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Topic No.

Components of Computer System

Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that
constitutes a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical
parts or components of a computer

types of Hardware

1. Internal Hardware- is any piece of hardware inside the computer case.

2. External Hardware- are devices located outside of a computer that is connected
through a USB cable or wireless connection.
What Are the Basic Components of a Computer?
A. Internal hardware:
1. Motherboard - is the base component of a computer, providing the
electrical flow along the wires, transistors and compressors.
2. RAM chips - an acronym for random-access memory, are small chips
that plug into the motherboard, giving the computer the ability to
process short-term actions. RAM, is the place in a computer where
the operating system, application programs and data in current use
are kept so that the computer's processor can access them rapidly.
ROM is read only memory. It contains programs and data that are
permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured. It is
read and used by the processor, but cannot be altered by the user.
1 Byte = 8 Bit, 1 character
1 Kilobyte = 1,024 Bytes
1 Megabyte = 1,048,576 Bytes
1 Gigabyte = 1,073,741,824 Bytes
1 Terabyte = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
3. The processor (CPU) is essentially the brain of the computer,
handling all activities involving processing and computing. The
computers CPU is responsible for handling all instructions it
receives from hardware and software running on the computer
4. The hard drive, a magnetic disk that retains information, is
essentially the long-term memory of the computer. A hard disk is
part of a unit, often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "hard disk
drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large
amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set
of surfaces. Today's computers typically come with a hard disk that
contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage.

5. . A video card is an important device inside a computer or gaming

console. This card displays graphics to your monitor or TV. Games,
videos and even surfing the web requires a video card. The type of
media that you wish to view may depend on the style of video card
you currently have. Certain games and other media may require an
advanced device.
6. Disk drive- A storage device that holds, spins, reads and writes
magnetic disks or optical (CD, DVD, MO, UDO) disks. It may be a
receptacle for removable disk cartridges, floppy disks or optical
media, or it may contain non-removable platters like most hard disk
7. A sound card is an internal computer component that processes
audio files in order to provide high-quality playback through
computer speakers.
8. Cooling Fan - A computer fan is any fan inside, or attached to, a
computer case used for cooling purposes, and may refer to fans
that draw cooler air into the case from the outside, expel warm air
from inside, or move air across a heat sink to cool a particular
9. The power supply is an electrical unit that accepts voltage from an
electrical socket and distributes it throughout each device within
the computer


Web Cam
External hard drive USB(Universal Serial Bus)

2. Software
As important as hardware devices may be, they are useless without
the instructions that control them. These instructions used to control hardware and
accomplish tasks are called software. Software falls into two broad categories
applications and systems software
Applications software allows you to perform a particular task or solve a specific
problem. A word processor is the most widely used example of applications
software; it can be used to create a letter or memo or anything else you need to
type. Other examples include games, spreadsheets, tax preparation programs,
typing tutor, etc. Applications software can be purchased in stores and is called
packaged or commercial software. In other words, it is prewritten. However, there
may be situations that require a specific type of software that is not available. It
would then be necessary to design and write a program; this software is called
custom software. Most often, personal computers utilize packaged software.

The most important applications software categories included in office suites are
described in the below:
Software Category - Function
1. Word Processor
Provides the tools for entering and revising text, adding graphical elements,
formatting and printing documents.
2. Spreadsheets
Provides the tools for working with numbers and allows you to create and edit
electronic spreadsheets in managing and analyzing information.
3. Database Management
Provides the tools for management of a collection of interrelated facts. Data can be
stored, updated, manipulated, retrieved, and reported in a variety of ways.
4. Presentation Graphics
Provides the tools for creating graphics that represent data in a visual, easily
understood format.
5. Communication Software
Provides the tools for connecting one computer with another to enable sending and
receiving information and sharing files and resources.
6. Internet Browser
Provides access to the Internet through a service provider by using a graphical
What version of Windows are you running?
such as Windows XP, Windows Vista or Windows 7. If you then answer Windows 7
the next question will be What edition of Windows 7 are you running?
Windows 7 Home Premium, Windows 7 Professional or Windows 7 Ultimate. The
reason for asking specific questions is because some editions of Windows 7 are
supplied with more software, and/or are more powerful, than other editions.



Peopleware can refer to anything that has to do with the role of people in the
development or use of computer software and hardware systems, including such
issues as developer productivity, teamwork, group dynamics, the psychology of
programming, project management, organizational factors, human interface design,
and human-machine-interaction.
Computer engineers
software designers
software engineers
server administrator

4. Dataware
A data warehouse is a logical collection of information gathered from many
different operational databases used to create business intelligence that supports
business analysis activities and decision...