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SAE COLLEGIATE CLUB

Presents...

Workshop on

BASIC MECHANICAL ELEMENTS

Screw and bolt


Bearing
Spring
Gears
Belt and pulley
Chain and sprocket
Cam

Fasteners characterized by a helical ridge,


known as an external thread or just thread,
wrapped around a cylinder.
Bolt threads are designed to mate with a
complementary thread, known as an
internal thread, often in the form of a nut.
Uses: To hold objects together and to
position objects

BEARING:
Machine element that constrains
relative motion and reduces friction
between moving parts to only the
desired motion.
1) Ball bearing
2) Roller bearing
3) Thrust bearing
Bearing is a device that is used to enable rotational or
linear movement, while reducing friction and handling
stress
Bearings that are designed to handle a specific kind of
load and different amounts of weight,

TYPES OF BEARING
Ball

bearing are extremely common because they can handle both radial

and thrust loads, but can only handle a small amount of weight.
Roller

bearings are designed to carry heavy loadsthe primary roller is

a cylinder, which means the load is distributed over a larger area


bearing can handle primarily radial loads, but is not suited to thrust loads
Thrust

bearing is a particular type of rotary rolling-element bearing. Like

other bearings they permit rotation between parts, but they are designed to
support a predominately axial load.

SPRING IS AN ELASTIC OBJECT USED TO STORE


MECHANICAL ENERGY.
TYPES OF SPRINGS:
HELICAL OR COILED
SPIRAL
LEAF SPRING

#Made up of a coil or helix of wire

Made from flat strip or wire


coiled up in the manner of the
groove

#A leaf spring takes the form of a


slender arc-shaped length of
spring steel of rectangular crosssection.
USES:- As suspension in heavy
vehicles

Chain and sprockets


Gears
Belt and ropes

TYPES OF GEARS:
(a) Spur gear, (b) helical gear, (c)
Double helical gear or
herringbone gear, (d) Internal
gear , (e) Rack and pinion, (f)
Straight bevel gear, (g) Spiral
bevel gear, (h) Hypoid bevel
gear , (i) worm gear and (j)
Spiral gear

SPUR GEARS ARE SIMPLEST TYPE OF


GEAR.
BIGGER ONE IS
GEAR.
SMALLER ONE IS
PINION.

SPUR

GEARS ARE SIMPLEST TYPE OF GEAR. SPUR GEARS ARE


SIMPLEST TYPE OF GEAR.
EDGE OF EACH TOOTH IS STRAIGHT AND ALIGNED PARALLEL
TO THE AXIS OF ROTATION

Helical gears offer a refinement over


spur gear.
They have teeth inclined to the axis .
Hence for the same width, their teeth
are longer than spur gears and have
higher load carrying capacity.
The helix angle also introduces axial thrust
on the shaft.

One use of double helical gear is to


avoid axial movement during
motion.

HELICAL GEAR
It

has higher efficiency and precision .

It

is noisy.

This
No

has line contact.

It

Efficiency and precision is lower than


that of spur gear.
It operate smoother and quieter.
It has gradual point contact.

axial component.

Less

contact area.

It

has axial thrust on the shaft.


More contact area so high load capacity.

One use of double helical gear is


to avoid axial movement during
motion.
Two axial thrusts oppose each
other and nullify. Hence the shaft
is free from any axial force.
Though their load capacity is
very high, manufacturing
difficulty makes them costlier
than single helical gear.

THE ANGLE BETWEEN


SHAFTS CAN BE ANYTHING
EXCEPT ZERO AND 180
DEGREES.

APPLICATIONS: USED
IN AUTOMIBILES
DIFFERENTIALS.

TYPES OF BEVEL GEARS


1.

STRAIGHT BEVEL GEAR- USED FOR TRANSMITTING POWER BETWEEN INTERSECTING


SHAFTS. STRAIGHT BEVEL GEARS ARE USED FOR TRANSMITTING POWER BETWEEN
INTERSECTING SHAFTS

2.

SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR-SPIRAL- BEVEL GEARS ARE ALSO USED FOR TRANSMITTING POWER
BETWEEN INTERSECTING SHAFTS. BECAUSE OF THE SPIRAL TOOTH, THE CONTACT LENGTH IS
MORE AND CONTACT RATIO IS MORE. THEY OPERATE SMOOTHER THAN STRAIGHT BEVEL
GEARS AND HAVE HIGHER LOAD CAPACITY. BUT, THEIR EFFICIENCY IS SLIGHTLY LOWER THAN
STRAIGHT BEVEL GEAR.

THESE GEARS ARE ALSO USED FOR RIGHT ANGLE DRIVE IN WHICH THE AXES DO NOT
INTERSECT. THIS PERMITS THE LOWERING OF THE PINION AXIS WHICH IS AN ADDED
ADVANTAGE IN AUTOMOBILE IN AVOIDING HUMP INSIDE THE AUTOMOBILE DRIVE
LINE POWER TRANSMISSION.
THE NON INTERSECTION INTRODUCES A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF SLIDING
AND THE DRIVE REQUIRES GOOD LUBRICATION TO REDUCE THE FRICTION AND
WEAR.
THEIR EFFICIENCY IS LOWER THAN OTHER TWO TYPES OF BEVEL GEARS.

In these gears, annular wheels are


having teeth on the inner
periphery.
This makes the drive very compact
.
In these drives, the meshing pinion
and annular gear are running in the
same direction
Applications of these gears can be
seen in planetary gear drives of
automobile automatic
transmissions

RACK AND PINION:


Used in automobiles steering.
type of linear actuator that
comprises a pair of gears which
convert rotational motion into linear
motion.

WORM GEAR:
One way motion transfer
Locking
Application-To open lock
gates
The sliding action prevalent
in the system while resulting
in quieter operation produces
considerable frictional heat

WORM GEAR ANIMATION:

SPIRAL GEAR:
Spiral gears are also known as crossed helical
gears,
They have high helix angle and transmit power
between two non-intersecting non-parallel shafts
They have initially point contact under the
conditions of considerable sliding velocities
finally gears will have line contact
Their precision rating is poor.

1.
2.

3.

Gear drive
chain drive
Belt drive

Used when power is transmitted


over a small distance.

For meshing
Circular pitch of both gear should
be same
And centre to centre distance
should be summation of both pitch
radius=no of teeth/circular pitch

Inversions of Single Slider Crank Chain


As there are four links, fixing each link in turn, four
inversions can be obtained.
In the first inversion, where the link with one revolute
pair and one prismatic pair is fixed.
Example: 1) I.C. Engine mechanism, in which the fourth
link piston is the input and the crank is output. 2) In air
compressor, in which the second link crank is the input and the
piston is the output.

Crank and Slotted Lever Quick


Return Mechanism

RATCHET AND PAWL:


RATCHET is a device that allows rotary or linear motion in only
one direction. It can be used to move a toothed wheel one tooth
at a time. The part which is used to move the ratchet is known as
the PAWL. Motion developed by a ratchet is intermittent motion.
They are also used in the freewheel mechanism of bicycle,
clocks, screwdrivers, jacks, and hoists.
ESCAPEMENTS are generally used in clocks with mechanical
motions. In clocks the escapement controls the spring driven
clock mechanism such that it moves in regulated steps controlled
by a pendulum or an oscillating arm.

Animation of Ratchet and Pawl Mechanism

Indexing Mechanisms

A simple index mechanism consists


of a hold or a hook that catches a pin on an index wheel. The Clutch slips
until a solenoid pulls the hold away,
which frees the wheels to turn.
Geneva Mechanisms are often used in machine tools. They are capable
of indexing or partially rotating some part of a machine. In cinema projectors
Geneva stop is used to move the film on one frame at a time.

Animation of Indexing Mechanisms

External Geneva Wheel

Internal Geneva Wheel

Animation Contd

Ashish jangra
(Secretary)

4th mechanical
(+918960855789)

Akshay shrivastava
(Joint secretary)

3rd metallurgy

Shrishti shukla
(Joint secretary)

2nd mechanical

Akash gupta

3rd mining

(+919453826957)

(+919120166836)

(+917275297624)

Suspension

, chassis and Steering


Ic Engine and Transmission
Introduction of RC car
Computer Aided Design(CAD)

Carbibles.com
Howstuffworks.com
Youtube.com/engineeringexplained

Thank You!