Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

A UNIFIED METHOD FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION

OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES


H. Maqbahi, A. Ba-razzouk, J. Xu, A. Cheriti and V. Rajagopalan
Chaire de recherche industrielle Hydro-QuCbecNQTR
Dtpartement de genie Clectrique et gtnie informatique
Universitk du QuCbec 2 Trois-Rivi&res
C.P. 500, Trois-Rivikres,PQ, G9A 5H7, CANADA
E-mail: macbahi@uqtr.uquebec.ca
ABSTRACT : This paper presents a new approach
for modeling and simulating the dynamic behavior of
a large, interconnected, nonlinear, time-varying
physical system consisting of a three-phase induction
motor drive. An example of a vector-controlled
induction motor shows that the proposed method is
very accurate and very fast. The proposed simulation
method and algorithm are expected to overcome
some of the disadvantages of the existing methods.
Simulation results are presented to illustrate the
capabilities and flexibility of the simulation
technique. A comparative evaluation with PSIM
results is also provided to confirm the simplicity and
the accuracy of the proposed unified method.

described in the literature, it is not particularly well


suited for implementation within a general simulation
package.
An alternative way for formulating the dynamic
drive analysis is suggested [4] using TransmissionLine Modeling (TLM) technique. The induction
motor is presented in dq frame. Furthermore, the
authors have decoupled the system by introducing
small inductors between the inverter and the motor
section. The disadvantage of this approach is the
introduction of additional elements, i.e., the number
of nodes and branches increases. Furthermore, the
link of transmission line must be large in order to
reduce the errors when performing the decoupling of
the system [5]. However, from a simulation and
control perspective, only the actual phase variables
are needed. Consequently, in control schemes and in
simulating real power networks we are forced to
transform back current and voltage variables to the
phase reference frame.
The main goal of this paper is to present a new
dynamic model for three-phase induction motors
using a new unified method. This method is based on
the discrete-time machine model. In our approach,
we will directly use the phase variables to simulate
electrical machine dynamics. The solution presented
in this paper will be used for implementation on a
parallel computer and will be given in a next paper.
This paper will demonstrate that it is feasible to
simulate a vector-controlled induction motor drive
with the proposed method used along with the
commercially available software:
MATLABSIMULINK [6].

1. INTRODUCTION
The design and performance analysis of many
power systems require computer simulation since
prototype testing has become almost impossible due
to high costs. If the circuit incorporates a number of
semi-conductor switches, machines and feedback
control, computer simulation is the only viable
solution for testing a design. In the literature [l],
numerous digital computer simulation studies of
induction motors fed from power electronic
converters have been reported. Majority of these
studies neglect the power electronic topology, and the
converter is modeled as an ideal source with zero
impedance.
Current research is directed towards developing
simulation methods, which can efficiently and
accurately describe the behavior of the circuit without
complexity in problem formulation or long
computation. An alternative way for formulating the
dynamic drive analysis was suggested [2], using: first
a simplified dq transformation so that the stator
variables are in the actual abc phase quantities,
second the semiconductor switches are modeled as
binary inductors, a low value during the conduction,
and infinite otherwise. Additionally, this analysis has
been based on a state space formulation of the circuit
equations. This, in it self, poses several difficulties,
when considering the development of a generalpurpose software [3]. Despite the fact that a variety
of state-space based formulations have been

2. BASICS OF DISCRETE-TIME MODELING


Before considering the simultaneous solution of
the whole network as presented in next section, the
basic numerical equations for individual power
systems components shall be first reviewed. From
the numerical integration point of view, the
differential equation characterizing a capacitor or
inductor can be approximated by a resistive circuit in
series or in parallel with the integration algorithm [7].
This formulation can be called Discrete Time
Modeling @TM) .

0-7803-5957-7/00/$10.00
0 2000 IEEE

345

where the stator and rotor resistances are:


(5)

The rotor quantities have siniilar expressions. Also,


the mutual coupling matrices are:
cos(@,)
cos(@,-@)
(b)

(d)

cos(@,+

(0

Fig.1: Discrete time circuit model (b,d,f),


of linear lumped elements (a,c,e)

cos(@,+ @) cos(@,- @)
cos(@,) cos(@,+ @)
cos(@,-a) cos(@,)

Where 4,= 2x13

For an inductance, the voltage-current relationship '


'(1)
v = Ldi L

(7)

dt

The electromagnetic torque developed by the motor


is given by equation 5 , as follows:

can be discretized by using the trapezoidal rule :

at each time step, expression 2 can be regarded as a


conductance in parallel with a history current source
(Figure 1). Similarly, the voltage-current relationship
of a capacitor can be derived. The table of Appendix
1, Table summarizes the expressions used for three
different solution algorithms: Backward Euler,
Trapezoidal and Second order Gear algorithm 171.
The nodal equation can be written as :

Ax=b

and the mechanical equation take the following form:

T, - T ,

dw
i + f,w,
dt

(9)

Where J is the moment of inertia, f, is the viscous


friction, TL is the load torque, T,, is the
electromagnetic torque and a, represents the rotor
velocity. Despite these simplifications, a computer
simulation of the system still remains complex. So,
the goal of our work is to find a new model easier to
implement and more accurate to model the transient
and the steady-state operation of the motor.
The stator phase (a) equation is given by equation
(lo), as follows:
di
2
d
v, = R , i , + L , - + - L L , - J J ,
dt
3
dt
where
J , = (imcos@,+ i, cos(@, + a)+ i,
- a))

(3)

where A is the system matrix, xrepresents the


unknown vector in discrete-time modeling and
includes all nodal voltages and branch currents.
Vector b is a function of network sources, including
current sources associated with discrete time model
of switches and energy-storage components, as well
as netvat .;x independent current and voltage sources.

3. MODELING OF INDUCTION MOTORS


The equations of three-phase symmetrical
induction motor in abc reference frame are given in
[SI. The model used to represent the machine
assumes sinusoidal distribution of the m.m.f, linear
magnetic circuit and the absence of skin effect.
Moreover, magnetic frames of the stator and the rotor
are both taken cylindrical, smooth and separated by a
constant air gap.
In order to obtain a dynamic model as accurate as
possible, we have to work in the (a, b, c reference
frame) without any dq transformation.
This
representation takes into account physical parameters
of each of the stator and the rotor phase windings.
The electrical stator equations of the machine can be
written as follows:

If we assume a non-linear current source J a as


follows:
J

Z3 LL,. (i,

cos 6,

+ i,

cos(8,

+ D) + im cos(@, -

(11)

and a new variable:


= 'sa + J s n
we can deduce the following differential equation:

as,'

v, = R, i,

+M ,

dt

where M , = 1.4,
3 Ls
The new state formulation becomes:

346

(12)

where
'

- 2 Lm
3 L,

Fig.3: DTM induction motor model


4. VALIDATION OF MOTOR MODEL

The time-varying current sources are as follow:


.T,~ = i, cos(@,)+ i, cos(@,+ @)

J , = i, cos(@,)+ i, cos(@,+ @)

+ i, COS(@, - @)
+ i, cos(@,- @)

J , = i, cos(@,)+ i, cos(@,+ @) + i, cos(@,- 0)

J , = i, cos(@,)+ i,c cos(@,+ @) + i,b


J , = i, cos(@,) + i, cos(@,+ @)

J , = i,< cos(@,)+ i,

COS(@,

- @)

(16)

+ i,=cos(@,- @)

+ @) + i, cos(@,- @)

In order to illustrate the validity of the proposed


DTM motor model, the direct on-line motor starting
was simulated.. The computer simulation was carried
out using the Backward-Euler algorithm for a 2 kW
induction motor with two pairs of poles and fed by a
balanced three-phase sinusoidal source. Figures (4.a,
4.b, and 4.c) shows DTM simulations results for rotor
speed, stator current and electromagnetic torque
during a no-load start-up and steady state,
respectively. These plots were obtained from a
digital computer simulation using this unified
method.

The electromagnetic torque is given by:


(imim+ i,i,,

,.

. .

. ,.

. . . ,.

+ imiSc)sinOr
+

( i ~+i,bisc
, ~ +i,i,a)sin(Q, -a)+
(i,i,c + i,i, + i,i,b)sin(@, + 0)

Equations (11) to (15) lead to a state-space system


easy to implement and to compute. This model is
illustrated in Figure 2.

0
'

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

T l m a I" . e 5

Fig.4.a: Rotor speed using DTM


100

Fig.2: Induction motor model

-80

I
0.1

0.2
Tlin.

This model can be transformed using DTM


technique. Contrary to the conventional state-space
approach, the DTM technique derives a discrete
model directly from the physical system to be
simulated without setting up sets of differential
equations. The DTM algorithm provides an exact
solution to the discrete model. Reference [7],
presents the principles of a discrete time modeling.
The DTM model of the motor was derived by
replacing all self inductances by their DTM
equivalents and the current sources of the stator
(controlled by rotor currents) and the rotor
(controlled bv stator currents).

0.3
I" s e c

0.4

0.5

0.6

Fig.4.b: Stator current using DTM

-20 I
0

I
0 1

0 2
Tlm.

0 3
I" * e 5

0 4

0 5

0 6

Fig.4.c: Electromagnetic torque using DTM

347

used to filter out the harmonics in the rectifier output


voltage and also to provide a smooth current. The
machine model is used to interface directly with the
inverter, which consists of six switches. Simulation
was carried out by using the parameters given in
reference [lo]. A more detailed information about
this control scheme is presented in reference [lo].

Fig.5.a: Rotor speed using PSIM


C

"ephasc

w m

AC-Dc mnvwion

! DC-AC conversion In&ction m m

Fig.6: Induction motor drive


Fig.5.b: Stator current using PSIM

~-

1-

7Z"

-_

Fig.5.c: Electromagnetic torque using PSIM


Figures 5.a, b and c show the commercial package
PSIM [9] numerical results for the same induction
motor.

The no-load motor start-up is simulated

Fig.7: Variation of flux

during 600 ms. Comparing the above figures, good


agreement between PSIM results and DTM results is
observed. However, some remarks must be taken
into consideration. The model of induction motor
implemented in a PSIM is based on a dq model
whereas the model presented is an in-phase (a,b,c)
model. The results are both for a no-loaded motor
fed by a balanced three-phase voltage source.

ref. From 0.55 to 0.4Wb

The flux and electromagnetic torque waveforms are


shown in figures 7 and 8 respectively. The transient
effects are also shown in simulation traces. It was
found that the simulation results obtained from the
present method are matching well with the simulation
results of reference [lo].

5. SIMULATION EXAMPLES

MATLAB-SIMULINK IMPLEMENTATION

In the following example, the filed-oriented


control of induction motor [lo] shown in Fig6 is
used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed
simulation methodology. The effects of the drive
control dynamics are also included in the simulation.
This drive is implemented with vector control circuit
in order to compare the actual stator currents with the
generated three reference currents.
This control
scheme performs a control of flux and torque using
vector current control. In addition, the inverter
supply is included in the simulation formulation.
This supply is composed by a three phase diode
rectifier and a dc-link filter LC (inductor and
capacitor) forming a dc voltage source. This filter is

There is a great number of universities and


researchers who use the MATLAEVSIMULINK
software [6] in the filed of electrical machines. Some
of its advantages are: a user friendly visual oriented
programming concept, a variety of given line:! tnd
non-linear standard blocks, a large numbc- of
toolboxes for special applications. The new model of
induction motor drive was coded as a m-file but in
future it will be coded, as a mex-file to accelerate the
computing time. The methodology is given in Fig 9.
The S-function will be masked to produce a custom
block with user-definable parameters for induction
motor, inverter, rectifier, input voltage and controls.

348

Fig.8: Variation of torque


ref. From 5 to 10 N.m

/Computationof inverse SMNA-matrix1

<
+ x
Switch test for hlockin
Yes

MATLAB
SIMULINK

Updating switches,
voltage and current

Update time

Lw
t=?

__ __ - - __ - - __ - - - __ __ - - .._
- -_-.....- _____

-.

+--?s

_--- -- - - - ---- --

_.___

Fig. 9 : Schematic of the computational procedure

CONCLUSION
The new dynamic model of induction motors
presented in this paper has shown accurate simulation
results. The simulation of the behavior of an
induction machine has been canied-out with the help
of MATLAB-SIMULINK. For comparison, the
commercial package PSIM was used. Results show a
good agreement and similar simulation time.
Furthermore, the solution presented here can be
implemented concurrently in the parallel computing
systems and will be presented in a next paper.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work is supported by funds from HydroQuebecNQTR industrial Research Chair at the
University of Quebec at Trois-Rivihes.

Algorithm
Backward Euler
Trapezoidal

REFERENCE
J. D. Lavers and R.W.Y Cheung, A Software
Package for the Steady State and Dynamic
Simulation of Induction Motor Drives, IEEE
Transactions Power System, Vol. PWRS-1,
May 1986, pp. 167-173.
S.A. Sudha, A. Chandrasekaran, V. Rajagopalan
& H. Mehta, A New Modular Approach to
Modelling of Converter-Fed Induction Motor,
IMACS-TC1 93, pp. 171-176.
[31 R.W.Y. Cheung, H. Jin, B.Wu and J.D. Lavers,
A Generalized Computer-Aided Formulation
for The Dynamic and Steady State Analysis of
Induction Machine Inverter Drive Systems,
IEEE Transactions On Energy conversion, Vol.
5, No. 2, June 1990, pp. 337-343.
[41 H. Selhi & R.Y.R Hui, The Application of
Transmission-Line Modeling to The Simulation
of An Induction Motor Drive, IEEE
Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 11,
No. 2, June 96, pp. 287-297.
R.Y.R Hui, Decoupled Simulation of MultiStage Power Electronic Systems Using
Transmission-Line Links, IEEE Transactions
on Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No.2, June 94,
pp. 287-297.
[61 MATLAB-SIMULINK Users guide, The
Mathworks, inc., 1992.
[71 H. Magbahi, A. Ba-razzouk, 3. Xu, A. Chkriti, &
V. Rajagopalan Simulation Numtrique en
Electronique de Puissance Utilisant MatlabSimulink, IEEE CCECE, Waterlo 1998, pp.
473-476.
r.81 S.N. Ghani, Digital Computer Simulation of
Three Phase Induction Machine Dynamics. A
Generalized Approach, IEEE Transactions Ind.
Appl., V0124, No.1, 1988, pp.106-114.
[91 H. Jin, PSIM: Power Electronic System
Simulator, Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, Concordia University,
Montreal, Canada, 1995.
[lo] A. Ba-razzouk, A. Chtriti, G. Olivier and P.
Sicard, Field-Oriented Control of Induction
Motors Using Neural-Network Decouplers,
IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics
Vol.
12,
No.4
1997,
pp.752-763.

Capacitor
ik+l

= yc Vk+l

- yc

Vk

4+l

= YL

vk+l+

--.Vk-,)
2h

349

Y;;C

ik+l=yLvk+l+(&vk+ik)

ik+l=Kvk+l-(yCvk+ik)

2c
S~cond-orderGear i,,, = Y,.V,+, - (--.Vk

Impedance

Inductor

i,,, =Y.vk+l(-.ik--ik&l)

y,

Y, =

Y L = hi

=; y , =

3c

-;

2h

A
2 L

2h
= 3L