkus ds fo/oal us fdlkuksa dh
dej rksM+ nh Fkh A yksxksa ds vjeku Hkh VwV x, Fks A os iw.kZr% rckg gks pqds FksA

Hk;] vk’kadk vkSj vfuf’prrk ds okrkoj.k esa lhrke<+h ds vuqeaMy dk


eq[;ky; lu~ 1936 esa 'kgj ls 5 fdyksehVj nf{k.k Mqejk LFkkukUrfjr dj fn;k
x;k A

HkwdEi ds 13 tuojh] 1934 dks fcgkj esa tks Hkwdai gqvk mldk lokZf/kd izHkko
ckn lhrke<+h ij iM+k A 1934 ds ebZ eghus esa vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh
,d cSBd iVuk esa gqbZ ftlesa xk¡/kh th us lR;kxzg LFkfxr djus dk izLrko
j[kkA dkmafly pquko esa Hkkx ysus dk fopkj gqvk A dqN yksx blds f[kykQ
Fks A vkxs pydj dfri; ukStokuksa us dkaxzsl lks’kfyLV ikVhZ cuk yh A
lR;kxzg LFkfxr gqvk A dqN fnuksa ckn ljdkj us dkaxzsl desVh ij ls xSj
dkuwuh gksus dh cafn’k gVk yh A tCr fd;s x, dkaxzsl ds vkJe ykSVk;s tkus
yxs vkSj dkaxzsl iqu% laxfBr gksus yxh A

1936 dk o"kZ lhrke<+h esa izkUrh; fo/kkulHkk ds vkxkeh pqukoksa dh


rS;kjh esa chrk A blh o"kZ lhekUr xk¡/kh [kku vCnqy xQ~Qkj [kk¡ lhrke<+h
vk;s A os cSjxfu;k Hkh x;s A lhrke<+h esa os LojkT;&vkJe esa Bgjs A

1937 esa u;s fo/kku ds vuqlkj fcgkj izkUrh; fo/kku&lHkk ds pquko gq, A
lhrke<+h esa rc fo/kku&lHkk ds fy, nks LFkku f’kogj vkSj lhrke<+h Fks A f’kogj
lhV csylaM] estjxat vkSj cSjxfu;k ds fy, rFkk nwljh lhV lhrke<+h]
csyk] lqjlaM vkSj lksucjlk ds fy, Fkh A Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag lhrke<+h ls vkSj
MkW- jkek’kh"k Bkdqj f’kogj ls dkaxzsl ds mEehnokj ds :i esa [kM+s gq, vkSj
Hkkjh erksa ls thrsA vizSy 1937 esa fcgkj essa dakxzsl dk igyk eaf=eaMy cukA
1937 esa gh Bkdqj lkgc lhrke<+h uxjikfydk ds ps;jeSu Hkh pqus x;sA
61

1939 esa f}rh; fo’o&egk;q) ds fNM+us ij dkaxzsl ds lkeus ;g


iz’u mBk fd blds izfr og D;k n`f"Vdks.k viuk;s A dbZ fnuksa dh cgl ds
ckn ;g r; gqvk fd ukthokn vkSj Qklhokn ds lkFk&lkFk lkezkT;okn ds izfr
Hkh viuk fojks/k izdV fd;k tk; A gkyk¡fd blds igys fczfV’k jkt ls vkxzg
fd;k tk; fd og ;q)&laca/kh vius mís’;ksa dks Li"V djs A ;gk¡ ;g mYys[k
dj nsuk vko’;d gS fd Hkkjr dk *fczfV’k jkt^ nqfu;k ds nwljs egkns’kksa esa Hkh
fczVsu }kjk vius eryc ls fd;s x;s ;q)ksa dk [kpZ Hkkjr dh xjhc iztk dh
xk<+h dekbZ ls tcjnLrh olwyrk Fkk A nwljh nq%[kn ckr ;g Fkh fd igys
egk;q) ¼1914&18½ esa dkaxzsl us fczfV’k jkt dh enn blfy, dh Fkh fd mls
vkSifuosf’kd LojkT; feyus dk vk’oklu fn;k x;k Fkk] exj ;q) thr ysus ds
ckn v¡xjsth gqdwer u dsoy ok;ns ls eqdj x;h] cfYd mlus rksgQs esa jkSysV
,DV ns fn;k A ;s nks iz’u rks Fks gh] vc ,d rhljk vge loky ;g mBk Fkk
fd vfgalk dh uhfr dk vuqlj.k djus okyh dkaxzsl bl fagald ;q) esa jkt dh
enn djs ;k ugha A ;fn enn djs rks D;k mls iw.kZ LojkT; feysxk \

dkaxzsl us rRdkyhu ok;ljk; fyufyFkxks vkSj *fczfV’k jkt^ ds lkeus


viuh nks ek¡xsa j[kha A igyh ;g fd *fczfV’k ljdkj^ ;q) ds mís’;ksa dks Li"V
djs vkSj nwljh ;g fd iw.kZ LojkT; iznku djus ds y{; dks lkeus j[krs gq,
vHkh gh Li"V 'kCnksa esa Lora=rk dk opu ns A buds vykok rRdky Hkkjr ds
izfrfuf/k;ksa dks 'kklu&laca/kh ,sls vf/kdkj fey tk,¡ ftuls os lpeqp Hkkjr dh
bPNk ds vuqlkj izcU/k dj ;q) esa fny ls enn dj ldsa A mÙkj esa fyufyFkxks
us cgykus dh ps"Vk dh vkSj ckn esa ;g dg fn;k fd ;q) ds nkSjku ifjorZu
lEHko ugha gS A fczVsu dh ljdkj ds ml #[k ds QyLo:i lkjs ns’k esa
tgk¡&tgk¡ dkaxzsl ds eaf=eaMy Fks] bLrhQksa dk flyflyk 'kq# gks x;k A fcgkj
esa Hkh dkaxzsl dh ljdkj us R;kxi= ns fn;k A

tqykbZ] 1940 ls vlsEcyh vkSj dkmafly dh lnL;rk ls bLrhQs


fn;s tkus yxs A lhrke<+h ds Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag vkSj MWk- jkek’kh"k Bkdqj us
62

vlsEcyh dh lnL;rk dk ifjR;kx dj fn;k A vkxs tc dkaxzsl dk vkns’k


ftyk cksMksZa vkSj uxjikfydkvksa dh lnL;rk ls R;kxi= nsus dk gqvk rks mUgksaus
uxjikfydk ds v/;{k vkSj lnL; ds inksa ls Hkh bLrhQk ns fn;k A

tqykbZ] 1940 esa dkaxzsl us O;fDrxr lR;kxzg dk ladYi fd;k A


lR;kxzg ds lapkyu dk Hkkj xk¡/khth ij fn;k x;k A ^^xk¡/khth us fu’p; fd;k
fd ;|fi ;g lR;kxzg oS;fDrd gksxk] lkewfgd ugha] rFkkfi dksbZ O;fDr muls
eatwjh ik;s fcuk lR;kxzg ugha dj ldsxk A ;g Hkh Li"V Fkk fd og vuqefr
,sls gh yksxksa dks nsaxs ftUgksaus jpukRed dk;ZØe ds fdlh ,d vax dks viuk;k
gks vkSj mlesa dke fd;k gks A lkFk gh ;g Hkh fu’p; gqvk fd dsoy O;fDr u
gksa] vusd ds izfrfuf/k gksa] tSls vlsEcyh vkSj dkmafly ds esEcj] ftyk vkSj
E;wfufliy cksMksZa ds esEcj A dkaxzsl desfV;ksa ds inkf/kdkjh vkSj pqus gq, esEcj
bR;kfn A^^& ¼*vkRedFkk^&ns’kjRu MWk0 jktsUnz izlkn½ A

lhrke<+h esa lcls igys Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag us O;fDrxr lR;kxzg


vkjEHk fd;k A mUgsa fxjQ~rkj dj ,d o"kZ ds fy, tsy Hkst fn;k x;k A
lR;kxzg dk :i ;g gksrk Fkk fd ,slh ?kks"k.kk djuh gksrh Fkh fd ge ;q) esa
fdlh izdkj dh enn ugha dj ldrs A yksxksa us blds fy, ,d ukjk Hkh cuk
fy;k Fkk A ^^u nks ,d ikbZ] u nks ,d HkkbZ** vFkkZr~ ljdkj dks u rks ;q) ds
fy, iSlk nks vkSj u fdlh dks lSfudksa dh HkÙkhZ esa tkus nks A cl blh ij
fxjQ~rkjh gks tkrh A

nwljs fnu MWk0 jkek’kh"k Bkdqj us tc O;fDrxr lR;kxzg fd;k rc


ckck ujflag nkl] Jh eFkqjk izlkn flag] ckcw f’ko/;ku flag vkfn lHkh pqus
izfrfuf/k viuh fxjQ~rkjh nsus yxs A dqN gh fnuksa esa lhrke<+h Fkkus dh lHkh
dkaxzsl desfV;ksa ds inkf/kdkjh fxjQ~rkj gks x;s A bu lc dks ,d&,d o"kZ dh
ltk gqbZ tks okLro esa tsy esa ^^ekdkZ** feyus ij ukS eghus dh gks xbZ Fkh A
O;fDrxr lR;kxzg esa tsy tkusokyksa esa f’kogj ds ckcw jRus'ojh uUnu flag vkSj
ljS;k csylaM ds ckcw czg~enso ukjk;.k mYys[; gSa A
63

Hkkjr NksM+ks 1942 esa tc ^^Hkkjr NksM+ks** vkUnksyu izkjaHk gqvk rc vktknh dh
vkUnksyu vfUre yM+kbZ esa Hkh lhrke<+h dh Hkkxhnkjh fof’k"V jgh A

dkaxzsl us ljdkj ls cgqr vuqjks/k fd;k fd Hkkjr dh turk dh mu


ek¡xksa dks Lohdkj dj fy;k tk, ftuds fy, 1920 ls gh lR;kxzg gksrs jgs gSa A
vihyksa ds ckotwn ljdkj ij dksbZ vlj u gqvk A rc dkaxzsl us ;g vYVhesVe
fn;k fd vxj mldh vihy ugha lquh x;h rks og vius vf/kdkjksa dh izkfIr ds
fy, mu lkjh 'kfDr;ksa dk mi;ksx djsxh ftudk 1920 ls gh vfgalkRed uhfr
dk vkJ; ysdj mlus lap; fd;k gS A

exj bl vihy ij fopkj djus dh ctk; ljdkj us dkaxzsl dks /kedkuk


'kq# fd;k ftlls ;g vkUnksyu vkSj HkM+d mBk A

7 vxLr] 1942 dks cEcbZ esa vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh cSBd
gqbZ FkhA mlesa ia- tokgjyky usg: us tks izLrko is’k fd;k Fkk ¼bls *vxLr
izLrko^ dgk tkrk gS½ mlesas LojkT;&izkfIr ds fy, vfgalkRed <ax ls vkUnksyu
vkjEHk djus dk fu’p; FkkA og izLrko Hkkjh cgqer ls Lohd`r gqvk Fkk A ml
cSBd esa ckiw us <kbZ ?kaVksa rd vuojr Hkk"k.k fd;k A 8 vxLr dh jkr dks
11 cts ds djhc tc cSBd py gh jgh Fkh] lnL;ksa dks vkxkg fd;k x;k fd os
9 vxLr ds fy, ckiw ds vkns’k dk bUrtkj djsa A lkjk ns’k cM+h mRlqdrk ls
muds fn’kk&funsZ’k dh izrh{kk djus yxk] exj viuk vkns’k fuxZr djus ds iwoZ
gh 9 vxLr dh lqcg esa lk<+s ik¡p cts os fxjQ~rkj dj fy;s x;s A egknso HkkbZ
Hkh muds lkFk Fks A ,d egku Økafr dk lw=ikr gks pqdk Fkk A tkrs&tkrs ckiw
ns’k dks ,d izsjd eU= ns x;s Fks & ^^djks ;k ejks !**

mu fnuksa ns’k esa lapkj lk/kuksa dk cM+k vHkko Fkk A dbZ&dbZ fnuksa ds
ckn v[kckj fey ikrs Fks] exj u tkus dSls lkjs ns’k dks fctyh dh xfr ls
ckiw ds dkjkokl vkSj lans’k dh tkudkjh fey xbZ A
64

dkjkx`g tkus ds le; ckiw us ^^ck** ls vius dke dks vkxs c<+kus dks
dgk] fdUrq ^^ck** #dha ugha] mUgksaus ifr ds lkFk tsy tkus ds /keZ dk fuokZg
fd;k A

xk¡/khth dh fxjQ~rkjh ds rqjar ckn ofdZax desVh ds lkjs yksx fxjQ~rkj


dj fy;s x;s A

10 vxLr dks lhrke<+h esa Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag vkSj eqt¶Qjiqj esa
MWk- jkek’kh"k Bkdqj canh cuk fy, x, A f’kogj esa jRus’ojh ckcw us cEcbZ rFkk
lhrke<+h dh lkjh ?kVukvksa ls yksxksa dks voxr djk;k A fxj¶rkjh dh lwpuk
Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag ds firk ckcw uokc flag dks egqvfj;k Hkst nh xbZ A

cEcbZ esa egkRek xk¡/kh rFkk lhrke<+h esa vius iq= vkSj vU; yksxksa dh
fxjQ~rkfj;ksa ls mudh Hk`dqfV ru x;h A os laxzke dh rS;kjh esa th&tku ls yx
x, A

ml le; eqt¶Qjiqj ftyk dkaxzsl desVh ds v/;{k ckcw nhi ukjk;.k


flag ¼gkthiqj½ Fks A os tqykbZ ds vfUre lIrkg esa gh lhrke<+h vkdj
Fkkuk&Fkkuk ?kwedj xqIr cSBdksa esas dk;ZdrkZvksa dks le>k x;s Fks fd fxjQ~rkjh ds
ckn mUgsa D;k&D;k djuk gS A

xk¡/khth rFkk LFkkuh; usrkvksa dh fxjQ~rkjh dh [kcj ls iwjh lhrke<+h esa


rgydk ep x;k A gj Fkkus esa tqywl fudkys x, vkSj lHkk,¡ gqbZa rFkk Fkkus ij
dCtk djus dh ;kstuk,¡ cuus yxhaa A blh chp 12 vxLr] 1942 dks iVuk ds
lfpoky; ij >aMk Qgjkus x;s ,d fo’kky tqywl ij fueZerk ds lkFk ljdkj
us xksyh pyk nh A bl xksyh dkaM esa >aMk Qgjkrs le; lkr ukStoku 'kghn gks
x;s rFkk lSdM+ksa dh la[;k esa Lo;alsod vkSj lkekU;tu ?kk;y gq, A

ml t?kU; gR;kdkaM dk xgjk vlj lkjs izkUr ds lkFk lhrke<+h ij Hkh


gqvk A dkaxzsl ds gtkjksa dk;ZdrkZ lM+dksa ij vk x;s A lHkh ljdkjh dk;kZy;ksa
65

ij turk us dCtk djuk vkSj >aMk Qgjkuk 'kq# dj fn;k A lkjs dkxtkr
tyk;s tkus yxs A txg&txg lM+dsa dkVh xbZa vkSj iqy rksM+s x, A o`{kksa dks
dkVdj lM+dksa dks vo#) dj fn;k x;k A LVs’kuksa vkSj jsyxkfM+;ksa ij Hkh
turk us dCtk djuk 'kq# dj fn;k A lHkh ljdkjh deZpkjh] Fkkusnkj vkSj
flikgh Fkkuksa rFkk nQ~rjksa dks NksM+ dj lhrke<+h pys x, A

csylaM Fkkus esa 10 vxLr ls rkj dVus yxs A 16 vxLr dks ;krk;kr
Hkax djus dk dke iwjk gqvk A lkjs iqy rksM+ fn;s x;s A

iaFkikdM+ esa xk¡o ds yksxksa us rkj dkVuk 'kq# fd;k A ,d gh fnu esa
cfjFkkjiqj ls ysdj lhrke<+h rd ds lHkh rkj dkV Mkys x;s A galw flag]
txUukFk 'kkgh] jkenhu 'kkgh] jkeizrki 'kkgh vkfn lfØ; vkSj yM+kdw
dk;ZdrkZvksa us ml dke dks vatke fn;k A

estjxat Fkkus esa 17 vxLr dks yksxksa us Hkkjh rksM+&QksM+ dh A 16 vxLr


dks <sax LVs’ku ij dCtk dj fy;k x;k A
cSjxfu;k esa 17 vxLr ls jsyrkj m[kkM+us dk dke 'kq# gqvk A gQ~rs Hkj
ogk¡ xkfM+;k¡ ugha xqtj ldha A ftyk cksMZ ds iqy rksM+ fn;s x;s A iksLV&vkfQl
ds rkj dkV fn, x, vkSj vkcdkjh foHkkx ds dkxtkr vkx dh HksaV p<+ x, A

iqijh esa 14 vxLr dks ia0 Jh ukjk;.k Bkdqj] ldynso dq¡oj rFkk
jkeHkjksls 'kekZ fxjQ~rkj dj fy;s x;s A ohj ua &4 ds pkSdhnkj izslhMsUV jke
cq>kou Bkdqj rFkk pkSdhnkj usoklh us bLrhQs ns fn, A

csylaM esa nkjksxk Fkkuk NksM+ dj Hkkx x;k A ftu yksxksa us mls cpk;k
Fkk mUgsa ckn esa mlus fxjQ~rkj djok fn;k A

lksucjlk esa 16 vxLr dks Hkqrgh jftLVªh vkWfQl ij dCtk dj fy;k


x;k A ogk¡ >aMk Qgjk;k x;k A 19 vxLr dks Fkkus ij Hkh dCtk gks x;k A
66

csyk Fkkus esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa us vkUnksyu dk usr`Ro fd;k A mUgksaus Fkkuk dks
tykdj jk[k dj fn;k vkSj jftLVªh vkWfQl esa rkyk yxk fn;k A

f'kogj Fkkus esa 14 vxLr ls gh rksM+&QksM+ dk dke 'kq# Fkk A lM+dsa


dkV nh xbZa vkSj iqy rksM+ fn;s x;s A f’kogj ls ijlkSuh rd rkj dk
ukeksfu’kku u jgk A

17 vxLr dks lhrke<+h dh dpgjh ij dCtk djus dh ;kstuk Fkh A bl


fnu lhrke<+h esas ,d yk[k dh la[;k esa yksx tqV vk;s FksA ckcw uokc flag ds
usr`Ro esa gtkjksa dh HkhM+ us Mqejk tkdj ¼lhrke<+h½ dpgjh ij dCtk dj
fy;k A ljdkjh vQlj dpgjh NksM+dj Hkkx x;s A

;gk¡ jsy dh iVfj;k¡ m[kkM+ nh x;ha A jsy dk batu csdkj dj fn;k


x;k A 15 vxLr dks tks jsyxkM+h vk;h og fQj ykSVdj u tk ldh A blh
fnu jsoklh xk¡o ds yksxksa us ftyk cksMZ dh lM+dksa dks dkV Mkyk A

bl rjg 1942 esa lhrke<+h ls dqN fnuksa ds fy, v¡xjsth 'kklu dks
m[kkM+ Qsaddj turk jkt dk;e fd;k x;k tks laHkor% vkus okys ml fnu dk
iwokZHkkl Fkk ftldk Lof.kZe fogku 15 vxLr 1947 dks gqvk A

iqijh ds vR;kpkjh nkjksxk dks dqN fnuksa ds fy, [knsM+ dj tulsod ds


:i esa turk Fkkus dk Hkkj l¡Hkkyk uUnfd’kksj flag us A cktkj dh O;oLFkk
cuk;s j[kus ds fy, Jh jkeijh{k.k Bkdqj vkSj eksfgr Bkdqj dks rFkk jpukRed
dk;ZØe ds fy, yk[kks pkS/kjh dks ftEesnkjh lkSaih xbZ A 20 vxLr dks
ckck ujflag nkl iqijh vk;s A mUgksaus turk Fkkus ds lapkyu ds laca/k esa
dk;ZdrkZvksa dks O;kid funsZ’k fn;s A ckck ujflag nkl us vusd dsUnzksa dk
fujh{k.k fd;k vkSj dk;ZdrkZvksa dks mRlkfgr fd;k A dqN fnuksa ds bl turk
jkt ds nkSjku dgha Hkh lhrke<+h esa pksjh vkfn dh dksbZ ?kVuk ugha gqbZ A m/kj
67

bl fLFkfr lss fucVus ds fy;s eqtQ~Qjiqj ls ,Mh,e fe0 cuZ dks xksjksa dh QkSt
ds lkFk lhrke<+h Hkstk x;k A

fe0 cuZ us neukRed dkjZokbZ dk izkjEHk dkaxzsl desVh ds nQ~rj rFkk


Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag] Jh eksgu flag vkSj ckck ujflag nkl ds vkoklksa dks Qw¡d
dj fd;k A bUgha fnuksa jhxk ds eksgu yky 'kekZ vkSj d`".knso >k ds ?kjksa dks
ywVdj mUgsa tsy esa Mky fn;k x;k A

jsokeh ds tequk egFkk dks xksjksa us <+w¡<+k] D;ksafd jhxk dk usr`Ro mUgksaus gh
fd;k Fkk A muds xk¡o tkdj muds u feyus ij esFkqj eaMy dks xksyh ls mM+k
fn;k x;k A

estjxat esa lSfudksa us Hkkjh vkrad QSyk;k A ia- ekStsyky >k dks xksyh
ekj nh xbZ A ljgk f’ko/;ku flag dh [kkst esa x;s xksjs flikfg;ksa us lq[knso
jkmr dks xksyh ls mM+k fn;k A j?kqukFkiqj ds ;ksxsUnz pkS/kjh dh [kkst esa x;s
xksjksa us muds ukSdj uUuw fe;k¡ dks xksyh ekj nh A Jh f’ko/;ku flag vkSj Bkdqj
jke ijh{k.k flag ds ?kj ywV fy, x, A eqckjdiqj ds jh>u flag dks ccZjrk ls
ihVk x;k A

csylaM Fkkus esa 19 vxLr dks QkSt dh NksVh VqdM+h Hksth x;h A ogk¡
vFkjh ds Jh gfjgj izlkn flag dks xksjksa us cwVksa vkSj jk;Qy ds dqUnksa ls
eekZUrd ihM+k nsdj ekjk A muds eq¡g ls dbZ ckj [kwu fxjk A os ftruk
NViVkrs] xksjs mudks mruk gh ccZj gksdj ekjrs A ,slh ekj] ftlls ej tkuk
dgha csgrj gksrk A muds Hkrhts Jh lqfn"V ukjk;.k flag dks Hkh [kwc ihVk
x;k A vktknh ds ckn ;s fcgkj iqfyl ds vkbZ-th- gksdj lsokfuo`Ùk gq, rFkk
jgL;e; :i ls ekWjh’kl ds leqnz esa Mwc dj ej x;s A

30 vxLr dks csylaM ds Nijk xk¡o esa xksjksa us ?kksj vekuqf"kd vR;kpkj
fd;k A mUgksaus cM+h csjgeh ls dbZ vknfe;ksa dks ekj fxjk;k A
68

cSjxfu;k esa 22 vxLr ls neu 'kq# gqvkA Jh jkeizrki Bkdqj yksgkj]


Jh uFkquh izlkn] ;qxy fd’kksj vkSj Jh nsodh uUnu tk;loky ds ?kj ywVs
x, A fo’oukFk voLFkh rFkk taxcgknqj 'kekZ ds ?kjksa dks Hkh ywVk x;k A lqjlaM
ds t; ukjk;.k ykV] cyjke frokjh rFkk jke [ksykou flag xksjksa dh ywV ds
f’kdkj gq, A lksucjlk esa jkey[ku xqIr dk ?kj tyk fn;k x;k A tqyqe flag
dh nknh dks csjgeh ls ihVk x;k A csyk esa jkeo`{k lkgw vkSj lhrkjke lkgw ds
?kjksa dks ywVk x;k A fiijk ds lkuQh flag rFkk ijes’oj flag dks rckgh >syuh
iM+h A

f’kogj esa Hkkjh neu gqvk A 3 flrEcj dks ,Mh,e fe0 cuZ xksjksa dh
iyVu ysdj f’kogj igq¡pkA mlus vkUnksyu ds uk;d ckcw uokc flag ds xksyk
ls ,d yk[k :i;ksa ls Hkh vf/kd ewY; ds lkeku ywV fy, vkSj f’kogj xksyk dks
tyok dj jk[k dj fn;k A blds ckn og muds xk¡o egqvfj;k igq¡pk A ckcw
uokc flag vkUnksyu ds lapkyu ds Øe esas igys gh mÙkj fn’kk dh vksj pys
x;s Fks A cuZ us muds iqLrSuh edku dks tyk fn;k A xksjksa us ik’kfodrk dh
ijkdk"Bk dj nh] ijUrq vikj {kfr mBkus ds ckn Hkh yksxksa dk mRlkg Hkax ugha
gqvk A ;fn xksjksa dk neu pjelhek ij Fkk rks turk dk gkSlyk Hkh fgeky;
dh rjg vfMx vkSj vijEikj Fkk A

ogk¡ ckcw dhfrZ ukjk;.k flag dks idM+dj izrkfM+r fd;k x;k A dqekj
jRus’ojh uUnu flag dks fxjQ~rkj dj fy;k x;k A eksguiqj ds ckck jkecgknqj
yky ds eq¡g esa ?kksM+s dh rjg yxke yxkdj xksjksa us nkSM+k;k vkSj mudks dksM+ksa
ls ihVk A Jh fd’kksjh flag vkSj ';ke yky flag dks csrjg ihVk rFkk viekfur
fd;k x;k A dgk tkrk gS fd f’kogj esa bruk vR;kpkj xksjksa ls feydj ogk¡ ds
jktk us djok;k Fkk A
69

iqijh esa Hkh"k.k neu gqvk A ;gk¡ dk nkjksxk vtqZu flag Fkk A og cM+k
vR;kpkjh Fkk A mlds fo#) turk HkM+dh jgrh Fkh A mlus ekSdk ikdj yksxksa
dks jkSanus esa dksbZ dlj ugha NksM+h A

lhrke<+h esa tc VWkeh iyVu vk;h rks mlus vkx yxkuk] ?kjksa ywVuk
vkSj yksxksa dks ekjuk&ihVuk 'kq# fd;k A bruk gh ugha] xksjs ?kjksa esa ?kqldj
cstk gjdrsa Hkh djus yxs A blls Hkkjh vkrad ds ckotwn turk esas mcky vk
x;kA ,d fnu lhrke<+h ds ,l-Mh-vks- ckcw gjnhi flag lwjr >k nkjksxk ds lkFk
cuxk¡o tk jgs Fks fd cktiV~Vh xk¡o ds yksxksa us le>k fd vtqZu flag nkjksxk
tk jgk gS] vr% mudh dkj ij geyk gqvk ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i nksuksa ekjs
x;s A /kks[ks esa ?kVh og ,d nqHkkZX;iw.kZ ?kVuk Fkh] exj mlus neu dk jkLrk
[kksy fn;k A

lhrke<+h ds bl tu&vkUnksyu ds eq[; uk;d ckcw uokc flag lkfFk;ksa


dh lykg ij usiky pys x;s A usiky rjkbZ ds flejkSux<+ ds fdys ds [k¡Mgj
esa mUgksaus viuk eq[;ky; dk;e fd;k vkSj ogha ls lhrke<+h ,oa pEikju ds dqN
fgLlksa esa os tu&vkUnksyu pykrs jgs A ljdkjh neu ds ckotwn mudk ;g
iz;kl bruk lQy jgk fd eqt¶Qjiqj ds vaxjst dfe’uj us fcgkj ds xouZj
dks Hksth x;h viuh fjiksVZ esa dgk fd ^^ckcw uokc flag mÙkj fcgkj ds dq¡vj
flag cu x;s gSa A mudks tYn&ls&tYn jksduk vR;Ur vko’;d gS] vU;Fkk iwjk
mÙkj fcgkj ckxh cu tk ldrk gS A^^ ljdkj us ckcw uokc flag dks thfor
vFkok e`r :i esa fxjQ~rkj djus ds fy;s nl gtkj #i;ksa dk buke ?kksf"kr
fd;k] ijUrq ckcw lkgc ij bldk dksbZ izHkko ugha iM+k vkSj os iwjs tks’k&[kjks’k
ls vkUnksyu pykrs jgs A varr% mÙkj ds Hk;adj tkM+s us muds cq<+kis ij vlj
fn[kk;k A mUgsa fueksfu;k gks x;k A os fpfdRlkFkZ Hkkjr vk jgs Fks fd
[kksjhikdM+ xk¡o esa Lora=rk ds czkg~e eqgwrZ esa mudk nsgkolku gks x;k A

f}rh; fo’o;q) dh lekfIr ¼1945½ ds mijkUr cUnh fjgk gksus yxs A


Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag vkSj vU; usrk ,oe~ dk;ZdrkZ tsyksa ls NwVdj vk;s A
70

1946 esa rRdkyhu dsUnzh; [kk| ea=h MWk- jktsUnz izlkn] tks ckn esa Lora= Hkkjr
ds izFke jk"Vªifr gq,] lhrke<+h vk;s A ,d fojkV~ tulHkk dks lEcksf/kr djrs
gq, mUgksaus Lora=rk&laxzke esas Bkdqj jkeuUnu flag ,oa muds ifjokj ds egku~
R;kx vkSj ;ksxnku dk mYys[k fd;k A mUgksaus Bkdqj lkgc ds firk Lo- ckcw
uokc flag ds ifjokj ds cfynku dk Lej.k djrs gq, dgk Fkk& ^^;g ifjokj
fcgkj dk usg:&ifjokj gS A**

15 vxLr] 1947 dks Hkkjr vktkn gqvk] ijUrq Bkdqj lkgc vktkn Hkkjr
dks dsoy 13 fnu gh ns[k lds A iz/kkuea=h ia- tokgj yky usg: ds cqykos ij
fnYyh tkrs le; iVuk esa os chekj iM+ x;s vkSj 28 vxLr] 1947 dks mUgksaus
bl lalkj ls fonk ys yh A

;g lkexzh Lo0 izks0 ohjsUnz dqekj vkSj bykds ds cM+s] cw<+ksa ls gqbZ ckrphr
ds vk/kkj ij rS;kj gqbZ gS A fo’ks"k lUnHkZ&lkexzh ds fy, eqt¶Qjiqj o
lhrke<+h ds xtsfV;j ds vykok izks0 dkyhfdadj nÙk dh iqLrd dh enn yh
xbZ gS A

lhrke<+h tuin dk mi;ZqDr o`ÙkkUr Hkkjrh; 'kkS;Z&lkxj dh ,d cw¡n esa


cM+okuy ds /k/kdus dk bfrgkl gS A ;g *ekHkS%^ dk eU=ksPpkj djusokyh feV~Vh
dh og egkxkFkk gS ftls egktuksa us dHkh eq[;rk ugha nh A nsg ds ijs tkdj
fonsgo`fÙk esa ixh turk ds mRlxZ ds bl vk[;ku dh vkx ls *pdkpkSa/k dk
ekjk^] *va/kk^ vkSj *cspkjk^ bfrgkl vifjfpr gSA dkseyrk ds d`ik.k cuus dh
;g dFkk rÙor% jk{klh lÙkk dks frjksfgr djusokyh lhrk&'kfDr dh vH;FkZuk
gS A

7
71

Sitamarhi (Encl)

(I) THE SEARCHLIGHT APRIL-21, 1959 (PAGE-3)


RECENT COMMUNAL FRENZY IN SITAMARHI AREA
S.K. SINHA’S STATEMENT IN BIHAR ASSEMBLY.

Patna, April,20 – The following is the statement on the Sitamarhi incident


made by the Chief Minister in the Bihar Assembly on April 20, 1959 – The Ramnavmi
Mela at Sitamarhi was at its peak on April-17. At about 10 A.M. in the morning trouble
suddenly flared up near a Muslim Hotel set up in the middle of the Mela ground how
exactly it started is not very clear. There are conflicting versions which are being
looked into by the police. As this is subjudice, it is not proper for me to deal with it
here. The Hindus set fire to the Muslim Hotel constructed mainly of canvas with
thatched roofs. The hotel keepers and other were attacked and some of them were
killed. Rioting broke out in other Parts of mela. The deputation of the Magistrate and
police forces had been made in such strength as usual in every year.

It should be remembered that never before has there been a communal


incidents in this mela and the deputation of the police in the mela was only such as is
required for regulating movement in a peaceful crowd and for keeping an eye on
pickpockets and such like people. This meagre forces tried to control the crowd. The
sub-divisional magistrate and D.S.P. rushed to the spot from the other end of the
town and assisted by the police who also rushed to the spot from the out post did
their best to control the situation.

But these factors were of little avail, More than a lakh of people and
thousands of cattle had gathered within a space of about 2 sq. miles. There was a
great deal of confusion and panic. The armed forces and some constables who were
posted near the ring bandh, however, succeeded in preventing the rioters from
moving into the town. It took nearly two hours before order was restored.

CASUALITIES

The casualties, I regret to say were very heavy. The Magistrates and
the Police sent the injured people to the sub-divisional hospital by trucks and other
conveyance. 676 people who had injuries were registered in the hospital. Among
them, 78 had grevious, injuries, 417 people were detained in the hospital. There were
many who had received minor injuries and they could have been discharged straight
72

way but since they came from distant places it was considered advisable to keep
them in the hospital for sometime. 6 dead bodies were found in the mela ground,
among the injured, 8 people died later bringing the total numbers of death so far is
14. Immediate arrangements were made to provide relief. Doctors, Nurses and
medical supplies were rushed by plane from Patna and by train from Darbhanga.
Some of the best physician and surgeon were in attendance. An emergency hospital
was set up immediately in a neighbouring school. It is a matter of some satisfaction in
this sorry affair the local authorities arranged very promptly and efficiently, for the
care and shelter of the injured and that the doctors and medical staff rose to the
occasion and rendered very good service.

OFFICIALS ARRIVE
On receiving information, the commissioner and the ranged D.I.G. rushed
from Muzaffarpur and arrived at Sitamarhi shortly before 3 P.M. They found that the
situation had by then been brought under control. The District Magistrate & S.P. who
had gone to Hazipur in connection with some duty, arrived at Sitamarhi only a little
later.

Police reinforcements wre rushed from Muzaffarpur and other places.


Prohibitive orders U/s 144 Cr. P.C. was promulgated throughout the district. A dusk
to dawn curfew was imposed.

Information was received that a Muslim Mob attacked 106 Down Passenger
Train near Mahesaur. The train did not stop. One person travelling in footboard was
injured. The patrol party arrived immediately and there was no further trouble.

The 17th night was a period of some anxiety. Police forces incharge of
Magistrates were sent out to neighbouring thanas. The bordere districts were
especially warned. Every district officer in Bihar was alerted to prevent repercussions
anywhere in the state. As a result of all these precautions, the 17th night passed off
peacefully.

AT AKHTA
Information was received at Sitamarhi at about mid day on April-19 that mobs
of Hindus and Muslims had collected at village Akhta, P.S. Bairgania. There was a
magistrate incharge of a police party. The police had to open fire to maintain order.
Altogether 56 rounds were fired. Three Hindus and one muslim are known to have
been killed. The mobs carried away some of their dead and the injured. Houses
73

belonging to Hindus and Muslims in seven tolas of Akhta have been set on fire. The
District Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police rushed to Akhta immediately with
additional force.

AT HATSAR
At about 7.30 P.M. on the same day, information was received at Sitamarhi
that in village Hatsar, in Sheohar P.S., some Hindus attacked a Muslim hamlet. The
Muslims fled and took their shelter in the houses of Hindus in a neighbouring village
and found protection. The police patrol party visited Hatsar immediately and found
four Muslims had been injured. They were sent to hospital for treatment.

As a result of precautionary measures undertaken there has beenno further


incident.

The police force has been reinforced on a large scale. We have sent so far
threze companies of military police from Muzaffarpur and two companies from
Katihar. Two companies of Gorkhas are on the way from Ranchi. This means nearly
600 of officers and men of our military police. Besides, we have sent one troop of
mounted military police and tear gas units. To assist the district officer, we have in
addition, posted an officer from the Secretariat as additional District Magistrate,
Muzaffarpur district who will remain especially incharge of the operations. We have
strengthened the magistracy by empowering a large number of officerws and without
weakening other districts which also required vigilance, shall sent some more
magistrates. In other words, our resources will be fully utilises so that normalcy may
be restored as quickly as possible.

These are the facts about which information has been gathered. Any details
have to be filled in and in a fluid and critical situation specially in an area where
communications are extremely difficult it is not possible to present a complete picture
of the situation as it might be at the present moment. Cases have been registered in
respect of the crimes committed and investigation is in progress. A special squad of
police officers have been drafted to deal with the investigation expeditiously. Already
they have taken evidence, as I understand, from all the injured people who are
hospitalised and many others. These matters are subjudice for the same reason, I do
not wish to comments on the probable causes of the sudden eruption of violence in
the mela ground. In a period of tension, rumours, some of very wild nature gain
currency. The never do anything but harm. I appeal to all of you and to the people to
discount such speculation and strongly discourage rumour mongering. It is the duty
74

of all of us to do all that is possible to restore mutual trust and confidence among the
people and all out efforts should be sent in that direction.

C.M. VISITS AREA

On the morning of April-18, alongwith some of my colleagues I visited


Sitamarhi to see the adequate steps were taken to prevent further trouble and that
the injured were properly looked after and the families of unfortunate persons who
had been killed receive proper assistance. The Governor himself visited Sitamarhi on
the following day and talk to be patients in the hospital. It is a sad side to see so
many people, some of them injured seriously. It is totally senseless that so many
people should have suffered as a result of sudden mob frenzy. This kind of madness
can not but be too severely condemned. I know that on the voice the feelings of
every members of this house when I so that our sympathys go all out for the breve
families and the persons who have been hurt.

The Government are determine to put down with the utmost firmness and
promptitude any efforts by misguided to people undulged in violence or arson some
and orders have issued that there should not be the slightest hesitation in using all
the force required, have been to the length of opening fire in order to quell any
disturbances. The unfortunate occurrence in the Sitamarhi mela ground was a
special dangerous event because in this mela there had gathered people from
distant places from different districts. After the stamped, most of them must have
rushed back to their homes and has happens on such occasions wild rumours must
have gained currency. This has caused tention to poor in many widely separated
places and therefore it is that the strongest action by the agencies of Government is
essential in order to prevent sporadic cases of lawlessness tending to become a
conflagration which might later on required the infliction of heavier force in order to be
quenched.

Therefore, my government are determint to take stern and unhasiating action


against law brokers and if it becomes necessary, I shall not hesitate to request the
assistance of the army in putting down the disturbance. I appeal to all citizens to joint
together to help in restoring the normal conditions forthwith I also take this
opportunity of giving assurance to all law abiding citizens and in particular to the
people of minority community that the full force of government will be employed in
giving protection to them. They should their written confidence and courage and they
should also be careful not to be laid away by wild rumours.
75

I have tried to given above a factual end succinet account of the sad and
unfortunate event of Sitamarhi mela which has rightly attracted wide spread public
notice and given cause for resentment to my Muslim Brethren. We are all extremely
sorry for all the loss of life and property that resulted. I would only once more like to
assure that such a thing happened not because of any want of willingness on the part
of government to protect the life and liberty of Muslim but because the event resulting
in the loss of life and properly happened so unexpectedly and suddenly. We can now
only try to alleviate the suffering of the poors and unfortunate victim of this event and
that we are determint to do. We are determint to prevent a repeatation of such things
and facts given above will make how feel convinced of this.

I would once more assure my Muslim friends that it has always been and will
be our sacred concern to protect their life and liberty. I would once more repeat my
warning to those who so easily and want only play with the life and property of men. I
would end by appealing to the members of this house through them the people
outside that they will help us in meeting the situation by their cool and constructive
thinking. Government have come and gone in the past and will continue to do so in
future. But an improper handling of a situation like the present one may make the
continuance of any government impossible and this will be really acclamaty of the
worst type for a nation on its march through the difficult part of development to the
goal of its vision.

(II) THE SEARCH LIGHT


WEDNESDAY APRIL 22, 1959
CHIEF MINISTER ON SITAMARHI.

Albeit avoidably belated, the Chief Minister’s statement on the floor of the
Bihar Assembly on Sitamarhi carnage would be received with satisfaction by the
public as not only birthright condemnation of the orgy of lawlessness which disfigured
the placid life of the birthplace of the Divine spouse of Lord Sri Ramchandra but also
as a warning to law breakers whom the head of State administration would not spare
and treat lightly. Had he made this statement at least a day earlier, he might have
avoided the verbal out burst which characterised the Assembly proceedings on
Monday. There should be little hesitation in accepting Sri Babu’s assertion that the
deputation of policeman for the Ramnavmi Mela was only such as was required for
regulating movements in a peaceable crowd and for keeping an eye on pickpockets
and such like people. It might even be conceded that no reasonable person could
have apprehended a violent outbreak of a communal nature on a holiday. But it
76

behoved the Ministery to be ready for any possible emergency, especially after the
discovery of an image of Budha in a Hajipur graveyard. But for Mr. Birchand Patel’s
intervention, there might have been a communal flare up even at Hajipur. The home
department must assured the entire responsibility of it had not the imagination to
provide for possible contingencies.

In any case, the Chief Minister’s statement throws little light on the obligation
made by an M.L.A. that the policemen detailed for the mela first declined to open fire
when the aggressive section of the crowd was taking the law into its own hands. Nor
has Mr. S.K. Sinha explained how it was that, although they were armed with police
rifles, they had not with them even a single bullet. Another matter on which some
intelligible explanation, if not defence, would be needed to satisfy the public mind is
this. The out break started at 9.00 A.M. The news reached Patna almost
immediately. Dr. Sachchidanand, Superintendent of Patna Medical College Hospital,
once sent by a plane a contingent of doctors on a mission of mery. Patna doctors
reached Sitamarhi by about 2.00 P.M. The district officials of Muzaffarpur were only
30 miles away from the scene of tragedy. Ordinarily they should have been able to
reach the spot inside of an hour and a half at the most because of the fine motorable
road between Muzaffarpur and Sitamarhi. Mr. S.K. Sinha says that the commissioner
of Tirhut and the deputy inspector General of police, northern range, arrived at 3.00
P.M. ‘Only a little later’, he says, the district magistrate and the Superintendent of
Police arrived there. Everything would depend on the time factor what precisely is
meant by the term ‘a little later’ is perhaps relative. But the public allegation is that
the district magistrate had not come till 6.00 P.M. and the Superintendent of Police
not till two hours later, that was 8.00 P.M. There is something irreconcilable between
the public version and the Chief Minister’s statement on this particular detail. We
dare say Mr. S.K. Sinha will clarify the issue during the adjournment debate to-day.

On the eve of the adjournment debate, we have not the inclination to tender
any advice to our legislators. The report of the proceedings of the Assembly on
Monday disclosed that high tension and excitement had prevailed. We would beg of
them to remain calm. Excitement and temperamentalism could not undo the mischief
already done. But it will be generally agreed that the policy of posting or transferring
officers would need some radical change. Perhaps the Chief Minister is being
overworked, having to shoulder heavier responsibilities and burdens at his age than
he could ordinarily be expected to do. Even so, a public inquiry, preferably judicial
and presided over by a Supreme Court Judge, would be the proper thing to do. A
merely departmental probe into the record of the Muzaffarpur Superintendent of
77

Police would hardly satisfy the public mind, the more so because that Officer had
been the target of some very adverse criticism at the hands of the judicial tribunal
which had gone into the circumstances of what this paper had then characterised
and condemned as ‘Police Raj in Patna’ while the ultimate responsibility should
certainly be assumed by Mr. S.K. Sinha, the district Magistrate and the
Superintendent of Police on whom would lie the immediate responsibility would have
to convince a tribunal why or how they failed to look beyond the nose, especially after
the Hajipur incident which, they must have known needed watching over.

(III) The Search Light


Thursday, April 23, 1959.
Officials Blamed for riots in sitamarhi inquiry commission demanded
heated debate in assembly
(by our Assembly Reporter)

Patna, April, 22:


During the two hour debate on the adjournment motion about the Sitamarhi
tragic episode of April 17, which was tempered with unusual heat and passion the
district magistrate and the S.P. of Muzaffarpur were subjected to riddling criticisms by
several members alleging dereliction of duty, skort signtedness and efficiency and
describing them as ‘the pampered boys’ of the Government, in the Bihar Assembly.

These charges were, however categorically refuted by the Chief Minister and
Mr. M.P.N. Singh who acquitted himself today as the lone defender of the
Government in the House. Dr. S.K. Sinha emphatically declared that the guilty
persons would not be allowed in any circumstances to escape the long hands of law
and inflicted deterrent punishment.

He assured the house that the Government would have no stone unturned in
protecting the life, liberty and property of the minority community and bringing the
culprits to book. He also appealed to the members and the people at large not to be
led away by poisonous rumour mongering calculated to vitiate the atmosphere in the
state as well as in country and disturb the balance of peace and harmony.

Earlier member after member demanded the appointment of a high power


committee to screen the causes of rioting at Sitamarhi, mercilessly curbing the
disruptive elements and awrd of deterrent punishment to the officials for dereliction of
duty, if any. They also pleaded for relief in cash and kind and medical aid on a larger
scale to the victims of mob frenzy.
78

All the galleries of the Assembly hall were packed to suffocation. Every inch
of the space was occupied by the visitors who also ‘invaded’ the press gallery and
made it difficult for the reporters to carry on with their work. Even women in veils
appeared in the gallery allotted for them to watch the performance of their leaders
downstairs. Boys were also no less enthusiastic in occupying the points of vantage.

At least after full two hours, the adjournment motion was talked out at 4.30
P.M. and the house adjourned to meet again at 11 A.M. on Monday next.

Moving the adjournment motion, tabled jointly by him Mr. Ramanand Tiwari
and Mr. Ramanand Sngh on April, 2 at 2.30 P.M. this after-noon, Mr. Mahamaya
Prasad Sinha leader of the P.S.P. group in the house made it clear at the very outset
that he did not intend through this motion, the defame, discredit or run down the
Chief Minister or his Government, but simply wanted to minutely scan the prevailing
situation in Sitamarhi Sub-division which was enveloped at present by the flames of
our sinful acts of omission and commission.’

Mr. Sinha stated that the enactment of the Sitamarhi tragedy was the first of
its kind in the history of this state. There the high ideals of Hindu-Muslim unity, amity
and fraternity, for which Mahatma Gandhi the father of the nation, lived and laid down
his life had, to all intents and purposes, been given a go bye.

Referring to the Chief Minister’s statement in the house on April, 20 in this


connection, the P.S.P. leader said that he did not like to question the genuineness or
otherwise of the facts and figures contained in Dr. S.K. Sinha’s statement on the
subject but the fact, however, still remained that the people had not yet been
received of panic and perplexity.

As regards the precautionary measures taken by the Government Mr. Sinha


said that the Sitamarhi Mela was one of the most important of the state. This year
about two & half lakh people had congregated there on the occasion of Ramnaumi.
But the strength of the police force in the Mela, which was about 10 or 12 in
numbers, was quite insufficient to maintain law and order. This was why between 9-
10 A.M. and 3-4 P.M. over a dozen persons were killed, about thousand injured and
nearly thousand houses reduced to ashes as a result of the rioting.

He denounced the failing lapses in difference, delay in timely action and short
sightedness on the part of the authorities at the helm of district administration.
79

He alleged that they flouted the order of the Chief Minister to put down with
an iron hand any acts of lawlessness and flare up of mob violence.

The P.S.P. leader urged the leader of the house to get adjourned the
assembly for a week so that the members might be able to tour their respective
constituencies & help restore the climate of peace and amity. He also called upon the
Govt. to make speedy arrangements for more relief more money more doctors, and
more batches of ‘peace’ volunteers to inspire confidence in the minority community.

blds ckn fo/kku lHkk esa ftu lnL;ksa }kjk fn;s x;s Hkk"k.kksa dks izdkf’kr
fd;k x;k gS] muds uke uhps n’kkZ;s tk jgs gSa A

¼1½ Jh Qtywj vgen ¼2½ Jh ;ksxsUnz JhokLro


¼3½ Jh ,e- ih- ,u- flag ¼4½ Jh vkbZ- ,u- flag
¼5½ Jh ,u- ,- vtkth ¼6½ Jh jkekuUn frokjh
¼7½ Jh gsEcze ¼8½ Jh dk;kZuUn 'kekZ] rRi’pkr

mi;qZDr oDrkvksa ds ckn eq[;ea=h dk oDrO; Nkik x;k gS A mudk og


mRrj uhps m)`r fd;k tk jgk gS&

Chief Minister’s Reply

Replying to the debate on the adjournment motion, the Chief Minister stated
that in the beginning he was not in favour of any adjournment motion as, he was
afraid, it might fan the flame of communal tension and damage the prestige of the
state. Any way, I yielded because I wanted the members of the house to have an
opportunity to put off the heaviness of their hearts’, he said.

The Sitamarhi Mela, he continued, was 100 years old. But never such an
incident had occurred there. In this very house the members had offen pleaded that
the expenditure on the Police Department should not be increased. But at the same
time it was now argued as to why adequate police force was not posted in mela. In
future armed police units would be posted in every mela and expenditure therefore
would be demanded.
80

Dr. Sinha further said that while on the one hand the police were expected to
shape themselves as messengers of peace, on the other hand they were criticised
right and left for not resorting to firing at Sitamarhi.

He admitted that the traffic drama commenced at 10a.m. The officials both
civil and police, did their best to contain the flames of mob violence and also
succeeded to a great extent in their endeavours.

The Chief Minister announced at this stage that he would in no case allow the
guilty persons go scot free.

He vigourously defended the police for not resorting to firing in the Mela Area
where about one lakh people had congregated. The police strategy, he added, was
to bottle up the violence in the Mela Area and not to allow its spread towards the
bazaar side. In the mela one Sub Inspector was injured and other officials were also
hurt. Had the firing been resorted to by the police in the mela area the Chief Minister
ironically said, the adjournment motion would have been tabled in different vein.

He justified the non divulgence of facts and figures about the injured in the
Hospital by the civil surgeon to the M.L.As as they might from the basis of cases to
be instituted and also advised his colleagues in the house to learn to respect the
dignity of Government Officials.

The Chief Minister emphatically denied that he attended a dinner at Sadaquat


Ashram and said that journalism should not be made a medium of giving currency to
rumours.

He also rebutted the charge that the D.M. and S.P. of Muzaffarpur were guilty
of dereliction of duty.

The Chief Minister appealed to the members as well as to the people not to
lend their fears to poisonous rumours and baseless gossips calculated to vitiate the
atmosphere of the state in particular and the country in general.

(IV) The Searchlight


Five Killed in Sursand Incidents
Patna, Oct-15 (U.N.I.)- Five persons were killed, two die to police firing &
three other due to stabbing in Sursand, a tiny town on the Indo-Nepal border in
Muzaffarpur district this afternoon.
81

Police fired 11 round on a violent mob. At least 100 persons, including the
S.D.O. & D.S.P. Sitamarhi and the B.D.O. & the other officer incharge of Sursand
police station, received injuries. The condition of three police personnel is reported to
be Precarious.

Nearly 1000 members of the minority community have been removed from
sursand town & its neighbours village to Sursand police Station.

30 Arrested

The I.G. of Police, Bihar, M.S. Akhauri, said here today that 30 persons were
arrested so far.

The I.G. (P) said that the trouble started this afternoon when some members
of the minority community set fire to at least 2 half a dozen houses in the town.

Several persons were stabbed, 6 of them succumbed to the injuries.

The I.G.P. said that when police reached the spot, they were fired upon.
Some fire arms were recovered from the mob.

Curfew Clambed

P.T.I. adds: According to latest telephonic message received from Sitamarhi,


curfew has been clamped in Sursand tonight.

A large number of persons were reported to have been injured in the police
firing. The exact number was not known however.

A medical team had left for sursand from Muzaffarpur this morning.

Fire brigade has also been sent from Muzaffarpur to Sursand to control the
fires caused by arson.

Tiwary Visit

Police Minister, Mr. Ramanand Tiwary told UNI that he was leaving tomorrow
for Sursand alongwith the I.G. of Police.

The police Minister described the incident as “Seal and shameful.” & said
adequate precautionary measureds had been taken & additional force rushed from
Patna & Muzaffarpur. He had appealed to the people of all walks of life to maintain
peace at a time when the state was passing through a critical stage.
82

He also urged the leaders of the political parties to keep humanity above
politics and not commit any such acts which might for communal frenzy.

(V) The Searchlight, Dated 17.10.1967

SURSAND DEATH TOLL IS NOW 20


Sursand, Oct-16 (U.N.I.) :- The death toll in yesterday’s flare up here has
been officially reported to be 20

By midday the police were still searching the bodies in burnt out houses in
this township on the border with Nepal. Police Minister, Mr. Ramanand Tiwary, two
ministers of states Mr. Rudra Pratap Sarangi & Mr. Mohanlal Gupta, & the opposition
leader Mr. Mahesth Pd. Sinha today visited the two & three relief camps set up for
the victims of violence. Two centres have been opened to house the minorities while
the third for affected people of the majority community.

The opposition leader Mr. M.P. Sinha has demanded immediate enquiry into
the causes of the present flare up. He has also asked for an immediate arrangement
of the losses to human life & property.

Mr. Sinha alleged before reporters that two political parties were behind the
disturbances. He reported having seen a pamphlet calling on the people to join a
procession which was to be taken out by the sponsors of the pamphlet with lathis &
lethal weapons like axes.

The opposition leader also reported having seen two hodies in the rubble of a
burnt out house.

PTI adds:- Sitamarhi correspondent of PTI who visited Sursand today,


telegraphed that seven bodies had been recovered from the debries this morning.
More bodies were expected to the recovered. About a dozen persons were reported
to be missing. More than one hundred persons were injured.

PANIC
The correspondent found that entire Sursand Bazar deserted & the people
seized with panic. The Distt. Magistrate of Muzaffarpur, the D.I.G. of Police, northern
range, the S.P. & S.D.O. of Sitamarhi are camping at Sursand where large police
reinforcement have been sent from Patna & other places.
83

The Police Minister, Mr. Tiwary also visited a mosque from the roof of which
fire had been opened yesterday be some persons. Mr. S.K. Patrakar, D.M. of
Muzaffarpur told PTI at Sursand that the situation was under control.

The D.M. said that more than one hundred persons had been arrested in
Sursand in connection with the disturbances so far.

fA team of doctors from Muzaffarpur & Sitamarhi are also camping at


Sitamarhi for rendering medical aid to the injured.

NO FRESHTROUBLE
Dusk to dawn curfew was clamped in riot-torn. Indo-Nepal border township of
Sursand in Sitamarhi sub-division of Muzaffarpur district for the second day today.

Mr. Nageshwar Pd. Sinha, commissioner, Tirhut Division said that 140
houses had been gutted in acts of arson. He said 64 persons had been arrested so
far in connection with yesterdays’ disturbances.

There had been no fresh trouble today at Sursand where elaborate


precautionary measures had been taken & police patrolling introduced.

The commissioner said that over 1000 persons had taken shelter in the
spacious compound of Sursand P.S. & its adjoining public library building where they
were being fed at Govt. cost. He said clothes were also being distributed along them.

The Searchlight, Dated 18.10.1967

(VI) 2 MORE BODIES RECOVERED IN SURSAND


Sitamarhi, Oct-17 (P.T.I.):- The death roll in the disturbances in the township
of Sursand on October – 15 in Sitamarhi sub division of Muzaffarpur district has gone
up to 22 with the recovery of more bodies.

The curfew clamped there in the wake of disturbances on Sunday last was
lifted today. No un-towards incident was reported today.

Sursand Bazar, however, continued to be deserted. Large number of people


of Sursand had evacuated to the adjoining Nepal territory out of panic of these eight
had bullet injuries.
84

The commissioner of Tirhut division Mr. N.P. Singh today visited the troubled
area again.

(VII) The Searchlight, Dated 19.10.1967

Sursand Riot Echo

DRASTIC ACTION TAKEN AGAINST


GUILTY OFFICERS

Patna, Oct-18 (PTI) – Bihar Police Minister, Mr. Ramanand Tiwary, today
ordered immediate action against magistrates and police officers of Sitamarhi sub-
division guilty of dereliction of duty in the recent riots at Sursand in Sitamarhi sub-
division of Muzaffarpur district.

Mr. Tiwary has ordered immediate transfer of the Deputy S.P. (Sitamarhi) and
the retirement of the Police Inspector, in-charge of Sursand. The C.I.D. Officer of the
Sitamarhi has been ordered to be put under suspension.

The minister has also recommended that the second officer of the Sitamarhi
sub-division should be transferred.

Mr. Tiwary, who visited Sursand after the disturbances told PTI today that the
situation there was new peaceful and completely under control. First vigilance was
however being maintained, he said.

RIOTTOLLMOUNTS TO 50: PUNITIVE TAX TO BE IMPOSED

Rapid Action Force rushed to Sitamarhi

From – Sanjay Singh –

SITAMARHI, Oct 9- Though no fresh incident has been reported from any
part of the riot-tom district today, the death roll has gone up to 50. But as only 36
bodies have been recovered so far the officials have confirmed only 36 deaths.

Meanwhile, the Centre had decided to deploy six companies of the newly
constituted Rapid Action Force (RAF) in the district.

Many bodies are still being recovered from the paddy and sugarcane fields of
Riga villages. One body was recovered from Majorgang too. Sixty-two injured
persons are being treated at Riga.Sitamarhi and Muzaffarpur. As many as 122
85

persons have been taken into police custody so far, there has been no relaxation in
the curfew imposed in the riot-hit areas. The securitymen have orders to shoot any
person indulging in violence.

The State Government has decided to impose collective fines on all the
villages where rioting takes place and to give a compensation of Rs. 1 lakh in cash to
the dependents of all those killed in the riots. This was announced by the Chief
Minister, Mr. Laloo Prasad Yadav, during his visit to the affected villages today. Mr.
Yadav consoled the riot victims and said that he would provide pucca houses to all
those whose houses had been burnt. The Chief Minister went around all the affected
villages as well as those which are vulnerable to instill a sense of security among the
residents. He said that he would camp in and around Sitamarhi until the situation
became normal. The guilty would not be spared, he said, and instructed magistrates
and policemen of shoot the rioters. Today the Chief Minister visited BHORAHA,
Anhari, Narshyama, Izrahia, Izrahia Goat. Marg, Ganeshpur, Babhanganra and
Majhaura villages consoling and pacifying the people. He called upon all the
backward class Hindus, particularly the Yadav to sacrifice their lives in protecting the
minorities Sab gwala log lathi lekar duty karo. Tum log apne aap ko Laloo Yadav
samjho aur Musalmano ko bachao.

The Chief Minister said, “It is a conspiracy hatched by my detractors to oust


me.” He claimed he had specific information that these people were planning to
arouse communal passions during dussehra at four places – Biharsharif, Hilsa, Patna
City and Sitamarhi. At Bhoraha village Muslims complained to the C.M. that they
were being threatened by the Yadavas of Punaura. The Chief Minister assured them
full protection and said that he was trying to catch the brain behind the incident as,
according to Mr. Laloo Yadav the Sitamarhi incident had become a black spot kalank
on the fair image of his Government which used to boast of restoring communal
harmony in the State. At village Izrahia Goat where three women had been lynched
and some 97 houses burnt to ashes the C.M. accused the BJP and Congress of
instigating the riots. Mr. Yadav said that all anti-reservation people were out to
defame him for he was opening charwaha vidyalayas, distributing their excess land
amongst the landless poor and had got Advani arrested. The CM hurled abuses on
the rioters and said that the affected families would be provided free ration till further
orders. However, the riot victims are yet to get even a penny or an ounce of food
from the Government even after three days.

Mr. Yadav also assured stern action against Sitamarhi officials for their
negligence and inefficiency in dealing with the situation. He was accompanied by his
ministerial colleagues. Mr. Suryadeo Yadav and Dr. Ramchandra Purve. Meanwhile,
86

the dissident Janta Dal leaders Mr. Ram Sundar Das, Mr. Narendra Singh and
Munshi Lal Ravi were denied entry to Sitamarhi. Talking to newsmen at Muzaffarpur
Mr. Dass said that denying entry to the politicians opposed to Mr. Laloo Yadav was
an attempt by very unfair’ the State Government to cover up its failure to control the
riots. Mr. Das said that the State Government had not only miserably failed to control
the riots in Sitamarhi, but also no proper medicare was being provided to the injured
persons. Mr. Das went around the SKMCH accompanied by Mr. Narendra Singh and
Munshi Lal Rai, they talked the riot victims. Mr. Munshi Lal Rai accused, Hari
Kiwshor Singh and Nawal Kishor Rai, both J.D., MP, Sitamarhi. MLA, Mr. Shahid Ali
Khan, and former Congress MLA Mohd Anwaral Haque of engineering the riots and
demanded their immediate arrest.

HTC adds from Patna: With the death roll in the riot-torn town and its
adjoining areas rising to 36 following the recovery of 22 more bodies during the last
36 hours the Centre today rushed six companies of the newly constituted Rapid
Action Force (RAF) for the first time anywhere in the country.

According to the Home Commissioner, Mr. J.L. Arya, as many as six


companies of the RAF have been rushed to Sitamarhi from Allahabad. The forces
would be deployed in the curfew-bound town and its adjoining areas late tonight or
early the morning tomorrow, he said.

The Chief Minister, Mr. Laloo Prasad Yadav, the Director-General of Mr. A.K.
Choudhary, the DIG (administration), Mr. Anil Kumar, and the SP (Crime
Investigation), Mr. Rakesh Jaruhar besides a number of other senior police officers
have been camping in the riot hit town.

Mr. Arya said that as many as 23 bodies had been recovered from various
villages in the Riga block and 13 from the Sitamarhi town so far. Eleven villages have
been affected in the Riga block itself, he said.

The Home Commissioner said that altogether 111 persons have been
arrested from various parts of the district. The break-up of the arrests is 41 persons
from different villages under the Riga block and 63 from the Sitamarhi town.

As many as 162 incidents of arson have been reported so far from Sitamarhi
and Riga. Mr. Arya, however, said that no untoward incident had been reported from
any part of the Sitamarhi town and its adjoining areas today. “The situation is
peaceful and under control today,” he said.
87

The State administration today re-fused permission to a number of political


leaders belonging to various political parties, including the Bharatiya Janta Party
(BJP), the CPI and the breakaway group of the Janta dal, to visit the trouble torn
town. According to well places sources those whose demand to visit the town was
turned down by the authorities included the former State Janta Dal chief. Mr. Ram
Sunder Das, the Janta Dal (A) leader, Mr. Rasheed Masood and several others.

Mr. Arya said that no one would be allowed to enter Sitamarhi town and its
adjoining areas till the curfew was in force.

The State Government today initiated several relief measures in the riot
affected areas. The Home Commissioner said that every affected family would be
given one week’s free ration besides dhotis, sarees and utensils. He said that
repairing of the damaged and burnt houses in the affected areas would be
undertaken from tomorrow. The district administration has distributed polythene
among the riot affected people, he said.

Mr. Arya said that the para-military forces conducted flag march in the
affected areas where curfew continued without any relaxation.

He said 13 deputy superintendents of police and five police inspectors had


been deputed in the affected areas.

The Home commissioner said about 162 cases of arson and looting had been
lodged with the police in eleven affected villages of the district. The sources asid, 13
people were killed in group clashes and subsequent police firing in Sitamarhi town
while 25 deaths were reported from half a dozen village including Mill Bazar and
Majorganj under Riga block of the district.

Jha’s charge: The Bihar SJP president, Mr. Raghunath Jha, said that he had
himself seen 25 bodies of riot victims at Riga near here.

On his return from Riga Mr. Jha, a former Janta Dal Minister, said that the
riot-torn areas had very thin deployment of para-military forces and the number of
officers was also inadequate, Relief operations were further hampered by lack of
vehicles, he said.

He demanded a high-level probe into the riots.


88

(VIII) POLICE INTELLIGENCE


HAS FAILED AGAIN

--Amalendu—

PATNA. Oct 9 – The intelligence wing of the State police has failed once
again. It had no inking of a riot breaking out in Sitamarhi. The police headquarters or
the Home Department had no prior information of a possible riot. Had there been any
such prior information with the State headquarters, proper steps would have been
taken to foil the game, was the curt reply of highly placed sources here.

According to reports reaching here, the Sitamarhi district administration was


warned by the local people about a possible clash during the immersion of idols of
Goddess Durga. However, it appears that the district administration, took the
warning lightly and did not initiate any preventive measures.

The Sitamarhi district administration, according to the sources had not


requisitioned additional forces to prevent any untoward incident during the
Durgapuja. The additional force was rushed only after the riot had broken out No.
raids were connected to nab anti-social elements prior to the Puja.

No serious thoughts have ever been given in the State to streamline the
intelligence wing and make it a force to reckon with No force can move without prior
in formation to tackle such sensitive problems. During the riots the force looks
inadequate, untrained, badly equipped and its morale is very low. The present
system makes it impossible to pinpoint who is to be blamed.

Since more than a decade now, announcements by the powers-that-have


been made about the efforts to raise two special battalions of anti-riot force to meet
extraordinary situation but the scheme has remained only a part of the proceedings
of the legislature or the media. The scheme has not yet seen the light of the day.

The State Government has generally relied more on easy methods than
sticking to a tough system to streamline its force. The modernisation process has
virtually been shelved in the name of resource crunch. The policemen who are
promoted to the ranks of sub-inspector and inspectors lack basic training and they
fail miserably in tackling the situation at the time of an emergency.

The proposal to provide fast moving vehicles, wireless sets. Telephones and
modern weapons to police stations has been lying in cold storage. The Centre had
89

released fund for the modernisation of the police but the amount has not been
utilised.

Untrained personnel are appointed in the intelligence wing of the police force.
They also consider their postings in this particular wing as a punishment. This is
believed to be the main reason for their failure.

Every time when the carnages take place, the State Government creates a
new police range for improving law and order. But unfortunately, this too has failed to
produce the desired results.

The successive Governments in the State have failed to introduce the police
system in districts. These Governments have announced their decisions to introduce
the police system in Patna and Ranchi but the vested interests in the bureaucracy
have got the scheme scuttled.

Open it is found that the administration wakes up only when violence or


carnage has taken place. It swings into action when it is too late. There is no long-
term planning to prevent such incidents. The financial experts in the State have never
realised the importance of reorganising of the police force.

The proposal to have a well-knit intelligence wing is yet to take a final shape.
Another proposal to make arrangements for gathering information about criminals
operation indifferent parts is also yet to see the light of the day.

THE HINDUSTAN TIMES

(IX) PUNITIVE TAX TO BE IMPOSED


--Sitamarhi—

The sleepy town of Sitamarhi has gained a distinction with the eruption of
communal riots from which Bihar has been somewhat free in recent years. More than
a dozen people have died and several wounded in the carnage. It is indeed sad that
these killings are likely to revive the memory of Bhagalpur and other incidents of
large-scale communal violence which the people have been trying to forget. Once
again, the monster of communalism is rearing its head in the State. The cause of the
riots in Sitamarhi is quite familiar. A religious procession taken out by a community
was disturbed by another and this provided the spark for the conflagration which
engulfed the town and neighbouring villages. The failure of the administration was
evident in not anticipating the trouble or the way the disturbances spread. When the
trouble started, the police arrested several miscreants but on the intervention of
some politicians, some of them were reportedly released. This infuriated the rival
group and led to fresh violence. Again, on the day the idols of goddess Durga were to
90

be immersed in the river, more clashes took place. The immediate cause was the
insistence of one group to take out a procession along a particular route and the stiff
opposition to it by the rival group.

Though the State Government has taken measures to control the riots, it has
not been sufficiently alert while dealing with the problem. This being the festival
season, the authorities should have been well prepared to meet any eventuality. Had
it suspected any trouble, the ideal step would have been to ban all religious
processions but considering the sentiments of the people, it preferred not to do so.
But it should have brought about prior understanding between the two communities
on the route of the procession. The problems that the authorities wake up only after
the damage has been done.

Whatever be our progress in other directions, communal divisions seem to be


deepening. At the slightest provocation, differences between communities lead to
riots. No doubt, it is the duty of the Government to control riots but political leaders,
social workers and last but not least, religious heads have also a responsibility to
promote communal peace and harmony. The Laloo Prasad Yadav Government has
reason to feel unhappy because its fairly good record in maintaining communal
peace has been spoilt by the incidents in Sitamarhi. The communal problem,
however, is much more than a law and order question. By force rival groups can be
prevented from coming to clashes but only by a positive approach on the part of the
people can peace and harmony be created. The issue ultimately boils down to the
need for people, whatever their religion, community and political loyalty, to co-exit in
harmony. Sitamarhi is a disgrace not only to Bihar but to the country as well.

SITAMARHI RIOTS
(X) WREATHED AGONY
--Ravi Ranjan Sinha/Patna/Sitamarhi—

The molten and curled up frame of the TV antennae half buried in the debris
in Doctor Mian’s gutted house in Asogi near Riga, besides being a mute witness to
what had happened on October 8, is also symbolic of the wreathed agony of the
residents of this hamlet, who until the ill-fated day had lived in perfect harmony with
people in the neighbouring villages.

Doctor Mian with only one sewing machine, with which he used to earn his
living as the ‘tailor master’ of the locality, is one of the few in the village who were
considered prosperous because he owned a TV set. Others, mostly marginal
farmers, either depended on cultivation or rearing of cattle which they sold to traders
across the Indo-Nepalese border which is not far away.
91

Mohammed Ali Hussain (13), a Madras student with an innocent and comely
ace says he had fled the village before the attacking mob torched Doctor Mian’s
house and the fire engulfed more than a dozen houses in the row. He points to his
half-burnt house but forgets all about it as he like a typical village boy sprints to fetch
some water to drink. A faint smile appears on his face when asked as to how would
his family live now. His 70 year old grandfather Ali Mian standing by his side asks if
they could have some blankets as nights were now getting colder?

He will certainly have a couple of them from the district administration or


some voluntary organisation and which, no doubt, would protect them from the rib-
rattling winds from the Himalayan foot-hills that sweep this part of the country. But
would that bring back the warmth of brotherhood and camaraderie that have fallen
asunder?

Nadim Ansari lodged in lock-up at Riga police station cries hysterically and
asks the State Governor Mohammed Shafi Qureishi to arrange to have his three
children brought before him. He tells Qureishi. “I am a god-fearing man and say my
five prayers (Namaz) without fail.” In fact, his three nephews are missing and their
father – Nadim’s brother – who is also in the lock-up to look after him says that the
trauma had been too much for the former to endure. Nadim, he says, has become
mentally unstable and if set free might act in erratic ways. The bearded middle-aged
person is also not in a position to understand that his tormentors too had been on the
lunatic fringe.

Not only his music went mute but it silenced all around is life almost in a flash.
Wakil Shah of village Chandiha on the Sitamarhi-Riga Road along with his family
members used to make flutes which had a ready market in the neighbouring terai
areas of Nepal. A heap of half-burnt flutes, all works of skilled hands, lies before him
as he talks to a group of visiting newspersons. He says, before he could realise what
was to happen, his house had been reduced to ashes. Over thirty other huts also met
the same-fate on the morning of October 8. But what Wakil Shah adds is more
significant. Neither he nor other villages in Chandiha could recognise who the
marauders were. They certainly were not from villages in the neighbourhood.

A few miles away towards Riga is Khaira, a better looking village with a tea
shop, a flour milss and a motor mechanic’s shop. Basudeb Jee, a well-to-do
Brahmin, says almost half the population of his village comprises Muslims. While the
main village is just by the roadside, members of the minority community live about
half-a-kilometre inside. Basudeb Jee says no person in his village had been affected
because as soon as they heard about some “incidents” they went on guard. A well-
built young man standing by his side who speaks impeccable Hindi talks about what
92

he had heard of incidents in Sitamarhi on the Dussehra day and adds. “If the leaders
have to settle scores with each other let them do that on their own grounds. Why
should we suffer?”

Indeed why should he or anyone like him with no political ambitions and
concerned only with his own daily bread suffer? But not many people can put things
in perspective as this young man does. As a result Sitamarhi which, no doubt, has
been known as a “communally sensitive” place, has witnessed a holocaust second
only to Bhagalpur in its severity and impact. It has left over 50 dead and 150 injured
(who needed treatment at hospitals) and as clashes have taken place deep in the
country side, possibilities of further recover of bodies from fields, beds of rivulets or
ponds later too cannot be ruled out.

Besides in Sitamarhi, Riga, Chandiha and Asogi clashes have taken place
villages like Pijrahiya, Kulbaria, Majhaura, Imblibazar, Ganeshpur, Bariarpur,
Barmarshi Nagar, Koeli and Bathnaha, according to officials. Deputy Development
Commissioner, Atul Prasad, who was in-charge of the control room set up at Town
Police Station, Sitamarhi, said that by October 10 as many as seven relief centres –
one in the town, one in Bathnaha and five in Riga block were setup – where
arrangements had been made to supply essential commodities like wheat, edible oil,
salt, match boxes, clothes and cash.

Most of the injured persons were shifted to the Srikrishna Memorial Medical
College Hospital, Muzaffarpur and they included 17 women and six children. Dr. S.N.
Jaiswal, Acting Superintendent of the Hospital said on October 8 out of the seven
persons brought to the hospital with gunshot injuries two had died. One had been hit
in the head and the other in the abdomen. All of them had been injured in police
firing. According to Sambhu Rai, Rambabu Sharma and wife of mohammed Salaudin
while the first two here able to talk salaudin was unconscious – the police started
firing minutes after announcement about imposition of curfew without looking at who
was doing what. Sambhu was taking his buffalo calf to his sister’s place just a few
lanes away from his house while Sharma was going to the Sitamarhi Court area on
some personal work.

The curfew was imposed and shoot-at-sight orders were issued within just an
hour after Lalool Prasad Yadav reached Sitamarhi on the morning of October 8. After
that the local administration lapsed into a limbo. The Chief Minister was later assisted
by a team of officials who flew into the riot-rom town from the State capital. It was
the sudden imposition of the curfew that seemed to have sent wrong signals to the
rural areas. Blanked off from the district headquarters villagers had no means to
know what had happened at Sitamarhi, Yadav had probably not realised that an
93

over-reaction on the part of the head of the Government could, instead of containing
the riot, fuel the conblogration. The need of the time perhaps was to appear to people
to remain calm and let them know about the genesis of the trouble that had taken
place on the previous night and about actions taken against persons whose names
as suspects of having engineered the disorder were already in circulation in the town
and adjoining areas.

But the Chief Minister was apparently caught in a dilemma. He had to protect
the fair name he has earned during his tenure of more than two-and-half years as
one who did not allow an organised communal clash to take place in the State; as
also to see that his party comrades like Shahid Ali Khan, MLA, and Nawal Kishore
Rai, MP, were not held responsible for the mayhem.

The Chief Minister almost acted as a man possessed or haunted believing


none except his castmen to restore order. “Each one of you, consider yourself to be
another Laloo,” was the message he sent out to Yadavs, and not furitively. It was
done with the openness typical of the man.

That apart, no answer was forthcoming to the questions like who got the
earning young men released, who had allegedly teased woman worshipers on
October 3, or after agreeing to the change of the procession route at the peace
committee meeting convened by the Deputy Superintendent of Police why the
representatives of the minority community went back on their words? Why at all was
the procession allowed into the area where the clash first took place? In fact, these
are the questions which would be crucial for any independent investigating agency to
go into. The State Government, however, has ordered setting up of special courts
claiming that the mischief mongers had been identified and had been named in the
FIR lodged with the police.

Laloo Prasad Yadav, however, in his usual ruthless manner did not allow
anyone to ‘pliticise’ the Sitamarhi riots. Despite protests even from his allies like the
CPI, he did not allow teams of political parties to visit the riot – affected areas. It
would no retrospect, appear to be a good decision as their statements with
unmistakable tints of their respective ideologies would have further added to the
confusion. In fact, the way Yadav reacted reached to Union Minister of State for
Home, M.M. Jacob’s allegation that Bihar had ignored the advice of central
intelligence agencies, has also not been considered unjustified by political and
bureaucratic circles in Patna.

The riots have been checked. Peace has been restored in the places which
were affected by the disturbances. Whether it is durable or not would be known after
the men in uniform move out of the area. To visitors it seems the scars that incidents
on October 7 and 8 have caused would not heal up soon. As to Laloo Prasad
94

Yadav’s efforts he certainly has emerged once again as a man who means business.
But has he realised after Sitamarhi that in the business he is in – politics – one can
not last long if he remains looking at the mirror specially when persons are lurking
from behind with stone chips in their hands? He has so far successfully taken on his
known foes. He will no have to be worry of those who claim to be his followers.
Whether Shahid Ali Khan’s or Nawal Kishore Rai’s secular credentials can ever be
suspected will have to be found out by Yadav himself. In any case, so far he has
been known to do things alone.
95

(XI) lhrke<+h
ds xkaoksa esa Hkh minzo
jhxk esa fgalk ds ckn dQ~;Zw % 15 ejs
vkxtuh ls nks djksM+ dh laifRr u"V gksus dk vuqekj

&’kf’k Hkw"k.k&
Lhrke<+h] 8 vDrwcjA lhrke<+h 'kgj esa dy QSys minzo dh yiV vkt
jhxk cktkj btjfg;k] p.Mhgk vkSj xqyfj;k xkao rd QSy xbZ A jhxkcktkj esa
tkr falk ij mrk: HkhM+ dks frrj forj djus ds fy, iqfyl dks xksyh pykuh
iM+h ftlls rhu yM+ds ekjs x;s tcfd ,d O;fDr dh e`R;q vkxtuh esa gqbZ A
jhxk esa Hkh csfe;knh dQ~Z;w yxk fn;k x;k gS rFkk iqfyl dks minzfo;ksa dks
ns[krs gh xksyh ekjus ds vkns’k fn;s x;s gSa A minzoksa esa vc rd 15 yksx ekjs
tk pqds gSa tcfd lhrke<+h ds vfrfjDr ftyk dyDVj vkj0ih0flag us 14
yksxksa ds ejus dh iqf"V dh gS A

Vkt minzfo;ksa us btjfg;k ds 37] paMhgk ds 30 ,oa xqyfj;k ds ,d ?kj


esa vkx yxk nh A lHkh ?kj tydj jk[k gks x;s A bu {ks=ksa esa vc rd rhu
yksxksa ds ejus dh [kcj gS A ftyk iz’kklu ds vuqlkj vkt jhxk esa Hkh ywV ikV
vkSj vkxtuh dh ?kVuk 'kq: gks x;h A izf’k{kq Mh-vkbZ-th- ogkWa dSEi dj jgs gSa A

Lhrke<+h ftyk iz’kklu us ejus ckys 11 yksxksa dh lwph cuk;h gS A

Djus ckyksa esa ftudh igpku gks pqdh gS muesa jQhQ vUlkjh ¼jktksiV~Vh½]
dkyst Nk= jke ckcw izlkn ¼dqjgjok lksucjlk½ lfu;k [kkrwu ¼btjfg;k½]
vk’kk [kkrwu ¼btjfg;k½] eks0 ejuw[krwu ¼btjfg;k½] eks0 ifjpe ¼paMhgk½] eks0
jkbu ¼esglkSyxkSV½ o jktuUnu jk; ¼y{eh uxj½ 'kkfey gSa A

,l0ds0lh0,p0 eqtQjiqj esa ftu 14 ?kk;yksa dks HkrhZ fd;k x;k gS muesa
rhu dh gkyr fpUrktud crk;h tkrh gS A ?kk;yksa dh f’kdk;r gS fd mudk
lgh bykt vkSj ns[kHkky ugha gks ik jgk gS A vU; 18 ?kk;yksa dks lhrke<+h
96

vLirky esa HkrhZ djk;k x;k gS A ogka ds ?kk;yksa dh Hkh f’kdk;r gS fd mudk
leqfpr bykt vkSj ns[kHkky ugha gks ik jgh gS A lhrke<+h esa vk;qDr] vkbZ0th0
o Mh0vkbZ0th0 dSEi dj jgs gSa A vkt jkt jkT; ds Mh0th0 iqfyl Hkh
naxkxzLr {ks=ksa dk nkSjk djus lhrke<+h igqap jgs gSa A

Minzoksa esa rksM+QksM+ ,oa vkxtuh ds dkj.k vc rd nks djksM+ :i;s ls


vf/kd dh laifRr u"V gksus dk vuqeku gS A yxHkx nks lkS ls vf/kd nwdkusa ,oa
?kjksa dks tyk fn;s tkus ls lSadM+ksa yksx cs?kj vkSj csjkstxkj gks ;s gSa A yxHkx
vk/kk ntZu LdwVj] eksVjlkbfdy ,oa vk/kk ntZu Vªdksa dks vkx yxkdj
{kfrxzLr dj fn;k x;k gS A iz[kaM fodkl inkf/kdkjh] lhrke<+h dh thi Hkh
{kfrxzLr dj nh x;h gS A

lnj Mh0,l0ih0 Jh ukxzsUnz pkS/kjh Hkh ?kk;y gSa A t; y{eh


bUVjizkbtst] bafM;k LVhy rFkk xks;y fVEcj] enjlk bLykfe;k] vjfo;k
tkekefLtn vkfn dh nwdkuksa lfgr ntZuksa xqefV;ksa dks funZ;rk iwoZd ywVk x;k
vkSj vkx yxk;h x;h A lhrke<+h ds dQ~Z;wxzLr {ks= esa vkt iVuk ls izdkf’kr
dksbZ Hkh nSfud v[kckj ugha caVk ijUrq yksx yqds fNis eqtQjiqj ls v[kckj ys
tkdj ,d nwljs dks i<+krs ns[ks x;s A ,d ,d v[kckj dks i<+us ds fy,
eksgYyksa esa HkhM+ bdV~Bh gks tkrh Fkh A

iVuk ls gekjs dk;kZy; laoknnkrk ds vuqlkj jhxk o lhrke<+h esa fLFkfr


ij fu;a=.k ds fy, iqfyl eq[;lky; ls ,d vkj{kh v/kh{kd rFkk rhu
Mh0,l0ih0 rFkk 19 eftLVªsVksa dks yxk;k x;k gS A jkT; ds eq[; lfpo v:.k
ikBd rFkk vkj{kh egkfuns’kd v:.k dqekj pkS/kjh us lhrke<+h jhxk igqap dj
fLFkfr dk tk;tk fy;k A

jkT; ds x`g lfpo ft;k yky vk;Z us crk;k fd lhrke<+h vkSj jhxk esa
e`rdksa dh la[;k 12 gks x;h gS A pkj O;fDr;ksa dh e`R;q jhxk esa gqbZ rFkk
lhrke<+h esa dy gqbZ ?kVuk ds ckn vkB yksxksa dh e`R;q gqbZ A mUgksaus dgk fd
lhrke<+h esa csfe;knh dQ~Z;w tkjh jgsxk A jkT; ds eq[; lfpo v:.k ikBd us
lhrke<+h ls ykSVus ds ckn crk;k fd ogka fLFkfr iwjh rjg fu;a=.k esa gS A
97

vkf/kdkfjd lw=ksa us crk;k fd v)Z lSfud cyksa us vkt lhrke<+h 'kgj esa
QySx ekpZ fd;k A minzo d svc vklikl ds xkaoksa esa Hkh QSyus dh lwpuk gS A
lw=ksa us crk;k fd [kklu] x.ks’kiqj vkSj c[kjh esa Hkh nks leqnk;ksa ds chp >M+i
gksus dh lwpuk feyh gS A

x`g lfpo ft;k yky vk;Z us crk;k fd lhrke<+h dh fLFkfr esa lq/kkj
gqvk gS A iwoZ fo/kk;d 'kdhy mTtek us dsUnzh; x`g ea=h ls lhrke<+h esa ^^jSfiM
,D’ku QkslZ** dh ,d dEiuh Hkstus dh ekax dh gS A

^okrkZ* ds vuqlkj iVuk esa x`g vk;qDr us lhrke<+h esa fLFkfr dks iwjh rjg
fu;a=.k esa gksus dk nkok fd;k vkSj crk;k fd ogka iVuk ls v)Z lSfud cyksa dh
Ng daifu;ka Hksth x;h gSa mUgksus crk;k fd jkT; eq[;ky; ls ,d iqfyl
v/kh{kd rFkk rhu iqfyl mik/kh{kd ogka izfrfu;qDr fd;s x;s gSa A

Lhrke<+h ds xk¡oksa esa Hkh minzo QSyk


blds vykok fLFkfr ij fu;a=.k j[kus ds fy, eqtQjiqj ls rhu thi
vkSj ,d daiuh QkslZ] oS’kkyh ls 18 dkaLVscy] ,d baLisDVj] 17 thi rFkk
csfr;k ls 20 dkaLVscy lhrke<+h Hksts x;s gSa A

Jh vk;Z us crk;k fd fgalk dh ?kVukvksa esa vc rd dqy 32 yksx ?kk;y


gq, gSa rFkk 62 minzodkfj;ksa dks fxjQ~rkj fd;k x;k gS A

bl chp lhrke<+h ls izkIr [kcjksa esa dgk x;k gS fd vkt ftys ds jhxk
iz[kaM ds fey cktkj] jhxk xkao] e>kSj] vlksxh] x.ks’kiqj] c[kjh] cHkuxzke vkfn
xkaoksa esa vkxtuh vkSj ywV dh vusd ?kVuk;sa ?kVh ftlesa lkS ls vf/kd ?kj ds
tyus vkSj djhc 12 yksxksa ds ejus dh [kcj gS gkykafd vkf/kdkfjd rkSj ij
bldh iqf"V djus ds fy, ftyk iz’kklu dk dksbZ vf/kdkjh miyC/k ugha gS A

vkf/kdkfjd lw=ksa ds vuqlkj v)ZlSfud cyksa us vkt lhrke<+h 'kgj esa


Q~ySx ekpZ fd;k A naxk HkM+dkus ds ckn iwjs 'kgj esas dy ls dQ~Z;w ykxw gS A
lw=ksa us crk;k fd joklu] x.ks’kiqj vkSj oHkjh xkaoksa esa naxs gksus dh lwpuk feyh
gS A
98

eq[;ea=h ykyw izlkn ;kno us vkt jkT; dh turk rFkk lHkh jktuhfrd
nyksa ls lkaiznkf;d ln~Hkkouk dk;e j[kus esa enn dh vihy dh gSA

Jh ;kno us ;gka dgk fd lhrke<+h esa fiNys eaxyokj dks izfrek foltZu
tqywl esa 'kkfey dqN vlkekftd rRoksa dh gjdrksa ds dkj.k iqfyl dks xksyh
pykus ds fy, etcwj gksuk iM+k A mUgksaus dgk fd dqN lekt fojks/kh rRo jkT;
esa lkaiznkf;d naxk djkuk pkgrs gSa A

mUgksaus dgk fd lhrke<+h esa {kfr ds vkdyu ds ckn izHkkfor ifjokjksa dks
i;kZIr eqvkotk fn;k tk;sxk A

f’k{kk ea=h jkepUnz iwosZ us lhrke<+h ls nwjHkk"k ij crk;k fd ogka fLFkfr


fu;a=.k esa gS A dy nqxkZ izfrek foltZu ds nkSjku gqbZ ?kVuk ds ckn Jh iwosZ
ogka dSEi dj jgs gSa A

m/kj] fgylk esa dy izfrek foltZu ds nkSjku ekxZ ifjorZu dh ekax


dj jgs yksxksa vkSj iqfyl ds chp jksM+sckth gqbZ A iqfyl us ;gka Hkh xksfy;ka
pyk;h] gkykafd iqfyl xksyh ls dksbZ grkgr ugha gqvk A bl ekeys esa 18 yksx
fxjQ~rkj fd;s x;s gSa A

iqfyl lw=ksa ds vuqlkj gkthiqj esanks v[kkM+s ds yksxksa ds chp gq, la?k"kZ
ds nkSjku ,d O;fDr dh e`R;q gqbZ A

lhrke<+h ls fu0la0 ds vuqlkj jhxk fey cktkj esa vkt Ms<+ ntZu nqdkusa
rFkk nks thisa tyk nh x;ha A lhrke<+h lnj ds lnj vuqe.Mykf/kdkjh Jh
jkethr flag us ?kVukLFky ij crk;k fd naxkb;ksa ij iqfyl }kjk Ng pØ
xksfy;ka pyk;h x;ha] ysfdu dksbZ grkgr ugha gqvk A

jhxk iz[kaM ds x.ks’kiqj] c[kjh] oHkuxkaok] ea>kSjk] v’kksxh] jhxk xkao vkfn
esa vkxtuh o ywVikV dh vkt Hkh ntZuksa ?kVuk,sa ?kVh gSa A jhxk esa
vfu’fprdkyhu dQ~;Zw yxk fn;k x;k gS A
99

izFke fo/kku lHkk ls vktrd lhrke<+h ftyk ds


fo/kku lHkk lnL;ksa dh lwph
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
1952&1957
Ø-la- lnL;ksa dk uke ikVhZ {ks=
1- Jh Bkdqj fxfjtk uUnu flag dkaxzsl f’kogj&de&csylaM
2- Jh pqYgkbZ nqlk/k dkaxzsl f’kogj&de&csylaM
3- Jh jke lsod 'kj.k LorU= lhrke<+h
4- Jh dqynhi ukjk;.k ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h if’pe
5- Jh nkeksnj >k lkslfyLV lhrke<+h
6- Jh foosdkuUn fxfj Lora= :fulSniqj
7- Jh ';ke pUnu nkl egar dkaxzsl iqijh nf{k.k
8- Jh Mk0 gchc dkaxzsl iqijh mRrj
9- Jh fryd/kkjh iz0 egrks Lora= lksuojlk QzksUVh;j
10- Jh jke pfj= jk; ;kno Lora= lqjlaM

1957&1962
1- Jh f=os.kh izlkn flUgk dkaxzsl :fulSniqj
2- Jh jkekuUn flag dkaxzsl iz0 lks0
3- Jh Bk- fxfjtk uUnu flag Lora= f’kogj
4- Jh jke Lo:i jke Lora= f’kogj
5- Jh jke lsod 'kj.k iz-lks- ikVhZ lhrke<+h nf{k.k
6- Jh dqynhi ukjk;.k ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h mRrj
7- Jh fla?ks’oj jk; Lora= lksuojlk
8- Jh egs’oj iz-uk- flUgk dkaxzsl lqjlaM
9- Jherh lqnkek pkS/kjh dkaxzsl iqijh mRrj
10- Jh nsosUnz >k iz-lks- ikVhZ iqijh nf{k.k
100

1962&1967
1- Jh foosdkuUn fxfj Lora= :fulSniqj
2- Jh jkekuUn flag iz-lks- ikVhZ csylaM
3- Jh fprjatu flag dkaxzsl f’kogj
4- Jh jke Lo:i jke dkaxzsl estjxat
5- Jh fd’kksjh yky lkg dkaxzsl lhrk<+h
6- Jherh fxfjtk nsoh dkaxzsl lhrke<+h mRrj
7- Jh lhrkjke egrks Lora= lksuojlk
8- Jherh izfrHkk nsoh dkaxzsl lqjlaM
9- Jh Hkqous’oj jk; iz-lks- iqijh mRrj
10- Jh nsosUnz >k iz-lks- iqijh nf{k.k

1967&1968 ¼e/;kof/k pquko½

1- Jh foosdkuUn fxfj dkaxzsl :fulsniqj


2- Jh fd’kksjh yky lkg dkaxzsl lhrke<+h
3- Jh eksgu yky 'kekZ lektoknh cFkukgk
lks- ikVhZ
4- Lo- Jh pUnzs’oj uk-iz-flag dkaxzsl csylaM
5- Jh Bk- fxfjtk uUnu flag tu&ØkfUr f’kogj
6- Jh jke o`{k jke l-lks-ikVhZ estjxat
7- Jh jkekuUn jk; Lora= lksuojlk
8- Jherh izfrHkk nsoh dkaxzsl lqjlaM
9- Jh ulh#n~nhu gSnj [kk¡ dkaxzsl iqijh
101

1969&1972

1- Jh Hkqous’oj jk; la-lks-ikVhZ :fulSniqj


2- Jh ';ke lqUnj nkl la-lks-ikVhZ lhrke<+h
3- Jh jke cgknqj flag dkaxzsl cFkukgk
4- Jh jkekuUn flag iz-lks-ikVhZ csylaM
5- Jh Bk- fxfjtk uUnu flag Hkk-Øka ny f’kogj
6- Jh jkeo`{k jke la-lks-ikVhZ estjxat
7- Jh jkt uUnu jk; dkaxzsl lksuojlk
8- Jh jke pfj= jk; ;kno dkaxzsl lqjlaM
9- Jh jke o`{k pkS/kjh tula?k iqijh

1972&1977

1- Jh f=os.kh iz0 flag dkaxzsl :fulSniqj


laxBu
2- Jh jke Lo:i flag lh-ih-vkbZ lhrke<+h
3- Jh Qrqjh flag dkaxzsl ¼v½ cFkukgk
4- Jh jke lqjr flag dkaxzsl csylaM
5- Jh j?kqukFk >k dkaxzsl f’kogj
6- Jh lhrkjke egrks dkaxzsl lksuojlk
7- Jh jke pfj= jk; ;kno Lora= lqjlaM
8- Jh jke o`{k pkS/kjh dkaxzsl iqijh
9- Jh lqjsUnz jke dkaxzsl estjxat
102

1977&1980

1- Jh uoy fd’kksj 'kkgh turk :fulSniqj


2- Jh j?kqoa’k izlkn turk csylaM
3- Jh j?kqukFk >k dkaxzsl f’kogj
4- Jh jke lkxj iz0 ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h
5- Jh lw;Z nso jk; dkaxzsl cFkukgk
6- Jh lqjsUnz jke turk estjxat
7- Jh egewn vkye dkaxzsl lksucjlk
8- Jh jke pfj= jk; ;kno dkaxzsl lqjlaM
9- Jh gchc vgen dkaxzsl iqijh

1980&1985

1- Jh foosdkuUn fxfj dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ :fulSniqj


2- Jh j?kqoa’k iz0 flag turk ¼,l½ csylaM
3- Jh j?kqukFk >k dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ f’kogj
4- Jh ihj eksgEen valkjh dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lhrke<+h
5- Jh lw;Z nso jk; dkaxzsl ¼;w½ cFkukgk
6- Jh jke o`{k jke dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ estjxat
7- eks0 vuok:y gd dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lksucjlk
8- Jh ukxsUnz iz0 ;kno dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lqjlaM
9- Jh jke o`{k pkS/kjh dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ iqijh
103

1985&1990
fo/kkf;dk
1- Jh [kxkSy valkjh dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lhrke<+h
2- Jh jkeo`{k pkS/kjh dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ iqijh
3- Jh uoy fd’kksj 'kkgh turk ikVhZ :uhlSniqj
4- Jh johUnz izrki 'kkgh funZyh; lqjlaM
5- Jh diwZjh Bkdqj yksdny lksucjlk
6- Jh jkeo`{k jke dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ estjxat
7- Jh dSIVsu jke fuokl dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ cFkukgk
8- Jh j?kqukFk >k turk ikVhZ f’kogj
9- Jh j?kqoa’k flag yksdny csylaM

1990&1995

1- Jh 'kkfgn vyh [kk¡ turk ny lhrke<+h


2- Jh lhrkjke jk; turk ny iqijh
3- Jh uoy fd’kksj 'kkgh turk ny :uhlSniqj
4- Jh johUnz izrki dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lqjlaM
5- Jh jkethou lkg turk ny lksucjlk
6- Jh xkSjh 'kadj ukxna’k turk ny estjxat
7- Jh lw;Znso jk; turk ny cFkukgk
8- j?kqukFk >k turk ny f’kogj
9- fnfXot; flag dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ csylaM
104

lhrke<+h ftyk ls tks jkT; lHkk ds fy;s le;&le; ij fuokZfpr


?kksf"kr fd;s x;s mudh fooj.kh uhps nh tk jgh gS%&

1- Jh egs’oj iz0 uk0 flUgk & 1953


2- Jh jkts’oj iz0 uk0 flUgk & 1962
3- Jh jkts’oj iz0 uk0 flUgk & 1965
4- Jherh izfrHkk flag & 1974
5- Jherh izfrHkk flag & 1976
6- Jherh izfrHkk flag & 1978
7- Jherh izfrHkk flag & 1980
8- Jh jkepUnz Hkkj}kt & &

lhrke<+h ftyk ls lu~ 1952 ls vkt rd yksd&lHkk ds fy, fuokZfpr


lnL;ksa dh lwph%&
1952&1957
1- Lo0 Jh pUnzs’oj iz-uk- flUgk dkaxzsl eqtQ~Qjiqj m-i-
2- Jh fnfXot; ukjk;.k flag dkaxzsl eqtQ~Qjiqj m-iw-
1957&1962
1- Jh ts0 ch0 d`iykuh ih-,l-ih- lhrke<+h
2- Jh fnfXot; uk0 flag dkaxzsl iqijh
1962&1967
1- Jh 'kf’k jatu iz- lkgw dkaxzsl iqijh
2- Jh ukxsUnz iz0 ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h

1967&1971
1- Jh 'kf’k jatu iz- lkgw dkaxzsl iqijh
2- Jh ukxsUnz iz0 ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h
105

1971
1- Jh gfj fd’kksj flag dkaxzsl iqijh
2- Jh ukxsUnz iz0 ;kno dkaxzsl lhrke<+h

1977
1- Jh Bk- fxfjtk uUnu flag turk f’kogj
2- Jh ';ke lqUnj nkl turk lhrke<+h
1980
1- Lo0 Jherh jkenqykjh flUgk dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ f’kogj
2- Jh cyjke Hkxr dkaxzsl ;w- lhrke<+h

1985
1- Jh jkeJzs"B f[kjgj dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ lhrke<+h
2- Jherh jkenqykjh flUgk dkaxzsl ¼vkbZ½ f’kogj

1989
1- Jh gqdqenso ukjk;.k ;kno turk ny lhrke<+h
2- Jh gfjfd’kksj flag turk ny f’kogj
1991
1- Jh uoy fd’kksj jk; turk ny lhrke<+h
2- Jh gfjfd’kksj flag turk ny f’kogj

bl vof/k esa lhrke<+h dh Jherh jkenqykjh flUgk iVuk lalnh; fuokZpu


{ks= ls pquh xbZ Fkh A
106

lhrke<+h ftys dh LFkkiuk ds ckn inLFkkfir


ftyk inkf/kdkfj;ksa dh lwph A

1- Jh vuok:y gksnk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 11-12-1972 ls 22-12-1972 rd


2- Jh rkjkdkar feJ] ch-,-,l- ¼izHkkj esa½ & 23-12-1972 ls 17-04-1973 rd
3- Jh th-vkj- iVo/kZu] Hkk-iz-ls- & 18-04-1973 ls 28-07-1975 rd
4- lqJh y{eh pØorhZ] Hkk-iz-ls- & 29-07-1975 ls 11-04-1977 rd
5- Jh vt; dqekj feJk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 12-04-1977 ls 18-08-1977 rd
6- Jh ,l-,l-ih- flUgk] ch-,-,l- ¼izHkkj esa½ & 19-08-1977 ls 27-08-1977 rd
7- Jh ghjk izlkn] Hkk-iz-ls- & 28-08-1977 ls 31-01-1979 rd
8- Jh egsUnz cSBk] ch-,-,l- ¼izHkkj esa½ & 01-02-1979 ls 09-02-1979 rd
9- Jh egs’oj ik=k] Hkk-iz-ls- & 10-02-1979 ls 18-04-1980 rd
10- Jh ,l0 ,e0 gluSu] Hkk-iz-ls- & 22-04-1980 ls 21-06-1982 rd
11- Jh v’kksd dqekj flUgk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 22-06-1982 ls 18-06-1984 rd
12- Jh vkyksd pUnz jatu] Hkk-iz-ls- & 19-06-1984 ls 05-06-1984 rd
13- Jh v’kksd dqekj ljdkj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 06-06-1986 ls 20-09-1988 rd
14- Jh ujsUnz dqekj oekZ] Hkk-iz-ls- & 21-09-1988 ls 21-09-1990 rd
15- Mk0 pUnzxqIr v’kksd o/kZu] Hkk-iz-ls- & 22-09-1990 ls 03-11-1992 rd
16- Jh lq/khj dqekj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 04-11-1992 ls 21-06-1993 rd
17- Jh ukxsUnz ukFk flUgk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 22-06-1993 ls 31-05-1994 rd
18- Jh fo".kq dqekj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 01-06-1994 ls 04-05-1995 rd
19- Jh nsosUnz dqekj 'kekZ] Hkk-iz-ls- & 05-05-1995 ls 18-12-1997 rd
20- Jh jke uUnu izlkn] ch-,-,l- & 19-12-1997 ls 19-02-1999 rd
21- Jh oSnsgh 'kj.k feJ] Hkk-iz-ls- & 20-02-1999 ls 29-04-1999 rd
22- Jh jke uUnu izlkn] Hkk-iz-ls- & 30-04-1999 ls 07-11-1999 rd
23- Jh eqtQ~Qj vyh] ch-,-,l- ¼izHkkj esa½ & 08-11-1999 ls 11-11-1999 rd
24- Jh lqjsUnz flag eh.kk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 12-11-1999 ls 11-06-2000 rd
25- Jh vrh’k pUnzk] Hkk-iz-ls- & 12-06-2000 ls 13-01-2004 rd
26- Jh v:.k Hkw"k.k izlkn] Hkk-iz-ls- & 14-01-2004 ls 04-10-2005 rd
27- Jh lqeu dqekj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 05-10-2005 ls 18-03-2008 rd
28- Jh fot; dqekj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 18-03-2008 ls 12-12-2008 rd
29- Jh vthr dqekj flag ¼izHkkj esa½ & 13-12-2008 ls 08-01-2009 rd
30- Jh fot; dqekj] Hkk-iz-ls- & 04-01-2009 ls 22-02-2009 rd
31- Jh fo’oukFk flag] Hkk-iz-ls- & 23-02-2009 ls 01-08-2009 rd
32- MkW0 vatuh dqekj oekZ] Hkk-iz-ls- & 01-08-2009 ls 25-01-2010 rd
33- Jh foeykuUn >k] Hkk-iz-ls- & 25-01-2010 ls----------------vc rd
107

d½ Hkkjrh; iz’kklh lsok ds inkf/kdkfj;ksa dh lwph&

1- Jh oYyHk 'kj.k
2- Jh ¼Lo0½ lq/khj pkS/kjh
3- Jh foeysUnz 'kj.k
4- Jh ukjk;.k fnokdj
5- dq0 js[kk fnokdj
6- dq0 vuqjk/kk Bkdqj
7- Jh vfouk’k dqekj
8- Jh nhid dqekj

Jh ih0 ds0 feJ] Hkk-iz-ls- dh llqjky lhrke<+h gh gS A

[k½ Hkkjrh; vkj{kh lsok ds inkf/kdkfj;ksa dh lwph&

1- ¼Lo0½ lqfn"V ukjk;.k flag


2- Jh ds0 ,u0 Bkdqj
3- Jh izoh.k flUgk
4- Jh vferkHk Bkdqj
5- Jh vkj0 ih0 Bkdqj

x½ izfrj{kk&lsok ds inkf/kdkjhx.k&

1- fczxsfM;j ,u0 ih0 flag


2- LDokMu yhMj jkts’k dqekj
3- Q~ykbV ys0 lq’khy dqekj

?k½ Hkkjrh;&ou lsok&

1- Jh d`".kkuUn flag
108

d½ ys[kd@i=dkj

1- ia0 e/kqlwnu 'kekZ


2- t; fd’kksj ckcw
3- Jh lk¡ofy;k fcgkjh yky oekZ
4- Jh jkeykspu 'kj.k
5- Jh dqat fcgkjh tkyku
6- Jh veysUnq ukjk;.k flUgk
7- Jh fodkl dqekj >k
8- Jherh ufyuh flUgk
109

fo|ky;ksa dh lwph
UUUUUUUUUUUU
¼d½ jktdh;d`r mPp fo|ky;&
1- fo’ks’oj jkes’oj 'kkgh ckfydk mPp fo|ky;] lqjl.M
2- dey nkl ckfydk mPp fo|ky;] lqjl.M
3- e[kuw mPp fo|ky;] fryd rktiqj A

¼[k½ izkstsDV mPp fo|ky;&


1- izkstsDV ckfydk mPp fo|ky;] cSjxfu;k
2- r`fIr] eksn T;ksfrukjk;.k izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] flokbZiV~Vh
3- jkeyxu flag e/kdkSy ifj;kstuk ckfydk m0 fo0] csyl.M
4- iafMr Jhukjk;.k Bkdqj Lekjd ifj;kstuk ckfydk m0 fo0]
cgsM+k tkfgniqj A
5- 'kghn pUnzukFk izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] xksjgkjh
6- jkenso Hkxr cynso pkS/kjh izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] Hkqrgh
7- uhuk flUgk izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] e>kSfy;k&bLVsV
8- bUnq izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] llkSyk lHkk
9- ekSts fd’kksjh izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0 ekfud pkSd
10- egUFk ';ke lqUnj nkl Lekjd izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0]
cygk eq[kgjh
11- xkSjh 'kadj ctjax tkyku izkstsDV ckfydk m0 fo0] iqijh A