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Pulse Amplitude Modulation



Muhammad Muizzuddin Bin Zainol Abidin (51213215271)
Mohd Noor Faiz Bin Abdul Rahim (51213215255)

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), is a
form of signal modulation where the
message information is encoded in
the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.
It is an analog pulse modulation scheme in
which the amplitudes of a train of carrier
pulses are varied according to the sample
value of the message signal. Demodulation
is performed by detecting the amplitude
level of the carrier at every symbol period
The conversion of analog signals into
digital signals is divided into 3 sections
important that is: [2]
1. Sampling
Is the process of sampling of the signal
information to be process. Frequency
signal according to the rules of Nyquist
sampling is 2 fm, fm is the information
signal to be sampled. [2]

by means generates a signal pulse of the

pulse generator to adjust the pulse width
(To) is discrete. But then it should be
understood that in fact form a PAM signal
is generated is:

Signal PAM is shaped discrete on

time and continuous level region

Signal PAM shape is not purely

analog signals and digital signals are not
pure form [2]
Analog communication module
Power supply
Function generator (with sweep option)

2. Quantizing
Is the award of a signal that has been
sampled by bringing the signal on the
award of binary bits required. [2]
3. Encoding
Is a process of changing the binary code
into object code in accordance with the
application of the corresponding digital
signals. [2]
At a sampling process can be done by
using two types of signals, namely a pulse
or impulse. PAM modulation signal is a
signal to the digitization process in the
form of a pulse signal input.
PAM signal formation in the digitalization
process using pulse represents a first step
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation








In the Simulink MATLAB, Pulse
Amplitude Modulation need to be
construct based on the Figure 1.
Original signal (Sinus Wave) and constant
need to be sum and connect to Scope1 and
observed the wave as shown in Figure 3.
Pulse Generator will be connected to
Scope2 and observed the wave as shown in
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Figure 4 this will be Sampling Signal.
Pulse Generator had to be set in the
parameter period (secs) as shown Figure 2.
Set the period for pulse generator to 0.25
Both of the signals (Original signal and
Sampling signal) will be multiple by using
Product block and connect to Scope. The
result of the multiplication will produce
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) as
shown in the Figure 5.
Repeat the steps and change the period for
pulse generator to 0.125 secs and 1.25 secs
and observed the Scope, Scope1 and
Scope2 to compare them.

Figure 3: Original Signal


Figure 4: Sampling Signal

Figure 2: Pulse Generator Parameters (0.25 secs)

Figure 5: PAM Signal

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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Figure 8: Sampling Signal

Figure 6: Pulse Generator Parameter (0.125 secs)

Figure 9: PAM Signal

Figure 7: Original Signal

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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Figure 12: Sampling Signal

Figure 10: Pulse Generator Parameter (1.25 secs)

Figure 13: PAM Signal

Figure 11: Original Signal

From the data collected, the study found

that if fm is 3 kHz and fs 9 kHz, the cut off
frequency of the low pass filter that
demodulates s PAM signal should be
slightly above fm. When the Nyquist rate
is 4 kHz which is two times of 2 kHz
message signal frequency. So the SP
frequency is greater than the Nyquist rate.
For the Simulink of pulse analog
modulator, if the band limitation is not too
severe then the text message can be
recovered by choosing the right threshold
between binary 0 and 1 and by selecting
the right time instants for sampling the
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

PAM signal. But if the band limitation is
strong enough to create intersymbol
interference (ISI), then an inverse filter
may have to be used to equalize the
channel before the text message can be

In short, PAM is a general signaling
technique whereby pulse amplitude is used
to convey the message. PAM pulses could
be the sampled amplitude values of an
analogue signal. Two main type of PAM
includes natural PAM and flat top PAM. In
order to convert analog to digital signal
using PAM, the signal has to undergo

processes such as sampling, quantization

and binary encoding.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulseamplitude_modulation
[3] Lecturer Notes

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