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Optimal Location of SVC Devices in a Power

System of Multi-Machine and Applying an Indirect


Adaptive Fuzzy Control with Non-Linear Loads
Youssef MOULOUDI, Abdellah LAOUFI, Bousmaha BOUCHIBA, Med Nacer TANDJAOUI
Abstract
In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (Unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive)
compensator (SVC) controller are proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system (Algerian SouthWestern power system), which based on input-output linearization technique. A bus system, which contains a
generators (Node situated in Naama, Tiaret, Relizane) and static VAR compensator (SVC) is considered the
SVC and it is located of the transmission lines (Node of Bechar). It can improve both the power angle stability of
generators and the voltage behavior at the SVC location. Simulation results show that the proposed controller
compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the
power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal. This control
method has a good effect and superiority.
Keywords: feedback linearization; SVC controller; generator excitation; indirect adaptive fuzzy

1. Introduction
An interconnected power system basically
consists of several essential components.
They are namely the generating units, the
transmission
lines,
the
loads,
the
transformer, static VAR compensators and
lastly the HVDC lines. During the operation
of the generators, there may be some
disturbances such as sustained oscillations
in the speed or periodic variations in the
torque that is applied to the generator. These
disturbances may result in voltage or
frequency fluctuations that may affect the
other parts of the interconnected power
system. External factors, such as lightning,
can also cause disturbances to the power
system. All these disturbances are termed as
faults. When a fault occurs, it causes the
motor to loose synchronism if the natural
frequency of oscillations coincides with the
frequency of oscillation of the generators.
With these factors in mind, the basic
condition for a power system with stability is
synchronism. Besides, this condition, there
are other important conditions such as
steady-state stability, transient stability,

Youssef MOULOUDI, PhD. Stud.,


mouloudiyoussef@yahoo.fr
Abdellah LAOUFI, PhD., laoufi_ab@yahoo.fr
Bousmaha BOUCHIBA, PhD.,mouloudiyoussef@yahoo.fr
and Med Nacer TANDJAOUI, PhD.: Bechar University,
Faculty of Science and Technology, BP 417, 08000 Bechar,
Algeria.

harmonics and disturbances, collapse of


voltage and the loss of reactive power.
During the recent years, problems
associated with environmental issues and
high costs have delayed the construction of
new transmission lines, while the demand for
electric power has continued to grow. Under
these conditions, the transmission networks
are called upon to operate at high
transmission levels and power engineers
have had to confront some major operating
problems such as transient instability, poor
damping of oscillations and poor voltage
regulation.[4,7]
While the generator excitation controllers
are helpful in achieving rotor angle stability,
the excitation control alone may not maintain
the system stability, if a large fault occurs
close to the generator terminal. Moreover,
the simultaneous transient stability and
voltage regulation enhancement may be
difficult to be achieved.
Researchers have found that the
performance of power systems can be
further improved by applying the recently
developed flexible AC transmission systems
(FACTS) controllers [1,9].
Among the FACTS family, the static VAR
compensator (SVC) is a device which can
provide smoothly and rapidly reactive power
compensation to power systems.
Therefore, in principle, SVC can be used
with excitation control to provide voltage

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

90

support, increase transient stability and


improve damping [2,5].
This paper presents an indirect adaptive
fuzzy excitation and SVC control for multimachine
systems
using
feedback
linearization (FBL) technique. The main goal
of the proposed controller is to improve both
the system transient stability and damping
oscillation even under large and sudden
disturbances and to insure good post-fault
voltage.
A two-machine infinite bus system is used
to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed
control scheme (see Figure 1).

Pei = E'qi E'qj Bij sin( i j )

(3)

j =1

Qei = E'qi E'qj Bij cos( i j )

(4)

j =1

idi = E'qj Bij cos( i j )

(5)

j =1
n

iqi = E'qj Bij sin( i j )

(6)

Vdi = E'di + iqi x'qi

(7)

Vqi = E'qi idi x'di

(8)

Vti = Vdi 2 + Vqi 2

(9)

E'di = ( xqi x'qi )iqi

(10)

j =1

The SVC dynamic


expressed as follows:
.

BL =

model

can

1
(B L + B c + k B u B )
TR

be

(11)

Figure 1. A two machine with infinite bus

Simulation results show that the proposed


IAFLC control can enhance the dynamic
performance of the power system over a
wide range of operating conditions.
2. The mathematical model
Consider a large-scale power system
consisting of, n generators interconnected
through a transmission network. For the ith
subsystem, the dynamics can be written
using the state space formulation [10,8,12].
.

i =i
.

i =
.

E'qi =

Di
i 0 (Pei Pm )
2Hi
2Hi

2.1. Feedback Linearization Control


The power system with subsystems
modeled as in eq.(1) can be written as a
multi input-multi output system [13].
.

X = F( x ) + G( x )U

Y = H( x )
(1)

1
1
( E'qi +(xdi x'di )idi +Efdi ) = ( Eqi +Efdi )
Tdoi
Tdoi

Where:

X = [ x1 ,x2 ,...,xn ] T

The electric equations are as follows:

Eqi = E'qi + ( xdi x'di )idi

U = [ E fd 1 ,E fd 2 ,...,E fdm ] T

(2)

and

(12)

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

Y = [ 1 , 2 ,..., m ] T

0 1 n
E'qj Bij sin( i j )
2Hi Tdoi j =1

ii ( x ) =

where:

x2
D

.
1
f (x ) =
x2 +
x q x 'q i q i d i q x 3 + Pm
M
M

'
x 3 + x d x d id

Tdo

) )

For tracking the output to a desired


reference ym, the new input v can be chosen
as:
...

(18)

where:

(14)

that

the

polynomial

2.2. An Indirect Adaptive Control Design


Using Fuzzy Logic Systems

j =1

E fd 1
1( x ) + v1

.
. = A1( x )

m ( x ) + vm
E fdm

such

( s + a3i s + a2i s + a1i ) is strict Hurwitz and the


system has poles at the desired locations.
The control law, given by Equations (14)
and (18), results in a feedback linearized and
decoupled system with the output yi
converging asymptotically to the desired
response.

(13)

The
feedback
linearization
and
decoupling control law derivation (given in
Appendix [6]) is:

chosen
2

y i = i ( x ) + ij ( x ) E fdj

If the nonlinear functions i ( x ), ij ( x ) are


unknown in our problem and/or the states
variables are difficult to measure, so
obtaining control law Equation (14) is
impossible. In this situation, the nonlinear
function i ( x ), ij ( x ) will be approximated
by tuning the parameter of the corresponding
fuzzy logic systems. The estimated nonlinear
^

function i ( x ), ij ( x ) are defined as [14,15]:

where:

11 ( x )
.
A( x ) =
.

m1 ( x )

i ( x | i ) = iT ( x)

. . 1m ( x )
. .
.
. .
.

. . mm ( x )

Choosing an equivalence control as:

Efd1 11(x)

. = .
. .
^

Efdm m1(x)
^

0 Eqi
Eqj
E'qj Bij sin(i j )+ 0 E'qi Bij sin(

i
j)
2HT
2Hi j=1Tdoj
i doi j=1
n

(15)

0 1
E'qi Bij sin( i j )
2 H i Tdoj

(19)

ij ( x | ij ) = ij ( x)

D . 0 n
i(x)= i
i
E'qi E'qj B(ij
i
j )cos(
i
j )+
2Hi 2Hi j=1

ij ( x ) =

..

v i = y m + a3i e i + a2i e i + a1i e i

are

F and G are smooth vector fields, and G


is a nm matrix.
Differentiating the output repeatedly with
respect to time, the input U appears explicitly
after three differentiations.

(17)

a1i ,a2i ,a3i , i=1,..,m,

0
.
g (x ) = 0
1

Tdo

...

91

(16)

...

. .
. .
. .
. .

1m(x)
.

.
^

mm(x)
^

1( x)+v1

(20)
.

m( x)+vm

ei = a e + wi

(21)

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

92

..

where a = [a1i a2i a3i] and e = [ ei ei ei ]

Vi =

and wi is the approximation error defined


by:
n

wi =(i (x|i )i (x))+(ij (x|ij )ij (x))uj

(22)

j=1

ei = Ai ei + bi wi

(23)

where:

0
1
a3i

(30)

From the above equations we have:


.
T
1T
1
*
V i = e iQi ei + (wi *T bT i Pe
i i +ei Pbw
i i i )
2
2

(31)

The term
T
1 *T T
*
( wi bi Pi ei + ei Pb
i i wi )
2

Define the optimal parameter estimates


*
*
i and ij as follows:

i* = argmin i [supxU iT (x) i (x) ]

(24)

ij* = argmin [supxU ijT (x) ij (x) ]

(25)

ij

ij

i*

Using

and ij* ,

the

minimum

*
i

approximation error w can be written as:


n

w = (i (x | ) (x)) +(ij (x | ) ij (x))uj (26)


*
i

*
ij

j=1

Now, adding and subtracting the term


(bi wi* ) to Equation (23), the error equation
can be rewritten as:
.

i = i ei Pb
i i ( x )
.

0
bi = 0
1

j =1 ij

ij = ij ei Pb
i i ( x )u j

and

*
i

(29)

We choose the adaptive law as:

1
0
a2 i

(28)

.
T
1T
1
*
Vi = ei (ATi Pi +PAi )ei + (wi*TbTi Pe
i i +ei Pbw
i i i )
2
2
.
.
n
1 T T
1 T
T
T
T
+ (i ei Pb
i i (x)+i )i + (ij ei Pbu
i i j (x)+ij )ij

its state-place equation is given by:

0
Ai = 0
a1i

n
1 T
1 T
1 T
ei Pi ei +
i i +
ij ij
2
2 i
j =1 2 ij

*
T
T
ei = Ae
i i + bw
i i + bi [i ( x) + ij ( x)u j ]

(27)

j =1

where: i = i i* and ij = ij ij* .


Define the following positive,
Laypunov function candidate: [14]

define

is of the order of the minimum approximation


error, which is very small or zero.
.

In this case equation (31) reduces to V i 0 ,


where the Pi matrix is the unique positive
defined 33 matrix that satisfies the
Lyapunov equation:

AT i Pi + Pi Ai = Qi
2.3. Feedback Linearization Control (FBL)
2.3.1. Selection of SVC Location
Firstly, it is essential to select a location
for the SVC. The SVC is installed at bus 4,
then at bus 5, in order to select the better
location of SVC. This will be examined by
selecting different operating points then
comparing the responses of the system
using different techniques namely, FBL and
excitation control coordinated with SVC
based on FBL.
Case 1
The operating point is:

10 = 64.08,Pm10 = 1.1,Vt10 = 1.0


20 = 65.33,Pm 20 = 1.0 ,Vt 20 = 1.0

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

The fault location is ( = 0.4 ).


The corresponding responses are shown
in Figures 3 and 6.

93

is produced in the terminal voltage response


of both generators in transient stability, as
shown in Figures 3 and 5.
Case 2:
The operating points are the same as in
Case 1, with different fault location ( = 0.2 ).
The corresponding responses are shown in
Figures 6 and 9.

Figure 2. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 1 at ( = 0 . 4 )

Figure 6. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 1 at ( = 0 .2 )

Figure 3. Response of voltage at generator 1 (V1(t))


at ( = 0 . 4 )

Figure 7. Response of voltage at generator 1 (V1(t))


at ( = 0 .2 )

Figure 4. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 2 at ( = 0 . 4 )

Figure 8. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 2 at ( = 0 .2 )

Figure 5. Response of voltage at generator 2 (V2(t))


at ( = 0 . 4 )

Figures 2 and 4 show the response of the


relative rotor angle of the generator 1 and 2
respectively, it can be seen that, although
the system stays stable for both selected
positions of the SVC.
When the SVC is installed at bus 4, the
oscillations for rotor angle of generator 1 are
damped out in 3 sec and those of generator
2 are damped out in 4.3 sec. Also, a
decrease in amplitude of 5 % is registered in
both subsystems contrary to install the SVC
at bus 5.
Furthermore, an improvement of 0.05 pu

Figure 9. Response of voltage at generator 2 (V2(t))


at ( = 0 .2 )

Similar improvements in both damping


time and dipping in amplitude for both
generators are registered.
Case 3:
The operating point is:

10 = 60.78,Pm10 = 0.95,Vt10 = 1.0


20 = 60.78,Pm 20 = 0.95,Vt 20 = 1.0

94

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

For the Case 3, the power angles 10 , 20 ,


and the mechanical input power Pm10 and
Pm20 are varied. The fault location remains
the same as Case 2 (i.e = 0.2 ).
Figures 10 and 13 show the responses of
the relative rotor angle and the terminal
voltage of each generator.

applied. A three triangular membership


functions
defined
for
each
state
variable ( i 0i ,i ) :

u F1i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i - /6)/( /6))

u F2i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i )/( /6))


u F3i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i + /6)/( /6))
Also three triangular membership functions
are defined for the third state E'qi :

Figure 10. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 1 at ( = 0 .2 )

u F1i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i -1.5 )/1.5)


u F2i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i )/1.5)
u F3i ( x i ) = 1-abs((x i + 1.5 )/1.5)
where i=1,2.

Figure 11. Response of voltage at generator 1 (V1(t))


at ( = 0 .2 )

Figure 12. Response of relative rotor angle of


generator 2 at ( = 0 .2 )

Figure 13. Response of voltage at generator 2 (V2(t))


at ( = 0 .2 )

The same improvements of case 1 and


case 2 are registered.
Installing the SVC at bus 4, results in
improving the terminal voltage by 0.05 p.u.
and regain synchronism of both generators
after 3 sec irrespect of changing the
operating point and/or the fault location.
Consequently, the SVC will be fixed at bus 4,
since this displacement gives a better
performance.
2.4. Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy control
An indirect adaptive fuzzy controller is now

A MATLAB program is used to simulate


the overall control system, choosing infinite
bus 3 as the reference bus, and SVC
installed at bus 4.
An indirect adaptive fuzzy control is
applied to the system and compared with
feedback linearization technique. The results
are shown in Figures 14 and 21.
Selecting the operating point as:

10 = 60.78,Pm10 = 0.95,Vt10 = 1.0


20 = 60.78,Pm 20 = 0.95,Vt 20 = 1.0
where the fault location at ( = 0.0001 ).
As shown in Figures 14 and 16, an
improvement of the transient stability is
registered, for both feedback linearization
and indirect adaptive fuzzy control. In case
of IAFLC, the amplitude of oscillations in
relative rotor angle ( (t ) ) related to
generators 1 and 2 is 30 % less than the
FBL controller.

Figure 14. Response of the relative rotor angle with


FBL and with IAFLC of generator 1 at
( = 0 .0 0 0 1 )

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

Figure 15. Response of the relative rotor speed (w(t))


with FBL and with IAFLC of generator 1
at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 )

95

Figure 19. Response of the generator bus terminal


voltage (V2(t)) with FBL and with IAFLC
at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 ).

Figures 20 and 21 show the input


control E fd 1 and E fd 2 respectively, and it can
be seen that with IAFLC the oscillations are
damped at 4 sec for E fd 1 and at 6 sec for

E fd 2 , contrary to FBL, where the oscillation


Figure 16. Response of the relative rotor angle with
FBL and with IAFLC of generator2

Figures 4 and 17 show that with the


IAFLC controller the system returns to
synchronism and stable condition after
2 sec, in both generators, however, the FBL
controller returns after 4 sec.

are damped at 6 sec for both control input.

E fd 1
Figure 20. input control
with FBL and with
IAFLC at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 ).

Figure 17. Response of the relative rotor speed (w(t))


with FBL and with IAFLC of generator 2
at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 )

Figure 18 shows that applying FBL, the


duration of the voltage dip of generator 1 is
3.5 sec, with an amplitude equals 25 %
while, when applying IAFLC these values
are enhanced and become 1.5 s and 9 %
respectively.

fd 2
Figure 21. input control
with FBL and with
IAFLC at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 )

From Figure 22, it is obvious that, a


sudden drop in electric power (Pe) due to the
reduction in line impedances results from
changes of the system parameter due to the
fault.
The system tries to regain synchronism
after encountering the fault.

Figure 18. Response of the generator bus terminal


voltage (V1(t)) with FBL and with IAFLC
at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 )

Figure 19 shows that with IAFLC the


terminal voltage returns to initial value
after 3.5 sec, however, with FBL controller
returns after 5 sec.

Figure 22. Response of the electric power (Pe), with


FBL and with IAFLC at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 )

Figure 23 shows that, the value of the


SVC reactance is increased for both
investigated techniques when fault occurs.

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

96

Figure 23. Variation of the (BL(t)) with FBL and with


IAFLC at ( = 0 . 0 0 0 1 ).

3. Results
Consider a power system that consists of
a 50 Hz, 230 kV transmission network with
two generators and infinite bus connected
through a network of transformers and
transmission lines.
The single-line diagram of the considered
system was shown in the above Figure 1.
The infinite bus voltage is taken as a
reference. V3=1 arg 0.
The parameters used for the power
system modeling are [10].

0 = 314.159 , XL12=0.60, XL13=0.57, XL23=0.67.


Generator 1:
xd =1.900 p.u, xd=0.300 p.u, xq= 1.60 p.u,
xq=0.590 p.u.
xT1=0.418 p.u, Tdo=7.9 p.u, H = 4s D=5 p.u.

Generator 2:
xd =2.56 p.u, xd=0.400 p.u, xq= 0.90 p.u, xq=0.60
p.u.

following temporary fault sequence is used in


the simulation studies:
Stage 1: The system is in a pre-fault
steady state.
Stage 2: A three phase short circuit
fault occurs at t=2.1 s.
Stage 3: The fault is removed by
opening the circuit breakers after 2.2 s.
Stage 4: The transmission line is
restored at t=3.4 s.
Stage 5: The system is in a post-fault
state.
Conclusions
This paper, presents a coordinated
excitation and SVC control scheme using an
indirect adaptive fuzzy control for transient
stability enhancement of multi-machine
power systems.
The fuzzy controller is constructed based
on feedback linearization (DFL) techniques.
The indirect adaptive fuzzy controller
parameters are adjusted indirectly from the
estimation of plant parameters.
The adaptation law adjusts the controller
parameters on-line so that the plant output
tracks the reference output.
The simulation results show that, the
proposed indirect adaptive fuzzy control can
enhance the transient stability, increase
damping and, simultaneously achieve good
post-fault
generator
terminal
voltage
compared to the feedback linearization
control.

xT2=0.418 p.u, Tdo=8.96 p.u, H=5.1s, D=3 p.u.

The system response under a threephase short circuit fault is tested. The

Appendix
The expressions for ( x) and ( x) are:

i x + ( xd x 'd )id
x
D
( x) = x2 q ( 3
)+ gt 2 [(( xq x 'q )id x3 )( E 'd cos( x1 + 0 ) x 3 sin( x1 + 0 ))
M
M
Tdo
M
( xq x 'q )iq ( E 'd sin( x1 + 0 ) x 3 cos( x1 + 0 ))] + gt (

x3 + ( xd x 'd )id
)((( xq x 'q )id x3 ) cos( x1 + 0 )
MTdo

bt
x2 [(( xq x 'q )id x3 )( E 'd sin( x1 + 0 ) + x 3 cos( x1 + 0 )) + ( xq x 'q )iq
M
x + ( xd x 'd )id
( E 'd cos( x1 + 0 ) x 3 sin( x1 + 0 ))] + bt ( 3
)[(( xq x 'q )id x3 )sin( x1 + 0 ) + ( xq x 'q )
MTdo
( xq x 'q )iq sin( x1 + 0 )) +

iq cos( x1 + 0 )

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

( x )=

iq
M Tdo

+ gt

97

1
[(( x q x ' q )i d x 3 ) co s( x1 + 0 ) ( x q x ' q )i q sin ( x1 + 0 )] +
M Tdo

bt
[(( x q x ' q )i d x 3 ) sin ( x1 + 0 ) + ( x q x ' q )i q co s( x1 + 0 )]
M Tdo
List of Symbols
VAR: Volt-ampere reactive power (is a unit used
to measure reactive power in an Alternative
current (AC) power system);
HVDC: High Voltage Direct Current;

: the relative power angle of the generator;


: the relative speed of the generator;

Pe: the active electric power delivered by the


generator;
Pm: the mechanical input power;
D: damping constant;
M: inertia constant;
Eq: the EMF in the quadrature axis;
Efd: the excitation control input.
Tdo: the rotor circuit time constant;
xd: the direct axis reactance;
xd: the direct axis transient reactance;
xq: the quadrature axis reactance;
xq: the quadrature axis transient reactance;
gt: the equivalent conductance between the
generator and the infinite bus;
Xtrf: the transformer reactance;
Xtrl: the transmission line reactance;
BL: the susceptance of the inductor in SVC;
BC: the susceptance of the capacitor in the SVC;
TR: the time constant of the SVC regulator;
kB: the gain of the SVC regulator;
yt: the transmission admittance;
Xl12, Xl23: reactance of transmission lines.
i : The rotor angle.

i , ij : The adjustable parameter.


ab:Angles between line current

and line
voltage (deg).
ia :Angles between Ia current and the reference
(deg).

6. References
[1] Yousef H.A., Wahba M.A., Adaptive fuzzy
nonlinear excitation control of power
system, 1st Conference on International
Federation of Automatic Control, ACCS05,
March 2005.
[2] Wang Y., Xie L., Hill D.J., Robust nonlinear
controller design for transient stability
enhancement of power systems, in Pro.31th
Conference on Decision and Control,
Tucson, AZ, Dec. 1992, p. 1117-1122.
[3] Mak F.K., Design of nonlinear generator
excitations using differential geometric
control theories, in Pro. 31th Conference on

Decision and Control, Tucson, AZ, Dec.


1992, p. 1149-1153.
[4] Ma Y., Chen S., A study on nonlinear SVC
control for improving power system stability,
IEEE TENCON 93 / Beijing 1993, China, p
166-169.
[5] Cong L., Wang Y., Transient stability and
voltage
regulation
enhancement
via
coordinated control of generator excitation
and SVC, Electric Power Energy Systems,
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[6] Mahran A.R., Hogg B.W., Coordinated
control of synchronous generator excitation
and Static VAR Compensator, IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, 1992,
7(4), p 615-622.
[7] Jain S., Khorrami F., Fardanesh B., Adaptive
nonlinear excitation control of power
systems with unknown interconnections,
IEEE transaction on control system
technology, 1994, 2(4), p. 436-446.
[8] Wang Y., Tan Y.L., Robust nonlinear
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control for power systems, Electric Power
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[9] Anderson P.M., Fouad A.A., Power system
control and stability, Iowa State University
Press, Ames, Iowa, 1977.
[10] Ghazi R., Azemi A., Adaptive fuzzy sliding
mode control of SVC and TCSC for
improving the dynamic performance of
power systems, Conference publication
No.485, AC-DC power transmission, 28-30
November, IEE 2001, p. 333-337.
[11] Canizares C.A., Analysis of SVC and TCSC
controllers in voltage collapse, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, 1999,
14(1), p.158-165.
[12] Milano F., Power System Analysis Toolbox,
Documentation for PSAT version 1.0.1,
January 16, 2003.
[13] Li S., Applied nonlinear control, USA,
Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[14] Tang S., Li H.X., Wang W., Observer based
adaptive fuzzy control for SISO nonlinear
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355-376.
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design and stability analysis, Englewood
cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 4

98
7. Biography

Youssef MOULOUDI received the


state engineer degree in Electric
Engineering in 2006 from the
University of Bechar and the M.S.
degree in 2009 from Bechar
University, Algeria.
He is currently working toward the doctorate
degree. His areas of interest are Facts systems,
power filters, applications of power electronics,
and stability improvement. He is working at
SONELGAZ "Algerian electric society" since
1995 until now.
Abdellah LAOUFI was born in
1962 at Bechar-Algeria, in 2006 he
No photo received the doctorate degree from
available the University of Sciences and
Technology of Oran (USTO),
Algeria and currently Professor.
His current research and teaching interests are
in the stability of electric networks, of power
quality and the energies Reactive compensation
FACTS system. Presently he is supervising five
doctoral students working in the field of power
quality and renewable energy.

Bousmaha BOUCHIBA was born


in 1977 at Bechar-Algeria.
Hes
received
the
electric
engineering diploma from Bechar
University-Algeria in 1999, and the
Master degree from the University
Alexandria Egypt in 2006.
Currently he is an assistant teacher at Bechar
University. From 2007 right now he's preparing
his Phd degree in multi machine system control.
Mohammed
Nasser
TANDJAOUI received the state
engineer degree in Electric
Engineering in 2005 from the
University of Sciences and
Technology of Oran (USTO).
He was Magister in electric engineering in 2009
from university of Bechar, Algeria. He currently
was holding the post of Assistant maitre in
university of bechar. He was preparing a
Doctorate of improvement of the quality of
energy electric in a wind network by the
integration of FACTS systems. His research
area interests are power electronics, FACTS,
HVDC, power quality issues, renewable energy
and energy storage