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AMOLED DISPLAY

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REPORT 2015-16

KERALA GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC


COLLEGE KOZHIKODE-5

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING


2015-16

Seminar Report

DIPLOMA IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING


OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
GOVT OF KERALA

AMOLED DISPLAY

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Any mission never concludes cordial co-operation from surroundings. I


take this opportunity to acknowledge all the people who have helped us kind
heartedly in every stages of this seminar. Firstly I thank god for my successful
completion of the paper. It is a matter of great pleasure for you to express our
sincere gratitude and appreciation to our beloved Mr. JAVAHARALI B S Head
of The Department in Computer Engineering.

I am really thankful to our seminar guide Mr. JAVAHARALI B S (Head


of The Department in Computer Engineering) & Ms. ANU MANOHAR
(Lecturer in Computer Engineering) for the sincere co-operation for the success
of this seminar.

I am also express my gratitude all technical staff members in the


department for their promote service and co-operation in the fulfillment of the
repot.

I am also thankful to my fellow classmates for sharing their knowledge


and suggestions. I express my sincere gratitude to the God for giving me health
and all the support in completing the seminar.

NAVANEETH S
Reg No: 13130484

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ABSTRACT
Active-matrix

OLED (Active-matrix

organic

light-emitting

diode or AMOLED) is a display technology for use in mobile devices and


televisions. OLED describes a specific type of thin display technology which
doesn't require a backlight, and Active-Matrix refers to the technology behind
the addressing of pixels.
AMOLED technology continues to make progress towards low-power
and low-cost large size (e.g. 40-inch) for applications such as TV.

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LIST OF FIGURES

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Introduction

What is AMOLED?

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AMOLED DISPLAY

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REPORT 2015-16

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED)


in

which

the emissive electroluminescent layer

is

film

of organic

compounds that emits light when an electric current passes through it. This
layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes.
Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent.
OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small,
portable

system

screens

such

as mobile

phones and PDAs,

watches,

advertising, information and indication; they can also be used in light sources
for general space illumination and in large-area light-emitting elements.
OLED

displays

matrix addressing schemes.

can

use

either passive-matrix or active-

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CHAPTER 2

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AMOLED & PMOLED

There are two types of OLEDs used in displays - PMOLED and AMOLED.
The difference is in the driving electronics - it can be either Passive Matrix
(PM) or Active Matrix (AM).
With Passive-Matrix OLEDs, the display is controlled by switching on
rows and columns. When you turn on row number x and column number y, the
pixel at the intersection is lit - and emits light. Each time you can choose just
one pixel to light. So you have to turn these on and off very quickly. You do so
in a certain sequence, and create the desired image.
PMOLEDs are very easy and cheap to build, but they are limited to small sizes.
The image displaying is a bit complicated. Also the power consumption is not
as good as AMOLEDs.
AMOLEDs have a different driver electronics - each pixel is controlled
directly. AMOLEDs are more expensive, and much more difficult to create, but
can be used for larger displays (current prototypes are up to 40") and are very
power efficient.
The first OLED products in the market used PMOLEDs - these were MP3
players, sub-displays on cellphones and radio decks for automobiles. The
displays were small and usually with just one or two colors. When AMOLED
panels started to emerge in 2007 and 2008 we have seen these larger displays in
mobile video players, digital cameras, mobile phones main displays and
even OLED TVs.

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CHAPTER 3

OLED COMPONENTS

Like an LED, an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to


500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs
can have either two layers or three layers of organic material; in the latter
design, the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the
emissive layer. In this article, we'll be focusing on the two-layer design.
An OLED consists of the following parts:
Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - The substrate supports the
OLED.
Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons when a current
flows through the device.
Organic layers - These layers are made of organic molecules or
polymers.
Conducting layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules
that transport "holes" from the anode. One conducting polymer
used in OLEDs is polyaniline.
Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules
(different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons
from the cathode; this is where light is made. One polymer used in
the emissive layer is polyfluorene.
Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of
OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows
through the device.

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CHAPTER 4

WORKING OF OLED

OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs, through a process


called electro-phosphorescence.
The process is as follows:
1. The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED
applies a voltage across the OLED.
2. An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through
the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons).
The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of
organic molecules.
The anode removes electrons from the conductive
layer of organic molecules. (This is the equivalent to
giving electron holes to the conductive layer.)
3. At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers,
electrons find electron holes.
When an electron finds an electron hole, the electron
fills the hole (it falls into an energy level of
the atom that's missing an electron).
When this happens, the electron gives up energy in
the form of a photon of light.
4. The OLED emits light.

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5. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in


the emissive layer. Manufacturers place several types of organic
films on the same OLED to make color displays.
6. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of
electrical current applied: the more current, the brighter the light.

Working of PMOLED
PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The
anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections
of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. External
circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining
which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. Again, the brightness
of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current.
PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than other
types of OLED, mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry.
PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small
screens

(2-

to

3-inch

diagonal)

such

as

those

you

find

in cell

phones, PDAs and MP3 players.

Working of AMOLED
AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode, but
the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix.
The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on
to form an image.
AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array
requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large

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displays. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. The best
uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic
signs or billboards.
CHAPTER 5

WORKING PRINCIPLE

A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated


between two electrodes, the anode and cathode, all deposited on a substrate.
The

organic

molecules are electrically conductive as a result of

delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over all or part of the


molecule. These materials have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to
conductors, and therefore are considered organic semiconductors. The highest
occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO) of
organic semiconductors are analogous to the valence and conduction bands of
inorganic semiconductors.
During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is
positive with respect to the cathode. A current of electrons flows through the
device from cathode to anode, as electrons are injected into the LUMO of the
organic layer at the cathode and withdrawn from the HOMO at the anode. This
latter process may also be described as the injection of electron holes into the
HOMO. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each
other and they recombine forming an exciton, a bound state of the electron and
hole. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic
semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of
this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron,
accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region.

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The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material, in this
case the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO.
As electrons and holes are fermions with half integer spin, an exciton may
either be in a singlet state or a triplet state depending on how the spins of the
electron and hole have been combined. Statistically three triplet excitons will
be formed for each singlet exciton. Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence)
is spin forbidden, increasing the timescale of the transition and limiting the
internal efficiency of fluorescent devices. Phosphorescent organic lightemitting diodes make use of spinorbit interactions to facilitate intersystem
crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both
singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency.
Material technologies

Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic Chelates,


fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated dendrimers.

Triphenylamine and derivatives are commonly used as materials for hole


transport layers.

The production of small molecule devices and displays usually involves


thermal evaporation in a vacuum.

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Advantages
The different manufacturing process of AMOLEDs lends itself to several
advantages over flat-panel displays made with LCD technology.
+ Low power
+ Low cost
+ Thin, lightweight and rugged
+ Superior image quality
+ Wide-viewing angle
+ Rollable Display

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Problems
Lifespan: The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of
the organic materials.
Water damage: Water can damage the organic materials of the displays.
Screen burn-in: Unlike displays with a common light source, the brightness of
each OLED pixel fades depending on the content displayed. The varied
lifespan of the organic dyes can cause a discrepancy between red, green, and
blue intensity. This leads to image persistence, also known as burn-in.
Color balance issues: Additionally, as the OLED material used to produce
blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce
other colors, blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light.
Manufacturing Cost: Quite high.

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CHAPTER

CONCLUSSION
Limited use caused by degradation of organic materials.
AMOLED will replace current LED and LCD technologies
Flexibility and thinness will enable many applications

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REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active-matrix_OLED
www.google.com
http://www.oled-info.com/oled-technology
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/oled1.htm
http://www.oled-display.net/what-is-amoled
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_LED
http://www.gadgets-reviews.com/store/index.html

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