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# Solutions for Problem Set # 2

MMAE: 501
Engineering Analysis I

Kevin W. Cassel
Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 32nd Street
Chicago, IL 60616
cassel@iit.edu

Problem
Problem # 1:
Problem # 2:
Problem # 3:
Problem # 4:
Problem # 5:
Problem # 6:
Problem # 7:
Problem # 8:

Reference
Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 11
Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 35
Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 39
Jeffrey, Section 2.2, Problem 26
Jeffrey, Section 2.5, Problem 27
Jeffrey, Section 2.5, Problem 28
Jeffrey, Section 2.7, Problem 5
Jeffrey, Section 3.9, Problem 9

## c 2014 Kevin W. Cassel

1

Problem # 1
Problem:
Determine those values of for which the following set of equations may possess
a nontrivial solution:
3x1 + x2 x3 = 0
4x1 2x2 3x3

0 .

2x1 + 4x2 + x3

Solution:
3x1 + x2 x3

2x1 + 4x2 + x3

3
A=4
2

1
2
4

3 .

## Because the system is homogeneous, for a nontrivial solution to exist, |A| = 0.

|A| = 3(2 + 12) 1(4 + 6) (16 + 4) = 42 32 + 36.
Thus,
|A| = 2 + 8 9 = 0,
( + 9)( 1) = 0,
= 9

or = 1.

For = 1 :

1
3
10

3
10
3
one parameter family of
Let

1
0
3

5
0
3
solutions.

x3 = k,
1
x2 = k,
2
2

1
3
2

1
3
3

1
1

1
3

0
1
3
1
2
0

x1 =

1
1
k+
3
3


x=k

1
k
2


=

1
k,
2


1 1
, ,1 .
2 2

For = 9 :

18

1
3
10

3
10

1
3
2

18

45

15

1
3
1
0

3
9
2
0

## one parameter family of solutions.

Let
x3 = k,
9
9
x2 = x3 = k,
2
2
 
1 9
3
1
k = k.
x1 = 3x3 x2 = 3k +
3
3 2
2


3 9
x = k , ,1 .
2 2

Problem # 2
Problem:
a) By investigating ranks of relevant matrices, show that the following set of
equations possesses a one-parameter family of solutions:
2x1 x2 x3

x1 + 2x2 + x3

2 .

3

Solution:
a)

2 1

1
2
5
2
5

1
2
3
2
3

1
2
2

1
2
1

1
2

2
1
2
3
5
0

2 .

5
0

## Rank of coefficient matrix = rank of augmented matrix = 2 consistent.

Rank of augmented matrix = 2, number of unknowns = 3; therefore,
one-parameter family of solutions (n r) = 1.
b) General solution.
Let
x3 = k,
2 3
1
x2 = x3 = (2 3k),
5 5
5


1
k 1 1
1
1
(2 3k) = (6 + k).
x1 = 1 + x3 + x2 = 1 + +
2
2
2 2 5
5


1
x=
6 + k, 2 3k, 5k .
5

Problem # 3
Problem:
Determine whether the vector {6, 1, 6, 2} is in the vector space generated by
the basis vectors {1, 1, 1, 1}, {1, 0, 1, 1}, and {1, 1, 1, 0}.
Solution:
v

= {6, 1, 6, 2} ,

u1

= {1, 1, 1, 1} ,

u2

= {1, 0, 1, 1} ,

u3

= {1, 1, 1, 0} .

Expressing v = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + c3 u3

1 1 1
1
0 1

1 1 1
1
1
0
Augmented matrix

1 1 1
1
0 1

1 1 1
1
1
0

6
1
0
1

0
6
2
0

6
c1

c2 = 1 .

6
c3
2

1
1
0
2

1
2
0
1

6
1
0
5

0
0
4
0

1
1
0
0

1
2
3
0

6
5
.
6
0

## Rank of coefficient matrix = rank of augmented matrix = number of unknowns

= 3. Therefore, we get a unique solution for c1 , c2 , and c3 , i.e. v can be expressed as linear combination of u1 , u2 , u3 .

Problem # 4
Problem:
The law of cosines for a triangle with sides of length a, b, and c, in which the
angle opposite the side of length c is C, takes the form
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C.
Prove this by taking vectors a, b, and c such that c = a b and considering
the dot product c c = (a b) (a b).
Solution:
c = a b, where c, a, b are vectors.
c c = kck2 = (a b) (a b)
= a a a b b a + b b = kak2 2a b + kbk2 ,
where
a a = kak2 = a2 ,

b b = kbk2 = b2 ,

c c = kck2 = c2 .

## From definition of dot-product

a b = kakkbk cos = ab cos ,
where = angle between the two vectors.
c2 = a2 2ab cos + b2 ,
as = C,
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C.
5

Problem # 5
Problem:
Let x and y be vectors in Rn and be a scalar. Prove that
kx + yk2 + kx yk2 = 2(kxk2 + 2 kyk2 ).
Solution:
kx + yk2 = (x + y) (x + y)
= x x + x y + y x + 2 y y
2

(1)

= kxk + 2x y + kyk .
Similarly,
kx yk2 = (x y) (x y)
= kxk2 2x y + 2 kyk2 .

(2)

kx + yk2 + kx yk2
= kxk2 + 2x y + 2 kyk2 + kxk2 2x y + 2 kyk2
= 2(kxk2 + 2 kyk2 ).

Problem # 6
Problem:
If x and y are orthogonal vectors in Rn , prove that the Pythagoras theorem
takes the form
kx + yk2 = kxk2 + kyk2 .
Solution:
kx + yk2 = (x + y) (x + y) = x x + x y + y x + y y,
x x = kxk2 ,

y y = kyk2 .

## x and y are orthogonal vectors x y = y x = 0.

Therefore,
kx + yk2 = kxk2 + kyk2 .

Problem # 7
Problem:
Use the given nonorthogonal basis for vectors in R3 to find an equivalent orthonormal basis by means of the GramSchmidt orthogonalization process.
a1

= i + k,

a2

a3

= i + j + k.

2j + k,

Solution:
Step 1:
u1 = a1 = i + k,
1
u1
= (i + k).
e1 =
ku1 k
2
Step 2:
u2 = a2 (a2 e1 )e1 ,


1
1
(a2 e1 ) = [2j + k] (i + k) = ,
2
2


1
1
1
1
u2 = (2j + k) (i + k) = i + 2j + k,
2
2
2
2


1
u2
2 1
=
i + 2j + k .
e2 =
ku2 k
3 2
2
Step 3:
u3 = a3 (a3 e1 )e1 (a3 e2 )e2 ,


1
(a3 e1 ) = [i + j + k] (i + k) = 0,
2
 
 


2 1
2 1
1
1
(a3 e2 ) = [i + j + k]
i + 2j + k
=
+2+
= 2,
3
2
2
3 2
2
 


2 1
1
2
1
2
u3 = (i + j + k) 0 2
i + 2j + k
= i j + k,
3 2
2
3
3
3


u3
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
e3 =
=
i j + k = i j + k.
ku3 k
1 3
3
3
3
3
3
Thus,
1
e1 = (i + k),
2


2 1
1
e2 =
i + 2j + k ,
3 2
2
e3 =

2
1
2
i j + k.
3
3
3
7

Problem # 8
Problem:
Given that

3
A = 1
2

1
4
1

1
0
3

1
and B = 2
3

3
0
1

1
5 ,
2

verify that
(AB)1 = B1 A1 .
Solution:

3
AB = 1
2

1
4
1

3 2 + 3 9 + 0 + 1
= 1 + 8 + 0 3 + 0 + 0
2 + 2 9 6 + 0 3

1
1
0 2
3 3

3 1
0 5
1 2

4
35+2
1 + 20 + 0 = 9
5
2+56

8 0
3 21 .
9 1

## |AB| = 4(3 + 21 9) + 8(9 + 21 5) + 0 = 744 + 912 = 1656.

Co-factor matrix for AB

+(186)
CAB = (8)
+(168)

+(96)
186 114 96
(76) = 8
4
76 .
+(60)
168 84
60

186
8 168
Adj(AB) = CTAB = 114 4 84 .
96 76
60

186
8 168
1
114 4
84 .
(AB)1 =
1656
96 76
60
(114)
+(4)
(84)

## |A| = 3(12 0) + 1(3 + 0) + 1(1 8) = 36 3 7 = 46.

Co-factor matrix for A

+(12)
CA = (2)
+(4)

+(7)
12
3
(5) = 2 11
+(13)
4
1

12 2 4
11 1 .
= 3
7 5 13

(3)
+(11)
(1)

7
5 .
13

A1

12 2 4
1
3
11 1 .
=
46
7
5 13

## |B| = 1(5) + 3(4 15) + 1(2 0) = 5 33 + 2 = 36.

Co-factor matrix for B

+(5)
CB = (7)
+(15)

(11) +(2)
5 11
+(1) (10) = 7
1
(3)
+(6)
15 3

2
10 .
6

5
7
15
Adj(B) = CTB = 11 1 3 .
2 10
6

5
7
15
1
B1 = 11 1 3 .
36
2 10
6
Thus,
B1 A1

5
1
1
11
=
46
36
2

7
15 12 2
11
1
3 3
7 5
10
6

4
1
13

60 + 21 + 105
10 77 + 75
20 + 7 195
1
132 3 + 21 22 + 11 + 15 44 1 39
=
1656
24 30 42 4 + 110 30 8 10 + 78

186
8 168
1
114 4
84
=
1656
96 76
60

and
(AB)1 = B1 A1 .