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APPROCH OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TOWARDS RMC PLANT MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER I
ABSTRACT
Ready-mix concrete (RMC) is a ready-to-use material, with predetermined mixture of
Cement, sand, aggregates and water. RMC is a type of concrete manufactured in a factory
According as per specifications of the customer, at a centrally located batching Plant. It is
then Delivered to a worksite, often in truck mixers capable of mixing the ingredients of the
concrete en route or just before delivery of the batch. This results in a precise mixture,
allowing Specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites.
The second Option available is to mix the concrete at the batching plant and deliver the
mixed concrete to the Site in an agitator tuck, which keeps the mixed concrete in correct
form. This project deals with the advantages, disadvantages and the quality control in the
preparation of the concrete, of and the preparation procedure followed at the ready mix plant
In introduction we have seen that the basic information about the RMC & its
management. After that we consider the history of RMC in india Detail Study of RMC plant
& its procedure and find out problems releted to RMC plant Study the how to manage RMC
plant .We are studying about the Quality management, Material management, Human
resource management, Waste management etc. After the studying all this management and
personal visit to RMC plant we give the better solution on all problems on RMC plant .and
Make RMC plant economical , efficient & eco-friendly
In this project we find problems faced by RMC plant & give solution on that problem
also the study of disadvantages and give solution on that.

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CHAPTER II
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
2.1AIM Analys the problems of rmc plant management and to find the solution for that
problems

2.2OBJECTIVES: To study the details of RMC plant


To find the problems faced by RMC plant
To find the solution for the problems faced by RMC plant

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CHAPTER III
RESERCH METHDOLOGY
PROJECT PARAMETERS: Capacity:The production capacity of a Ready-Mix Concrete Plant varies according to the
capacity of the Batching Plant used. Most commonly used RMC Plants will be having a
production capacity
Land:An extent of around dry land is required for setting up a Ready-Mix Concrete Plant.
Location:The project is proposed to be located at near to developing area
Raw Material & Utilities:The Raw materials that go into production of concrete are Cement, Aggregates (Sand
& Metal), Additives and Water. M20 grade concrete is the most widely used, where the
Cement/Sand/Metal/Water mix is in the ratio of 1 : 1.5 : 3.5 : 0.5. Since uninterrupted
availability of raw materials is the most fundamental success factor for any RMC Plant,
options for backward integration (quarry/ metal crushing unit/cement plant/clinker grinding
unit) should be carefully considered and analysed while choosing the Plant location.
Plant & Machinery:The main items of mechanical equipment involved in the ready-mix concrete
manufacture are the Concrete Batching Plant, Transit Mixer and Concrete Pump. M/s.
Schwing Stetter India (P) Ltd is the leading supplier of RMC equipments in the country..
Manpower:The total manpower requirement for a typical RMC Plant would be depends on
capacity of RMC plant
Cost of the Project:The total project cost of RMC is depend on rate of land, machines, equipment, &
capacity of project, availability of basic sources
Financial Arrangement :Financial arrangement done by taking loan from bank
Conclusion:Ready Mix Concrete is a modern technique of production of concrete in
large quantities away from the actual site of placing. It is very useful in cities
where demand of concrete is very high and construction sites are in
congested areas, where mixing on site is not possible. The Supervisory and
labour costs associated with production of RMC is less, and the quality of
concrete is high. It is suitable for huge industrial and residential projects
where time plays a vital role.
For further

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Management parameters :Ready mix concrete plant is situated near to the developing area. In large scale
construction project RMC should be situated on actual site location or near to the site
location. In that case small area to be used for example batching plant, material storage,
admixture storage, control room, RMC plant setup, etc.
RMC plant also situated in a developing area because of now a days we are using
RMC for a large scale or a small scale projects. RMC plant should be situated so that all the
needs of RMC will be fulfilled like a water resource, aggregate, cement, fly ash, crush sand,
etc are easily available to the RMC plant.
RMC plant should not be near to the residential areas, so as it should not affect
surrounding area.

Quality Management System (QMS):

Terminology that is used in Quality Plan: QUALITY CONTROL also called PROCESS CONTROL
As those quality assurance actions and considerations necessary to assess production
and construction process so as to control the level of quality being produced in the end
product. This concept of quality control includes sampling and testing to monitor the process
but usually does not include acceptance sampling and testing
QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) :All those planned activities and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate
confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Within an
organization, QA serves as a management tool. In contractual situations, QA serves to
provide confidence in the supplier
Goals for documenting plant QMSThe QMS consists of those processes, resources, policies, materials and activities that
influence your product and service quality. It is important that you define, document,
implement, maintain, and continuously improve your QMS. Documentation of your QMS
should not be the goal, but instead be a means of achieving your goal. Identify the purposes
for documenting your QMS which may include to:
Demonstrate to your customers your ability to consistently provide ready mixed
concrete that meets their performance criteria and/or applicable specifications;
Provide continuity and uniformity of processes;
Enhance training;
Improve customer satisfaction; and
Establish a measurement system to facilitate continuous improvement through
statistically based concepts, when applicable

MATERIAL MANAGEMENT :-

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On the site of RMC material management is necessary. Stock of material should be


available on site. Different types of storage required for different size of aggregate and
dry room required for admixture storage. Also dry room is required for storage of cement.
Materials Receiving
Materials are checked for conformance with the bills of lading or delivery ticket
Stockpiles are visually inspected for contaminants, deleterious materials (clay coal and
lignite off-color sand), wood sticks, excessive under/oversize coarse aggregate.
Materials Storage and Handling Cement, Slag and Pozzolan Silos
Confirm that the respective fill pipes are properly labeled and monitor tanker truck
unloading.
Aggregates
Monitor for proper storage (stockpile) procedures to prevent harmful segregation and
degradation and to provide for uniform moisture as used.
Sprinkle coarse aggregate stockpiles for cooling during hot weather concreting.
Sprinkle lightweight aggregate stockpiles for saturation .Preparation Guidelines for
Quality Manual For Ready Mixed Concrete Companies
Observe conveying processes to minimize or eliminate spillage or overflow into
adjoining compartments.
Empty multi-use compartment completely before filling with different aggregate types.
Chemical Admixtures
Insure that admixtures are protected from contamination and dilution (rain water seepage
splash water from truck wash down; etc.).
Minor admixture deliveries for connections to the proper tanks and to insure the use of
dry pan under each connection.

MANPOWER:The total manpower requirement for a typical RMC Plant would be depends on
capacity of RMC plant

CHAPTER IV
LITERATURE REVIEW
PAPER I:IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH

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Assistant Professor & Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering
College,
Vallabh Vidyanagar Gujarat India
In these paper auther invent new method Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). as a tool
to help with solving technical and managerial problems. Ready Mix Concrete (RMC)
industry is continuously growing all over the world.
Author says that The entry of foreign firms and major Indian cement producers in this
field are likely to provide the necessary boost to this industry in the future and speedy
construction grow up in India
Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) industry is continuously growing all over the world so in
these paper we study Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and study of advantages of RMC

PAPER II:Roopdarshan Walke1, Vinay Topkar2, Sajal Kabiraj


1
Research Scholar for Ph.D. Course, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, VJTI,
Mumbai:In these paper author states that risk management is important in ready mix concrete
plant. How Systematic risk management is done author find out proper method for risk
management in RMC
He states the in the field of risk management, incorporates four steps in the process of
risk management. These are Risk identification, Risk Analysis, Risk Response planning and
Risk Monitoring and control
In these paper we are study about risk management is necessary in RMC plant Tow
types of risk internal as well as external these paper risk analysis and evolusion

PAPER III
Debasis Sarkar, Assistant Professor, Constructionand Project Management, CEPT
University, Ahmedabad
In these paper author states that Quality Control of Ready Mixed Concrete can be
divided into three convenient areas like forward control, immediate control and retrospective
control.
Author find out solution for quality control , improve efficiency & improve
productivity he invent Statistical Quality Control (SOC) method and its give profit and
satisfaction to customer
Quality control by Statistical Quality Control (SOC) it improve efficiency & profit
and give satisfaction to customer.

CHAPTER V
THEORY ON RMC PLANT
INTRODUCTION:The Indian construction industry has been traditionally labour oriented. The pace of
mechanization in the past has been very slow due to the availability of cheap labour in
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abundance, lack of capital investment and the highly fragmented nature of the construction
industry. The degree of mechanization is still around 25%-30% while it is well above 70% in
most of the developed countries.
The liberalization of Indian economy from 1991 onwards paved the way for largescale investments in infrastructure, industrial, housing and agriculture sectors. The new age
constructions required speed and superior quality to obtain profitable life cycle cost of the
projects. The emerging scenario helped to increase the pace of mechanization and facilitated
the establishment of RMC plants on commercial scale to synchronise with the over all
development strategy. RMC in India on commercial scale started in 1993 at Pune with only
one plant. It has achieved nearly 15% share of the total concrete produced in the country. In
some major cities, like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Chennai the share of RMC has
reached as high as 50% to 60%. The growth prospects of RMC in India are enormous,
provided requisite support is provided by the regulatory authorities, consumers and decision
makers during its formative years.
Concrete is the largest man made material in the world and stands second to water in
per capita consumption. It is estimated that world over about 3800 million tons of cement and
8000 million tons of concrete were used during the year 2013. Average per capita annual
consumption of cement worldwide is about 500 kg against 210 kg in India. Similarly world
over per capita concrete consumption is about 1 ton while it is 500 kg in India. Though
cement and concrete consumption is expected to grow at the average rate of 3% to 4% world
over, but in India 6% to 8% growth is likely to take place during the next decade. It is
therefore very important from life cycle cost, durability and environmental considerations
that majority of concrete is produced in centralized RMC plants.
One of the major causalities of heavy reliance on labour intensive techniques of
construction is the quality of work. Site-mixed concrete has serious limitations as far as
quality of concrete and speed of construction are concerned. Generally cost remains the
driving factor in deciding the award of construction contracts and very little or no premium is
placed on quality. As a result many structures have shown premature deterioration and the
cost of repairs and rehabilitation is proving prohibitive. Now growing realization is surfacing
that quality and consistency cannot be achieved by relying on age-old techniques of
construction.
The growth prospects of RMC in India in this context looks very bright but the RMC
has not maintained the desired pace of growth in spite of this realization due to numerous
constraints.

5.1 THEORY ON RMC


5.1.1MATERIAL USED IN RMC PLANT
AGGREGATE
CEMENT
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ADMIXTURE:
FLY ASH
WATER
1.AGGREGATEAggregates are the important constituents in concrete. They give body to the concrete,
reduce shrinkage and effect economy. Earlier, aggregates were considered as chemically inert
materials but now it has been recognised that some of the aggregates are chemically active
and also that certain aggregates exhibit chemical bond at the interface of aggregate and paste.
The mere fact that the aggregates occupy 70-80 per cent of the volume of concrete, their
impact on various characteristics and properties of concrete is undoubtedly considerable. To
know more about the aggregates which constitute major volume in concrete.

Aggregates are divided into two categories from the consideration of


size
Coarse aggregate
Fine aggregate
The size of the aggregate bigger than 4.75 mm is considered as coarse aggregate and
aggregate whose size is 4.75 mm and less is considered as fine aggregate.

Sampling Procedure For Aggregates Used In Concrete:


All aggregates are to be sampled properly before taking them for testing. The purpose
of sampling is to get representative material for testing the wrong sampling of aggregate may
lead to any of the following:
Consuming of bad quality of aggregates in concrete by accepting the bad quality of
materials at site

There is a definite procedure for sampling of aggregates. The


procedure is explained

Collect the aggregate sample from different locations at different depths from the site
immediately after unloading the aggregates from the trucks. Collect the samples at least from
10 to 15 locations.
Thoroughly remix the sample collected from various places & depths of the trucks or
from the stocks.

Make a cone from the sample.


Flatten the cone sample to form a circle of uniform thickness.
Divide the cone in to four equal quarters.
Discard any two diagonally opposite segment of quartered sample.
Collect the remaining sample & remix.
Take this remixed aggregate for testing.

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The material so sampled only should be taken for testing. The Indian standards
recommend to sample the aggregates as above. However it recommends collecting samples
from different sub lots which are not practical as it takes long time to build up the lots at site.
Hence the method suggested above may be conveniently adopted at site.

2. CEMENT
Cement is a binder material which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other
materials together. Cement is made up of four main compounds tri-calcium silicate (3CaO
SiO2), di-calcium Silicate (2CaO SiO2), tri-calcium acuminate (3CaO Al2O3), and tetracalcium alumina ferrite (4caco Al2O3 Fe2O3).tetra-calcium alumina ferrite (4CaO Al2O3
Fe2O3). In an abbreviated notation differing from the normal atomic symbols, these
compounds are designated as C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF, where C stands for calcium oxide
(lime), S for silica and A for alumina, and F for iron oxide. Small amounts of un combined
lime and magnesia also are present, along with alkalis and minor amounts of other elements.

3. ADMIXTURE:

A substance added to the basic concrete mixture to alter one or more properties of the
concrete; i.e. fibrous materials for reinforcing, water repellent treatments, and
colouring compounds. 18
Air-entraining admixtures (mainly used in concrete exposed to freezing and thawing
cycles)
Water-reducing admixtures, plasticizers (reduce the dosage of water while
maintaining the workability)
Retarding admixtures (mainly used in hot weather to retard the reaction of hydration)
Accelerating admixtures (mainly used in cold weather to accelerate the reaction of
hydration)
Super plasticizer or high range water-reducer (significantly reduce the dosage of
water while maintaining the workability)
Miscellaneous admixtures such as corrosion inhibiting, shrinkage reducing,
colouring, pumping tc.

Role of Admixture in Ready Mix Concrete:-

The role of admixture is ready mixed of concrete is same as that in normal concrete.
However, admixture used in RMC is modified to meet the requirement of pumpable concrete
and other properties of concrete. The types of admixture used in RMC are generally termed
as Super plasticizers.
The history of admixture is as old as history of concrete. There are several types of
admixture available in market. But few admixtures namely Plasticizers and Super plasticizers
are of recent interest. These of admixture were initially developed in Japan and German
around 1970. IN India use of admixture was recognized after 1985.In 1990 admixture started
to gain Importance after introducing Ready Mixed Concrete. The importance of admixture
was further recognized after revision on of IS: 456 - 1978. The earlier versions of IS 456 have
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permitted to use w/c ratio as high as 0.65 in RCC works. The Revised IS 456-2000 has
Restricted the w/c ratio to 0.55 for mild exposure and 0.50 for moderate exposure ,0.45 for
severe and very severe exposure and 0.40 for extreme weathering conditions. The restriction
on w/c ratio has made the use of admixture all the more compulsory ingredient of concrete.

Admixture is used in RMC are of following types: Chemical admixture


Mineral admixture
Chemical and mineral admixture

In RMC admixture mainly perform the following functions:

Increasing workability
Accelerate or retard the setting time of concrete.
Reduce segregation and bleeding in concrete.
Improve pump ability.

4. FLY ASH:Fly ash is a by-product from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. The coal
used in these power plants is mainly composed of combustible elements such as carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen (nitrogen and sulphur being minor elements), and non combustible
impurities (10 to 40%) usually present in the form of clay, shale, quartz, feldspar and
limestone. As the coal travels through the high-temperature zone in the furnace, the
combustible elements of the coal are burnt off, whereas the mineral impurities of the coal
fuse and chemically recombine to produce various crystalline phases of the molten ash. The
molten ash is entrained in the flue gas and cools rapidly, when leaving the combustion zone
(e.g. from 1500C to 200C in few seconds), into spherical, glassy particles. Most of these
particles fly out with the flue gas stream and are therefore called fly ash. The fly ash is then
collected in electrostatic precipitators or bag houses and the fineness of the fly ash can be
controlled by how and where the particles are collected. Fly ash use improves concrete
performance, making it stronger, more durable, and more resistant to chemical attack. Fly ash
use also creates significant benefits for our environment.
The size of fly ash ranges from 1.0 to 100 micron & the average size is around 20
microns. It is found that particle size below 10 microns contributes towards early
Development of strength (7& 28 days). The particle size of fly ash between l0 & 40 microns
Contributes towards the development of strength between 28 days & 1 year. The particle size
above 45 microns does not contribute towards development of strength even after 1 year and
for all practical purpose they should be considered only as sand.

The fly ash is generally used in the concrete in the following ways. : As partial replace for cement.
As partial replacement for sand.
As simultaneous replacement for both cement and sand

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5. WATER:The pH value of water should be in between 6.0 and 8.0 according to IS 456-2000.

Effect of Mixing Sea Water in Concrete:

The sea Water generally contains salinity of about 3.5% in which about 80% is
sodium chloride. Many researchers have been conducted to study the corrosion problem of
steel Embedded in concrete where sea water is used as mixing water in concrete nevertheless
the Indian standard is adamant & do not permit using sea water for mixing or curing in
reinforced Concrete constructions, but allows for using of sea water only for PCC work that
too under unavoidable circumstances.

Quality of Water for Curing Concrete Members:


Generally the water that is fit for mixing of water in concrete is also fit for curing.
However where appearance is important, water containing impurities which cause stains
should not to be used. The most important elements that cause stains in the concrete are iron,
and organic matters. It is also found that even sea water also causes stains in concrete

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CHAPTER VI
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:6.1 BATCHING PLANT:The principal functional elements of every stationary concrete production Plant comprises of
the following:
Storage of materials - Silos, containers and bins
Batching arrangement
Measuring and recording equipment
Mixing equipment
Control systems
Electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic drives
Conveying systems (belt / screw conveyors)

6.2 Storage of Materials


i) Cement :Cement is generally stored in silos. The loading of cement is done with the help of
pneumatic blower systems either installed on bulk carriers or a separate system available at
the plant. If baggage cement is used then the cement is loaded using a compressed air loader
and a splitter unit.
Cement is weighed separately, and is transported from the silo into a mechanical or
electro mechanical weigh by means of a screw conveyor.
ii) Water:-

Water is generally stored in tanks located close to the plant. It is accurately measured
by a water gauge and microprocessor controlled system. The modern plants have new litronic
MFM 85 moisture recorders. These recorders actually measure the moisture present in sand
while the entire batch flows past. A recording unit calculates the average moisture value of
the sand and passes on the information to the batching control unit to allow corrective action
to be taken. The system operates to an accuracy of as low as 0.2% relative moisture.
Consistency of the mix is generally checked by visual observation later confirming it
with a workability test like the slump test. However, in modern plants consistency of the
concrete mix is checked by a remote recording system which is automatic, easy and more
accurate

iii) Aggregates :The storage of aggregates is done in various way depending on the type of plant.
There are basically three types of plants generally in use. Vertical Production Plant

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In this the aggregates are stored above the batching and mixing elements, in one or
more silos. These plants are not suitable for relocation at short intervals of time. As the
aggregates are stored in silos it is relatively easy to protect the aggregates from very low
temperature in winter period.

They can be again broadly classified into four types:Star pattern aggregate storage
Storage in tall silo
Storage in pocket silo
Inline aggregate storage silos
The star bin storage of aggregates is most popular in India mainly because of climate
conditions. The aggregates can be stored exposed to ambient temperature in different
compartments forming a star type pattern. A storage capacity of up to 1500 CuM is possible
in this type. The star pattern aggregates are stored in four to six compartments. They are
bulked at a 45 degree flow angle against the batching plant's bulkhead and partition wall of
the compartments using a boom type dragline loader. The drag-line operations are either fully
manual, semi automatic or fully automatic. Fully automatic dragline loader system operator.

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6.3 MIXING ARRANGEMENTS


There are various types of concrete mixers used on the concrete production plant. The
two basic types are free fall mixers and power mixers. Most of our indigenously
manufactured plants have free fall mixer. Free fall mixer consists of a rotating drum with
blade fixed on the drum's interior. As the drum rotates, the material inside is lifted and
dropped. The drum is loaded and emptied by changing the direction of rotation, dropping a
flap or tipping it.
Most of the imported plants have power mixer. The power mixer sets in motion the
materials positively. The materials get thoroughly mixed by rotating arms. These mixers have
shorter mixing time; give better homogeneity, consistency and strength to the concrete.
Besides, they have better facility for inspection. The following are the most common
designs..

Power Mixer

Single Shaft
Twin Shaft
Pan type
Pan type with
additional
agitator

Capacity
CuM
(Compacte
d
concrete)

Output CuM/hr
(Compacted concrete)
Mixing Time (Sec)

Max.
Aggregate
size
(mm)

3
3.5
3

30
120
120-150
120

15
-

150
190
64

140

64

TABEL NO- 2 most common designs


If mixing is to be done on difficult concrete mixes, additional agitator is provided.
The pan type mixer with additional agitator or two agitators is claimed to be far in advance of
any if other mixer. Using additional agitators almost halves the mixing time. The additional
agitator is driven by a separate hydraulic system and can be set to any speed between 0 to 200
revolutions per minute.
There are developments taking place all over the world for different types of concrete
equipments. However, the transit mixer is one of the most .popular equipments out of several
modes available. In India too, a number of transit mixers are in use all over the country which
are mainly mounted on Indian truck chassis. The mixer drum is either manufactured in India
or is improved. However, in general, the hydraulic system is improved.
There are developments taking place all over the world for different types of concrete
equipments. However, the transit mixer is one of the most .popular equipments out of several
modes available. In India too, a number of transit mixers are in use all over the country which
are mainly mounted on Indian truck chassis. The mixer drum is either manufactured in India
or is improved. However, in general, the hydraulic system is improved
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CHAPTER VII
MIXING PROCESS:Thorough mixing of the materials is essential for the production of uniform concrete.
The mixing should ensure that the mass becomes homogeneous, uniform in colour and
consistency. There are three methods adopted for mixing Ready Mix Concrete.

7.1 Following are the three types of mixing process of RMC


Transit Mixed (or "truck-mixed") Concrete
Shrink Mixed Concrete
Central Mixed Concrete

TRANSIT MIXED (OR "TRUCK-MIXED") CONCRETE


While ready mixed concrete can be delivered to the point of placement in a variety of
ways, the overwhelming majority of it is brought to the construction site in truck-mounted,
rotating drum mixers. Truck mixers have a revolving drum with the axis inclined to the
horizontal. Inside the shell of the mixer drum are a pair of blades or fins that wrap in a helical
(spiral) configuration from the head to the opening of the drum. This configuration enables
the concrete to mix when the drum spins in one direction and causes it to discharge when the
direction is reversed.
To load, or charge, raw materials from a transit mix plant or centrally mixed concrete
into the truck, the drum must be turned very fast in the charging direction. After the concrete
is loaded and mixed, it is normally hauled to the job site with the drum turning at a speed of
less than 2 rpm.
Since its inception in the mid-1920, the traditional truck-mixer has discharged
concrete at the rear of the truck. Front discharge units, however, are rapidly becoming more
popular with contractors. The driver of the front discharge truck can drive directly onto the
site and can mechanically control the positioning of the discharge chute without the help of
contractor personnel.
Currently, because of weight laws, the typical truck mixer is a 7 to 8.5 m3. The drums
are designed with a rated maximum capacity of 63% of the gross drum volume as a mixer
and 80% of the drum volume as an agitator. Generally, ready mixed concrete producers, load
their trucks with a quantity at or near the rated mixer capacity. Fresh concrete is a perishable
product that may undergo slump loss depending on temperature, time to the delivery point on
the job site, and other factors.
Water should not to be added to the mix unless the slump is less than that which is
specified. If water is added, it should be added all at once and the drum of the truck mixer
should be turned minimum of 30 revolutions, or about two minutes, at mixing speed.
The ASTM C 94, Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete, indicates that the concrete
shall be discharged on the job site within 90 minutes and before 300 revolutions after water
was added to the cement. The purchaser may waive this requirement, when conditions permit.
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In certain situations, air-entraining, water reducing, set-retarding or high-range water


reducing admixtures may need to be added to concrete prior to discharge to compensate for
loss of air, high temperatures or long delivery times. The ready mixed concrete producer will
assist the purchaser in such circumstances.

Fig No -1 Truck mix transit

Fig No-2 Central mix concrete

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SHRINK MIXED CONCRETE


Concrete that is partially mixed in a plant mixer and then discharged into the drum of
the truck mixer for completion of the mixing is called shrink mixed concrete. Central mixing
plants that include a stationary, plant-mounted mixer are often actually used to shrink mix, or
partially mix the concrete. The amount of mixing that is needed in the truck mixer varies in
these applications and should be determined via mixer uniformity tests. Generally, about
thirty turns in the truck drum, or about two minutes at mixing speed, is sufficient to
completely mix shrink-mixed concrete.

CENTRAL MIXED CONCRETE


Central-mixing concrete batch plants include a stationary, plant-mounted mixer that
mixes the concrete before it is discharged into a truck mixer. Central-mix plants are
sometimes referred to as wet batch or pre-mix plants. The truck mixer is used primarily as an
agitating haul unit at a central mix operation. Dump trucks or other non-agitating units are
sometimes be used for low slump and mass concrete pours supplied by central mix plants.
About 20% of the concrete plants in the US use a central mixer. Principal advantages include:
Faster production capability than a transit-mix plant Improved concrete quality control and
consistency and Reduced wear on the truck mixer drums.

7.2There are several types of plant mixers, including:

Twin shaft mixer


Tilt drum mixer
Horizontal shaft paddle mixer
Pan mixer
Slurry mixer

Twin shaft mixer:


Twin-shaft mixers are ideal for the ready-mix and precast concrete industries where
large volumes of high quality concrete are demanded. The powerful twin-shaft mixer, with
counter rotating shafts, delivers fast mixing action and rapid discharge and handles mix
designs with coarse aggregates up to 6 inches in diameter. Generally most the RMC plants in
India uses Twin-shaft mixer.

The tilting drum mixer:Tilting drum mixer is the most common American central mixing unit. Many centralmix drums can accommodate up to 12 yd3 and can mix in excess of 200 yd3 per hour. They
are fast and efficient, but can be maintenance-intensive since they include several moving
parts that are subjected to a heavy load.

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Horizontal shaft mixers:-

Horizontal shaft mixers have a stationary shell and rotating central shaft with blades
or paddles. They have either one or two mixing shafts that impart significantly higher
horsepower in mixing than the typical drum mixer. The intensity of the mixing action is
somewhat greater than that of the tilt drum mixer. This high energy is reported to produce
higher strength concrete via to thoroughly blending the ingredients and more uniformly
coating the aggregate particles with cement paste. Because of the horsepower required to mix
and the short mixing cycle required to complete mixing, many of these mixers are 4 or 5 yd3
units and two batches may be needed to load a standard truck or agitator.

Pan mixers:
Pan mixers are generally lower capacity mixers at about 4 to 5 yd3 and are used at precast
concrete plants.

Slurry Mixing
The slurry mixer is a relative newcomer to concrete mixing technology. It can be
added onto a dry-batch plant and works by mixing cement and water that is then loaded as
slurry into a truck mixer along with the aggregates. It is reported to benefit from high energy
mixing. Another advantage is that the slurry mixer reduces the amount of cement dust that
escapes into the air.

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CHAPTER VIII

MERITS AND DEMERITS:8.1 MERITS OF RMC:

Better quality concrete is produced.


Elimination of storage space for basic materials at site.
Elimination of Procurement / Hiring of plant and machinery.
Wastage of basic materials is avoided.
Labour associated with production of concrete is eliminated.
Time required is greatly reduced.
Noise and dust pollution at site is reduced.
Organization at site is more streamlined.
Durable & Affordable
No storage space required either for raw materials or for the mix.
Lower labour and supervisory cost.
No wastage at site.
Environment friendly.
Availability of concrete of any grade.

8.2 DEMERITS OF RMC:

Need huge initial investment.


Not affordable for small projects (small quantity of concrete)
Needs effective transportation system from R.M.C to site.
Traffic jam or failure of vehicle creates problem if proper dose of retarder is not
given.
Labours should be ready on site to cast the concrete in position to vibrate it and
compact it

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CHAPTER IX
NEED OF EFFECTIVE RMC PLANT MANAGEMENT
Concrete demand by customer in developing area.
Cost control on aggregate for size, shape and grading. Not exercised on a site
Blocking of roads/approaches.
Dust pollution.
Manual operation.
Wastage materials.
Quality assurance.
Restricted space.
Speed on construction site.
Economy management.

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CHAPTER X
CASE STUDY :PROJECT PARAMETERS

Capacity
The production capacity of a Ready-Mix Concrete Plant varies according to the
capacity of the Batching Plant used. Most commonly used RMC Plants will be having a
production capacity of 30 m3/hr (90,000 m3/year, based on 300 working days and single shift
of 10 hours).
Land
An extent of around 1 acre of dry land is required for setting up a Ready-Mix
Concrete Plant.
Location
The project is proposed to be located at Amanora town city corporation limited
( RMC plant )
Raw Material & Utilities
The Raw materials that go into production of concrete are Cement, Aggregates (Sand
& Metal), Additives and Water. M20 grade concrete is the most widely used, where the
Cement/Sand/Metal/Water mix is in the ratio of 1 : 1.5 : 3.5 : 0.5. Since uninterrupted
availability of raw materials is the most fundamental success factor for any RMC Plant,
options for backward integration (quarry/ metal crushing unit/cement plant/clinker grinding
unit) should be carefully considered and analyzed while choosing the Plant location.
Plant & Machinery
The main items of mechanical equipment involved in the ready-mix concrete
manufacture are the Concrete Batching Plant, Transit Mixer and Concrete Pump. M/s.
Schwing Stetter India (P) Ltd is the leading supplier of RMC equipments in the country.
The total cost of machinery for a 30m3/hr RMC Plant is around Rs.200 Lakhs.
Manpower
The total manpower requirement for a typical RMC Plant would be around 20
numbers.
Cost of the Project
The total project cost for setting up a 30m3/hr RMC Plant would be around Rs.400
Lakhs, including cost of 1 acre land. The project implementation period would be 12 months.
Ready Mix Concrete Plant KSIDC

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Means of Finance
Promoters contribution-100.00
Unsecured Loan -20.00
Term Loan Banks -100.00
Total Project Cost-220.00
Sales Turnover
The Revenue at optimum utilisation (80%) would be around Rs. 3888 Lakhs.
FINANCIAL INDICATORS
The Profit after Tax is Rs.123 Lacks.
The Break Even Point (BEP) for the project is 58%.
The Debt Equity Ratio (DER) for the project is 1:1
Average Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) is 3.78
The average Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for the project is 28.68%.

CONCLUSION
Ready Mix Concrete is a modern technique of production of concrete in large
quantities away from the actual site of placing. It is very useful in cities where demand of
concrete is very high and construction sites are in congested areas, where mixing on site is
not possible. The Supervisory and labour costs associated with production of RMC is less,
and the quality of concrete is high. It is suitable for huge industrial and residential projects
where time plays a vital role.

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Solution for the problems faced by ready mix concrete plant.


By visiting RMC plants and discussing with respective RMC plant managers
and senior engineers.
Carrying out questionary session with them about problems facing by them.
Giving solutions to the problems related to the quality, material, human
resource, transportation, etc.
To give the suggestions to make RMC plant more economical and ecofriendly
in nature.

REFERENCES :- :1 .Ready-Mixed Concrete growth prospects in India- A K Jain*, Grasim Industries Ltd, India
http://cipremier.com/100027032
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2. An Approach for Ready Mixed Concrete Selection for Construction Companies through
Analytic Hierarchy Process- Ashish H. Makwana 1, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July
2013
3. Minimizing Material Inventory in Ready Mixed Concrete PlantsIJISET - International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 1 Issue
8, October 2014.
www.ijiset.com
4. Quality Management System for Ready Mixed IS 456 2003
5. Construction management S.Seetharaman
6. Concrete Technology Theory and Practice, M.S SHETTY, S.Chand- New Delhi.
7 .RMC in India (June 2001), Civil Engineering & Construction Review
8. IS 4926-2003, Standard on Ready mixed concrete Code of Practice, BIS, New Delhi.
9. IS 383, Indian Standard specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources
for concrete ( Second Revision )
10 .IS 10262-2009, Indian Standard Concrete Mix Proportioning- guidelines (First Revision)
WEBSITES :1. http://cipremier.com/100027032
2. www.ijiset.com
3. http://www.rdcconcrete.com/
4. http://www.wikipedia.org/

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