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Pesticide resistance

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pesticide application can artificially select for resistant pests. In this diagram, the first generation happens to have
an insect with a heightened resistance to a pesticide (red). After pesticide application, its descendants represent
a larger proportion of the population because sensitive pests (white) have been selectively killed. After repeated
applications, resistant pests may comprise the majority of the population.

Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to


a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest. Pest species evolve pesticide
resistance via natural selection: the most resistant organisms are the ones to survive and pass
on their genetic traits to their offspring.[1]
Manufacturers of pesticides tend to prefer a definition that is dependent on failure of a product in
a real situation, sometimes called field resistance. For example, the Insecticide Resistance
Action Committee (IRAC) definition of insecticide resistance is 'a heritable change in the
sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the
expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest
species'.[2]
Pesticide resistance is increasing in occurrence. Farmers in the USA lost 7% of their crops to
pests in the 1940s; over the 1980s and 1990s, the loss was 13%, even though more pesticides
were being used.[1] Over 500 species of pests have evolved a resistance to a pesticide. [3] Other
sources estimate the number to be around 1000 species since 1945.[4]

Factors[edit]
Propensity of pest populations to evolve resistance is probably caused by a number of factors.
First, pest species are usually capable of producing large number of offspring. This increases the
probability of random mutations and ensures the rapid build-up in numbers of resistant mutants
once such mutations have occurred. Secondly, pest species have been exposed to natural toxins
for a long time before the onset of human civilization. For example, many plants produce
phytotoxins to protect them from herbivores. As a result, coevolution of herbivores and their host
plants required development of the physiological capability to detoxify or tolerate poisons. [5]

[6]

Thirdly, humans often rely almost exclusively on insecticides for pest control. This increases

selection pressure towards resistance. Pesticides that fail to break down quickly and remain in
the area contribute to selection for resistant organisms even after they are no longer being
applied.[7]
In response to pesticide resistance, pest managers may resort to increased use of pesticides,
exacerbating the problem.[8] In addition, when pesticides are toxic toward species that feed on or
compete with pests, the pest population will likely expand further, requiring more pesticides.
[8]

This is sometimes referred to as pesticide trap,[8] or a pesticide treadmill, since farmers are

continually paying more for less benefit.[4]


Insect preys and parasites which live on other insects generally have smaller populations and
are therefore much less likely to evolve resistance than are the primary targets of the pesticides,
such as mosquitoes and those that feed on plants. This can compound the pest problem
because these species normally keep pest populations in check. [7] But resistant predators of pest
species can be bred in laboratories, which can help keep pest populations down. [7]
The fewer sources of food a pest has the more likely it is to evolve resistance, because it is
exposed to higher concentrations of pesticides and has less opportunity to breed with
populations that have not been exposed.[7] Other factors in the speed with which a species
evolves resistance are generation time and fecundity (shorter generations and more offspring
lead to resistance more quickly).[7]

Examples[edit]
Resistance has evolved in a variety of different pest species: Resistance to insecticides was first
documented by A. L. Melander in 1914 when scale insects demonstrated resistance to an
inorganic insecticide. Between 1914 and 1946, 11 additional cases of resistance to inorganic
insecticides were recorded. The development of organic insecticides, such as DDT, gave hope
that insecticide resistance was an issue of the past. Unfortunately, by 1947 housefly resistance to
DDT was documented. With the introduction of every new insecticide class cyclodienes,
carbamates, formamidines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, even Bacillus thuringiensis cases
of resistance surfaced within two to 20 years.

In the US, studies have shown that fruit flies that infest orange groves were becoming
resistant to malathion, a pesticide used to kill them.[9]

In Hawaii and Japan and Tennessee, the diamondback moth evolved a resistance
to Bacillus thuringiensis about three years after it began to be used heavily.[7]

In England, rats in certain areas have evolved such a strong resistance to rat poison that
they can consume up to five times as much of it as normal rats without dying. [1]

DDT is no longer effective in preventing malaria in some places, a fact which contributed
to a resurgence of the disease.[4]

In the southern United States, the weed Amaranthus palmeri, which interferes with
production of cotton, has evolved widespread resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.[10]

Colorado potato beetle has evolved resistance to 52 different compounds belonging to all
major insecticide classes. Resistance levels vary greatly among different populations and
between beetle life stages, but in some cases can be very high (up to 2,000-fold). [11]

Although the evolution of pesticide resistance is usually discussed as a result of pesticide use, it
is important to keep in mind that pest populations can also adapt to non-chemical methods of
control. For example, the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) became adapted to a cornsoybean crop rotation by spending the year when field is planted to soybeans in a diapause. [12]

Multiple and cross-resistance[edit]


Multiple resistance is the phenomenon in which a pest is resistant to more than one class of
pesticides.[7] This can happen if one pesticide is used until pests display a resistance and then
another is used until they are resistant to that one, and so on.[7] Cross resistance, a related
phenomenon, occurs when the genetic mutation that made the pest resistant to one pesticide
also makes it resistant to other pesticides, especially ones with similar mechanisms of action.[7]
Frequently a pest becomes resistant to a pesticide because it evolves physiological changes that
protect it from the chemical.[7] In some cases, a pest may gain an increased number of copies of
a gene, allowing it to produce more of a protective enzyme that breaks down the pesticide into
less toxic chemicals.[7] Such enzymes include esterases, glutathione transferases, and mixed
microsomal oxidases.[7] Alternatively, the number of biochemical receptors for the chemicals may
be reduced in the pest, or the receptor may be altered, reducing the pest's sensitivity to the
compound.[7] Behavioral resistance has also been described for some chemicals; for example,
some Anopheles mosquitoes evolved a preference for resting outside that prevented them from
coming in contact with pesticide sprayed on interior walls.[13] Still other mechanisms include
increased rates of excretion of toxic molecules, their sequestration and storage inside of the
insect body away from vulnerable tissues and organs, and decreased toxin penetration through
the insect body wall.[14]
Often, mutation in only a single gene leads to the evolution of a resistant organism. In other
cases, multiple genes are involved. Resistant genes are usually autosomal. This means that they
are located on autosomes (as opposed to sex chromosomes). As a result, resistance is inherited
similarly in males and females. Also, resistance is usually inherited as an incompletely dominant
trait. When a resistant and a susceptible individual mate with each other, their progeny has an
intermediate level of resistance (more resistant than the susceptible parent, but not as resistant
as the resistant parent).

Adaptation to pesticides usually decreases relative fitness of organisms in the absence of


pesticides. Resistant individuals often have reduced reproductive output, life expectancy,
mobility, etc. Therefore, relatively few of them persist in a population that is not exposed to a
particular insecticide to which they have evolved resistance.[15]
Blowfly maggots produce an enzyme that confers resistance to organochloride insecticides.
Scientists have researched ways to use this enzyme to break down pesticides in the
environment, which would detoxify them and prevent harmful environmental effects. [16] Later they
discovered a similar enzyme produced by soil bacteria that also breaks
down organochloride insecticides but which works faster and remains stable in a variety of
conditions.[16] The product, called Landguard is used in Australia to decontaminate spray
equipment, soil and water after pesticide spraying and spills. [16]
Pest resistance to a pesticide can be managed by reducing selection pressure by this pesticide
on the pest population. In other words, the situation when all the pests except the most resistant
ones are killed by a given chemical should be avoided. This can be achieved by avoiding
unnecessary pesticide applications, using non-chemical control techniques, and leaving
untreated refuges where susceptible pests can survive.[17][18] Adopting the integrated pest
management (IPM) approach usually helps with resistance management.
When pesticides are the sole or predominant method of pest control, resistance is commonly
managed through pesticide rotation. This involves alternating among pesticide classes with
different modes of action to delay the onset of or mitigate existing pest resistance. [19] Different
pesticide classes may have different effects on a pest.[19] The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA or USEPA) designates different classes of fungicides, herbicides and insecticides.
Pesticide manufacturers may, on product labeling, require that no more than a specified number
of consecutive applications of a pesticide class be made before alternating to a different pesticide
class. This manufacturer requirement is intended to extend the useful life of a product. [20]
Tankmixing pesticides is the combination of two or more pesticides with different modes of action
in order to improve individual pesticide application results and delay the onset of or mitigate
existing pest resistance.[17]

How pesticide resistance develops


Excerpt from Fruit Crop Ecology and Management, Chapter 2: Managing
the Community of Pests and Beneficials by Larry Gut, Annemiek Schilder,
Rufus Isaacs and Patricia McManus

The role of population genetics


An individual organisms genes determine its physical and behavioral
traits. When individuals reproduce, they pass along unique combinations
of genes to their offspring. Different environments favor individuals with
different physical and behavioral traits. Individuals with genes that
improve their survival will be more likely to pass along these genes
compared to the rest of the population. The mix of genes in a population
is called the gene pool. The composition of the gene pool continually
changes over time through a process called natural selection.
With the help of plant breeders, fruit growers have taken advantage of the
gene pools natural variability in a process known as artificial selection.
The first step in this process is to identify desirable traits, such as flavor,
color, tolerance, or resistance to a pest. Once desirable traits are
identified, these can be incorporated into new crop varieties through
conventional breeding or genetic engineering. For example, apples have
been bred to create a few varieties that are resistant to apple scab. Even
without specific breeding efforts, fruit crop varieties display a natural
range of resistance to various pests and diseases. When monocultures of
single varieties are planted, efficiency of production is traded for diversity
of resistance to pests.

Effects of pesticide selection

Repeated use of the same class of pesticides to control a pest can cause
undesirable changes in the gene pool of a pest leading to another form of
artificial selection, pesticide resistance. When a pesticide is first used, a
small proportion of the pest population may survive exposure to the
material due to their distinct genetic makeup. These individuals pass
along the genes for resistance to the next generation. Subsequent uses of
the pesticide increase the proportion of less-susceptible individuals in the
population. Through this process of selection, the population gradually
develops resistance to the pesticide. Worldwide, more than 500 species of
insects, mites, and spiders have developed some level of pesticide
resistance. The twospotted spider mite is a pest of most frui crops and is
notorious for rapidly developing resistance to miticides.

Some plant pathogens have also become resistant to pesticides. Among


fruit producers in North America, apple growers perhaps have faced the
most significant problems with pesticide resistance. Examples include
streptomycin resistance in the fire blight bacterium and benomyl

resistance in the apple scab pathogen. Although the precise genetic and
ecological factors differ among pests that have become resistant, in all
cases resistance is driven by one processselection.

Insecticide resistance

Selection for resistance can occur if a small proportion of the insect


population is able to survive treatment with insecticide. These rare
resistant individuals can reproduce and pass on their resistance to the
offspring. If an insecticide with the same mode of action is repeatedly
used against this population, an even greater proportion will survive.
Ultimately, the once-effective product no longer controls the resistant
population.

Fungicide resistance
Single-step pesticide resistance arises suddenly in the field. A single gene
or physiological function changes so that an individual becomes highly
resistant to the pesticide. With just one or two sprays of the pesticide, the
population shifts from mostly sensitive to mostly resistant individuals. This
is the process by which populations of streptomycin-resistant fire blight
bacteria and benomyl-resistant apple scab bacteria rapidly developed in
commercial orchards.
Multi-step pesticide resistance arises slowly in the field over many years.
Rather than having distinct groups of sensitive and resistant individuals,
the population consists of individuals with a range of sensitivities to the
pesticide. With each pesticide application, those individuals at the more
resistant end of the spectrum survive and reproduce. Over the years, the
proportion of the population that can survive a pesticide spray increases,
until that pesticide eventually becomes ineffective. This process is
underway in apple orchards where the sterol inhibitor (SI) fungicides have
been used extensively to control scab. The shift toward resistance leads to
a gradual erosion of control.

Resistance management

Growers can help delay the development of resistance by applying


pesticides only when they are needed, by rotating between different
chemical classes, and by using rates of pesticides within the labeled
range. Integrating non-chemical approaches such as pheromone mating
disruption and cultural controls can also help delay resistance.

How pesticide resistance develops

Excerpt from Fruit Crop Ecology and Management, Chapter 2: Managing


the Community of Pests and Beneficials by Larry Gut, Annemiek Schilder,
Rufus Isaacs and Patricia McManus

The role of population genetics

An individual organisms genes determine its physical and behavioral


traits. When individuals reproduce, they pass along unique combinations
of genes to their offspring. Different environments favor individuals with
different physical and behavioral traits. Individuals with genes that
improve their survival will be more likely to pass along these genes
compared to the rest of the population. The mix of genes in a population
is called the gene pool. The composition of the gene pool continually
changes over time through a process called natural selection.
With the help of plant breeders, fruit growers have taken advantage of the
gene pools natural variability in a process known as artificial selection.
The first step in this process is to identify desirable traits, such as flavor,
color, tolerance, or resistance to a pest. Once desirable traits are
identified, these can be incorporated into new crop varieties through
conventional breeding or genetic engineering. For example, apples have
been bred to create a few varieties that are resistant to apple scab. Even
without specific breeding efforts, fruit crop varieties display a natural
range of resistance to various pests and diseases. When monocultures of
single varieties are planted, efficiency of production is traded for diversity
of resistance to pests.

Effects of pesticide selection


Repeated use of the same class of pesticides to control a pest can cause
undesirable changes in the gene pool of a pest leading to another form of
artificial selection, pesticide resistance. When a pesticide is first used, a
small proportion of the pest population may survive exposure to the
material due to their distinct genetic makeup. These individuals pass
along the genes for resistance to the next generation. Subsequent uses of
the pesticide increase the proportion of less-susceptible individuals in the
population. Through this process of selection, the population gradually
develops resistance to the pesticide. Worldwide, more than 500 species of
insects, mites, and spiders have developed some level of pesticide
resistance. The twospotted spider mite is a pest of most fruit crops and is

notorious for rapidly developing resistance to miticides.

Some plant pathogens have also become resistant to pesticides. Among


fruit producers in North America, apple growers perhaps have faced the
most significant problems with pesticide resistance. Examples include
streptomycin resistance in the fire blight bacterium and benomyl
resistance in the apple scab pathogen. Although the precise genetic and
ecological factors differ among pests that have become resistant, in all
cases resistance is driven by one processselection.

Insecticide resistance
Selection for resistance can occur if a small proportion of the insect
population is able to survive treatment with insecticide. These rare
resistant individuals can reproduce and pass on their resistance to the
offspring. If an insecticide with the same mode of action is repeatedly
used against this population, an even greater proportion will survive.
Ultimately, the once-effective product no longer controls the resistant
population.

Fungicide resistance

Single-step pesticide resistance arises suddenly in the field. A single gene


or physiological function changes so that an individual becomes highly
resistant to the pesticide. With just one or two sprays of the pesticide, the
population shifts from mostly sensitive to mostly resistant individuals. This
is the process by which populations of streptomycin-resistant fire blight
bacteria and benomyl-resistant apple scab bacteria rapidly developed in
commercial orchards.

Multi-step pesticide resistance arises slowly in the field over many years.
Rather than having distinct groups of sensitive and resistant individuals,
the population consists of individuals with a range of sensitivities to the
pesticide. With each pesticide application, those individuals at the more
resistant end of the spectrum survive and reproduce. Over the years, the
proportion of the population that can survive a pesticide spray increases,
until that pesticide eventually becomes ineffective. This process is
underway in apple orchards where the sterol inhibitor (SI) fungicides have
been used extensively to control scab. The shift toward resistance leads to
a gradual erosion of control.

Resistance management

Growers can help delay the development of resistance by applying


pesticides only when they are needed, by rotating between different
chemical classes, and by using rates of pesticides within the labeled
range. Integrating non-chemical approaches such as pheromone mating
disruption and cultural controls can also help delay resistance.

Introduction to Insecticide Resistance


Insecticides are organized into classes
organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids,
neonicotinoids, etc. that share a common chemical
structure and mode of action (MOA). MOA is the
specific process by which an insecticide kills an
insect, or inhibits its growth. Target site of action is
the exact location of inhibition, such as interfering
with the activity of an enzyme within a metabolic
pathway. MOA and target site of action are often used
interchangeably in practice and are combined as
MOA in this learning module.

Colorado Potato Beetle (Photo: Wikipedia)

Genetics and intensive application of insecticides are two factors of several


responsible for the development of insecticide resistance. Insects with genes that
confer resistance to a particular insecticide or class of insecticides survive
treatment and are thereby selected to pass on this resistance to later
generations. For a complete description of the selection process, seeUnderstanding
Resistance. Among all the different categories of pests, insects are known to
exhibit resistance at alarming rates. Worldwide, more than 500 species of insects
and related arthropods are resistant to insecticides. To search a registry of
resistant insect pests, log onto the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database
at http://www.pesticideresistance.org/.
Resistance may develop to only a single insecticide. However, it is more common
for insects that exhibit resistance to one insecticide to be resistant (or develop
resistance more rapidly) to other insecticides with the same MOA. A classic

example is the house fly. Populations of this insect that became resistant to DDT in
the 1950s, also exhibited resistance, with no previous exposure, to pyrethroid
insecticides used decades later. DDT and pyrethroids have the same MOA. This
phenomenon is known as cross-resistance. A closely related
phenomenon, multiple resistance, occurs in insect populations that resist two or
more insecticide classes with unlike modes of action. Insects develop this type of
resistance by expressing multiple resistance mechanisms. This can happen if one
insecticide is used until insects display a resistance and then another is used and
the insect population becomes resistant to that one, and so on. Localized
populations of Colorado potato beetle are notorious for multiple resistance to
more than 50 insecticides with various modes of action. Multiple resistance is less
common than cross resistance but is potentially of greater concern because it
drastically reduces the number of insecticides that can be used to control the
insect in question.
In contrast to resistance, insecticide tolerance is a natural tendency and is not a
result of selection pressure. Mature caterpillars are more tolerant to many
insecticides than younger ones of the same species due to differences in body size,
exoskeleton thickness, and the ability to metabolize a poison. These differences
are identified as tolerance or natural resistance rather than true insecticide
resistance.
Part of the content of this module was adapted from Insecticide Resistance:
Causes and Action. A publication developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action
Committee (IRAC) in cooperation with the Southern Region Integrated Pest
Management Center.
Insecticide resistance is described in detail by breaking the topic into the sections
listed below. All content has been expertly reviewed by Dr. Caydee Savinelli,
Syngenta and Steve Toth, Center for Integrated Pest Management. Both are
technical/science experts within IRAC.
Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms
There are several ways that insect populations can become resistant to insecticides.
Is Resistance to Blame?
Resistance is not the only reason for insect control failure.
Resources and Suggested Reading
Additional information about insecticide resistance
Raised Resistance Risks
Conditions that favor increased potential for resistance to develop and spread.

Preventing Resistance
Reversal of resistance can occur in some pest populations by allowing time between
applications of a class of pesticide to permit resistant populations to become diluted
by pesticide-susceptible individuals. However, no one can predict if or
when resistant pests will change back to a susceptible population. The best practice is
to reduce the chance of resistance developing in the first place.
Crop or site management tactics used to prevent a pest from becoming established:

Plant pest-resistant crop varieties.

Maintain optimum crop growth through proper fertilization, irrigation, etc.- a


healthy crop is more competitive with weeds and often less susceptible to
disease and insect attack.

Rotate crops, particularly those with different pest problems.

Use tillage at times for weed control (where erosion is not a problem)

Following these Integrated Pest Management practices also help prevent

resistance:

Scout fields regularly to respond quickly to changes in pest populations. Pest


monitoring will help determine if pesticides are necessary (based on economic
thresholds) and the best application timing (when pests are most susceptible),
thus helping to reduce the number of applications. Application of pesticides to
pest populations that are beyond the optimum timing (e.g. large weeds, late
instar insect larvae or disease in the epidemic phase) can speed the
development of resistance.

When available and appropriate, choose selective pesticides that break down
quickly (avoid persistent pesticides).

Where practical, use spot treatments, barrier treatments or banded treatments


to better target pest populations or the zone where pest control is required.

Use bio-control if available.

Control alternate hosts of insects and diseases. Remove junipers to suppress


cedar-apple rust, for example.

Cedar-apple rust on apple

Cedar-apple rust on junipe

If pesticides must be applied to the same crop or site, rotate to a pesticide with a
different mode of action (MOA). Some products with the same mode(s) of action can
be applied sequentially in the same crop or to a rotational crop in the same field
without development of resistance while others should not be applied sequentially
unless other effective control practices are also included.
Adhere to label rates for the specific pest, crop, conditions, and location. Follow label
directions for proper application method (carrier type, volume, use of adjuvant, etc.)
and rate. When applying the maximum labelrate of a pesticide, combine as many
resistance management strategies as possible because high rates enhance the

selection pressure for resistance. Using rates lower than those recommended for a
particular pest favors survival of the stronger individuals in the pest population.
Clean tillage and harvest equipment before moving from fields infested with resistant
species.
Apply pesticides in a tank-mix or pre-pack:

Tank-mixes and
Pre-packs are combinations of two or more pesticides applied as a single mixture.
Tank-mixing allows for adjusting of the ratio of pesticides to fit local pest and soil
conditions, while premixes are formulated by the manufacturer. The combinations are
designed to improve individual pesticide application results and, if

the
combination
is composed of pesticides with different modes of action, prevent or manage
resistance. The different pesticides in the mixture must be active against the
target pest so that biotypes resistant to one mode of action are controlled by

a pesticide partner with a different mode of action. Theoretically, repeated use of any
tank-mix or pre-pack combination may give rise to herbicide resistance, if resistance
mechanisms to each herbicide in the mix arise together but the probability is very
low.

Take Steps to Avoid Insecticide


Resistance
The more frequently insecticides with the same MOA are
used, the more likely resistance will occur. Once resistant
insects have been detected, curbing the spread of
resistance is exceedingly difficult. The best practice is to
reduce the chance of resistance developing in the first
place.
The following integrated pest management (IPM) and
pesticide management tactics will help delay the onset of
insecticide resistance:
1.) Monitor pests-- Use research-based sampling
procedures to determine
if pesticides are necessary (based on action/economic
thresholds) and
the best application timing (when pests are most
susceptible).
Consult your county Extension Educator or crop
advisor about
economic thresholds for the insect in question. After
treatment,
continue monitoring to assess pest populations and
their control

Monitoring for aphids

2.) Employ appropriate control measures-Effective IPM-based programs will include


insecticides, cultural practices, biological control
(predators and parasites), mechanical control and
sanitation. A healthy plant or crop is often less
susceptible to insect attack. (see the Integrated Pest
Management section)

3.) Select and use insecticides wisely--

If repeated applications of pesticides are necessary, alternate insecticides


with different modes of action against the pest so that no more than two
consecutive applications are made with the same MOA. The insecticides
used in a rotation or tank mix (see below) must be active against the target
pest. For help in identifying classes and insecticide mode of action,
see Spraying by the Numbers.

For some cropping systems, insecticide applications are often arranged into
mode of action spray windows or blocks that are defined by the stage of
crop development and the biology
of the target pest(s). Several sprays of a compound may be possible within
each spray window but it is generally essential to ensure that successive
generations of the pest are not treated with insecticides from the same MOA
group. Consult local expertise with regard to spray windows and timings.

Follow label directions for the proper application method and rate. Using
reduced application rates favors survival of the stronger individuals in the
pest population. The use of lower rates where possible is a good practice,
but it is not a scientifically-proven resistance management technique.

Minimize the use of long-residual insecticides. When persistent pesticides


must be used, consider where they can be used in a rotation scheme to
provide the control needed and with a minimum length of exposure. Select
insecticides that are least damaging to populations of natural enemies.

When feasible, spot treat (e.g., field edges or other hot spots) or leave
unsprayed areas within treated fields or adjacent "refuge" fields. The
pesticide-susceptible individuals in the untreated area will interbreed with
resistant ones and dilute the resistance genes in the population.

Keep good records of insecticide use to aid in planning for future years.
Note the insect species that were present in the field, which insecticides
were applied and where, and the level of control that was achieved. Record
the rate, timing and number of insecticide applications made.

Tank-Mix:
Applying two or more pesticides with different modes of action in a tank-mix or
prepack may delay the onset of, or mitigate, existing pest resistance. Tank-mixing
allows for adjusting of the ratio of pesticides to fit local pest and environmental
conditions, while premixes are formulated by the manufacturer. The
different pesticides in the mixture must be active against the target pest so that
insects with resistance to one mode of action are controlled by a pesticide partner
with a different mode of action. Theoretically, repeated use of any tank-mix or prepack combination may give rise to herbicide resistance, if resistance mechanisms to
each herbicide in the mix arise together but the probability is very low.