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Electricity is either connected in single phase or three phase.

In single phase, wire is


connected in phase to neutral with supplying 230 or 240 volts of electricity. Single phase
power is commonly used in households. While, in three phase, wire connected in phase to
phase with supplying 400 volts of electricity. Three phase power is commonly used in
commercial premises.
In single phase: P = VI cos
In three phase: P =VI cos
3
Electrical wiring composes of electrical equipment such as cables, switch boards, main
switches, miniature circuit breakers (MCB) or fuses, residual current devices (RCD),
lighting points, power points, lightning arrestors, etc.. Example 1 of a single phase
consumer electrical wiring is as shown in Figure 3.2

From figure 3.2, we can see that 100mA ELCB is connected to lighting general power
circuits, such as lamp, fan, motor (D.O.L - Direct On Line), alarm and air-conditioner.
While, 30mA ELCB is connected to socket outlets.

Direct On Line
The Direct On Line Motor Starter (DOL) consist a MCB or circuit Breaker, contactor
and an overload relay for protection. Electromagnetic contactor which can be opened by
the thermal overload relay under fault conditions. DOL has several built-in protective
features
(a) Short-circuit protection
(b) Overload protection
(c) Under-votage protection
DOL as :1) Main circuit/Power circuit

2) Control Circuit

Overload protection for an electric motor is necessary to prevent burnout and to ensure
maximum opeer rating life. Under any condition of overload, a motor draws excessive
current that causes overheating. Since motor winding insulation deteriorates due to

overheating, there are established limits on motor operating temperatures to protect a


motor from overheating. Overload relays are employed on a motor control to limit the
amount of current drawn.

For TNB 3
Load
Filament Light

Maximum Current
(Amount of the Load x Power
Required by the Load x 1.8) /
(230 x 0.85)

Estimate Current
66% of its maximum current

Light Bulb

(Amount of the Load x Power


Required by the Load) / 230

66% of its maximum current

Socket Outlet
(S.A.K)

(2 S.A.K x Power Required by


each Load x Half the Amount
of the Load) / 230

100% x (2 S.A.K x Power


Required by each Load) / 230
+
40% x [Max. Current- 100% x
(2 S.A.K x Power Required by
each Load)] / 230

Air Conditioner

(Amount of the Load x Power


Required by the Load) / (230 x
0.85)

Same as its maximum current

Water Heater

(Amount of the Load x Power


Required by the Load) / 230

(100% x Max. Current /


Amount of the Load)
+
(100% x Max. Current /
Amount of the Load)
+
(25% x Max. Current / Amount
of the Load)

Cooker Control Unit

(Amount of the Load x Power


Required by the Load) / 230

10 A + 30% x (Max. Current 10 A)

Load
Socket Outlet
(S.A.K)

Air Conditioner &


Motor (3 phase)

Maximum Current
(2 S.A.K x Power Required by
each Load x Half the Amount
of the Load) / 230

(Amount of
3 the Load x
Power
Required by
the Load) / ( x 400 x 0.85)

Estimate Current
100% x (2 S.A.K x Power
Required by each Load) / 230
+
40% x [Max. Current- 100% x
(2 S.A.K x Power Required by
each Load)] / 230
100% x 1st Highest Max.
Current for each Unit
+
80% x 2nd Highest Max.
Current for each Unit
+
60% x [Total Max. Current of 3
phase Load - (100% x 1st
Highest Max. Current for each
Unit) - (80% x 2nd Highest
Max. Current for each Unit)]