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C h a p t e r III

Design for ACI 318-99
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure
that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the ACI 318-99 Design Code (ACI
1999). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table III-1.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.
SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Intermediate (moderate
seismic risk areas), and Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames
as required for seismic design provisions. The details of the design criteria used for
the different framing systems are described in the following sections.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is
based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions
presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise
noted.

Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load
cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-99 code, if a

Design Load Combinations

17

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Acv
Ag
As
As¢
As (required )
Ast
Av
a
ab
b
bf
bw
Cm
c
cb
d

ds
Ec
Es
f c¢
fy
f ys
h
Ig
I se
k
L

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in
Gross area of concrete, sq-in
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in
Depth of compression block, in
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in
Width of member, in
Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in
Width of web (T-Beam section), in
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor
Depth to neutral axis, in
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in
Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in
Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi
Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi
Dimension of column, in
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement, in4
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of
member cross section, in4
Effective length factor
Clear unsupported length, in
Table III-1
List of Symbols Used in the ACI code

18

Design Load Combinations

lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. lb Factored axial load at section. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb Radius of gyration of column section. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. lb-in Factored moment at section. lb Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor Table III-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI code (continued) Design Load Combinations 19 . lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VE VD +L Vu Vp a b1 bd ds d ns ec es j Smaller factored end moment in a column. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Shear resisted by concrete. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed.

75 (1. the stress check may need only one load combination.4 DL + 1. and torsion are as follows: j = 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1) j = 0.4 DL 1. 1.2. Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2.75 j j 20 = 0. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2) for axial compression.7 LL (ACI 9.3.2. shear.1). if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads.2. The j factors for flexure.2).3 * 1. axial force.70 for axial compression.90 for axial tension. (ACI 9. Strength Reduction Factors (ACI 9.9 DL ± 1.2. namely 1. j .3 WL 0. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column).4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.85 for shear and torsion.3.4 DL + 1. (ACI 9.2.1 EL) (ACI 9. then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI 9.2) j = 0.9 DL ± 1.90 for flexure. However.7 LL (ACI 9.3.2.75 (1. and axial compression and flexure (tied column). in addition to the dead and live loads.2.7 LL ± 1.3.7 * 1.3. (ACI 9. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.2) = 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.7 WL) (ACI 9. (ACI 9.2.90 for axial tension and flexure. and (ACI 9.2) j = 0.4 DL + 1.2.1 EL 0.2) 0.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used.3.1) 0.3) .

the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.3. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. the program checks the column capacity. • Design the column shear reinforcement. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. square. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular.4.2. or circular column section.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21.3). A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1. e c .003 (ACI 10. However. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.3).1).9. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. at the extremity of the section to 0. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement  1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. When the steel is undefined. See Figure II-2. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. Column Design 21 . The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

3. 0. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column.85 f'c εc = 0. The effects of the strength reduction factor.4).85 f c¢ ( Ag .85 j [0. (ACI 10. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. j = 0.Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column. f y (ACI 10. See Figure III-1.1) j Pn(max) = 0. j .85 f c¢ ( Ag .2.2.80 j [ 0. e s E s .5. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.3.5. with a stress value of 0. Column Design (ACI 10.2) . and j = 0. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.1). The maximum compressive axial load is limited to jPn(max) . where 22 j Pn(max) = 0. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder.7. See Figure III-1.003 d' c (i) Concrete Section 1 Cs εs1 C εs2 εs3 Ts3 εs4 Ts4 (ii) Strain Diagram a= 1c 2 Cs (iii) Stress Diagram Figure III-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column.75 for spirally reinforced columns.85 f c¢ (ACI 10.70 for tied columns.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns. where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition.2. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. d s and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.9 as the axial load decreases from the smaller of Pb or 0. d ns . Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. M ux . j is always 0.3. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and. giving Pu .12. M ux .9 based on the axial load. therefore. if required. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).9 (ACI 9. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.and M uy . The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway”. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu . moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken Column Design 23 . In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station.2). lies within the interaction volume.2). where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.03 h) inches. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.1 f c¢ Ag to zero.6 + 0. j is increased linearly from j min to 0. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different. For low values of axial load.and M uy . In cases involving axial tension.3.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 The value of j used in the interaction diagram varies from j min to 0. Determine whether the point.

13.10.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual as unity (ACI 10. For individual columns or column-members in a floor.12. (ACI 10. where (ACI 10.75 Pc ³ 1. and EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: 24 Column Design .13).7 live load)/j .75 (ACI 10.12.0 . The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10. See also White and Hajjar (1991). The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The moment magnification factors for sway moments. and M 2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. ( kl u ) 2 p k is conservatively taken as 1. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. where j is the understrength factor for stability which is taken as 0. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. d ns .3).5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor. The non-sway moment magnification factor.75 (1.2). the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = M ns +ds M s . and are related to the cause of side sway. as follows: Mc = d ns M 2 .12. however SAP2000 allows the user to override this value. d s . For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.3) M c is the factored moment to be used in design.3) The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M ns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-D) analysis” (ACI R10.13.3) d ns = Pc = Cm Pu 10. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the non-sway (M ns ) components.4 dead load + 1. d ns . where 2 EI .

12.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 EI = bd = 0. or for any other case.4 . The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. the column is overstressed. respectively. C m = 1. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu . a failure condition is declared. however.75Pc . a capacity ratio is calculated. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. the column capacity is adequate. Therefore Pu must be less than 0. must be a positive number and greater than one. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outColumn Design 25 . This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. M ux . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. If transverse load is present on the span. or the length is overwritten.4 Ma Mb ³ 0.3.6 + 0. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. if the point lies outside the interaction volume.and M uy . The point (Pu . (ACI 10.4 E c I g 1 + bd . If the point lies within the interaction volume. The magnification factor. M ux . Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity.1) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d ns .75Pc . d ns . The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. and maximum factored axial total load C m = 0. and M b is numerically larger than M a . The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. See Figure II-4. M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. maximum factored axial dead load .

• If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. OL See Figure II-3. respectively. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. CR. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. If the reinforcing area is not defined. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of V c . in addition to the factored moments. that can be resisted by concrete alone. OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. • Determine the shear force. 26 Column Design . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. The capacity ratio. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. is given by the ratio . V c . In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). Pu andV u .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual wards) will intersect the failure surface. M ux . Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu . the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members.and M uy set and associated load combination number.

The design shear force. is calculated. is then given by (ACI 21. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . the factored axial load.0). the forces for a particular load combination. Therefore. where V P1 = M I. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. namely. the design shear force in a column. the column axial force. and L V P2 = M I+ + M J. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.0).4. Pu .1) + V D+ L where. and the column shear force. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames.5. Column Design 27 . where L M I+ . V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Pu .4.1) Vu =V p (ACI 21. M J- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. and L = Clear span of column. For each load combination.+ M J+ .5. M J+ . Then. V u .V u . M u+ and M u. V u . M I- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column..Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. the positive and negative moment capacities. • In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (seismic design) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames.

2) Pu must have psi units. i.5 f c¢ The term and æ ç1+ ç è (ACI 11. For most of the columns.1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.3) . • If the column is subjected to axial tension. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (j = 1. (ACI 11. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.2) where. Pu is negative.2.3). f c¢ Vc £ £ 100 psi.10. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.1.3. (ACI 11.25 (ACI R21. the shear force carried by the concrete.3.3. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.4.0) moment capacity and factored shear force.V c .1). in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames.25 (ACI R21. Acv is the effective shear area which is shown Ag shaded in Figure III-2. æ V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è Pu 2000 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv . Pu is positive. is calculated as follows: • If the column is subjected to axial compression.2. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu andV u . it is zero. • For Intermediate moment resisting frames.5. æ V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è 28 Column Design Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv ³ 0 (ACI 11. 3.e.10).2) Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv .

V c is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force. d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv CIRCULAR Figure III-2 Shear Stress Area. including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu < f c¢ Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake.5.4. Acv Column Design 29 . Pu . is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (V E ³ 0.2).5 V u ) (ACI 21.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • For Special moment resisting concrete frame design. V E .

and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2) (ACI 11. s. and other criteria described below.6. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. Here j . the strength reduction factor. minor direction bending.9) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required.5.3).V c ) s . f ys d (V u / j .2.5. Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. is given by Av = (V u /j . is 0.85 (ACI 9.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c . Effects due to any axial forces. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement 30 Beam Design . The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. shears. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon shear strength consideration.6. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. load combination factors. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.V c ) £ 8 f c¢ Acv (ACI 11.

Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. The design procedure used by SAP2000. Intermediate.3.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10.factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.3). or the grade of concrete. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.and T-beams) is summarized below. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.or a T-beam.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. Beam Design 31 .3. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.1f c¢ Ag (ACI 10.2). the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.3). The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Negative beam moments produce top steel. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure III-3 (ACI 10. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u+ and maximum negative M u. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. the width.

2. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure III-3).2.85 . 1000 ÷ø = - 0.7.75 b1 c b .3.2. 10.e.4) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max 32 = Beam Design 0.3.05 çç è cb = e c Es e c Es +fy d f c¢ 4000 ö ÷.85. 87 000 + f y £ 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.2.90 (ACI 9.3) (ACI 10.003 0. (i.0.85f'c b Cs A's d' a= c 1c d εs As (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (i) BEAM SECTION Tc Ts (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section where. ε = 0. the value of j is 0.2. a = d d2 - - 2 Mu 0. where. (ACI 10. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 æ = 0. M u .85 f c¢ j b . (ACI 10.1) in the above and the following equations.65 £ b1 87 000 d.1) .7.

2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.max ê 2 ë .d¢ ù ê ë ú û c .4) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M uc a f y é d .2.003 E s ¢ é c . f y ( d . – Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = Mu - M uc . a 2 ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive. where f s ( d .85 f c¢ ba max .d¢ ) j As¢ = f s¢ = 0.7.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is æ =C ç d è M uc a max 2 ö ÷ j ø . – So the required compression steel is given by M us .3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.3.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a As a max . or at the top if M u is negative. • If a > a max . (ACI 10. and (ACI 10. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by £ Mu = j æ y çd è f . and ù ú û j the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2 = M us .d¢ ) j Beam Design 33 .

85f'c Cs Cf c d Cw εs As Ts Tw Tf bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a £ d s . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max .. As = As1 + As 2 .7. in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis.75 b1 c b .2.85f'c 0.1) ε = 0. See Figure III-4.e. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. 0. bf (ACI 10. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. i. designing top steel).e. (i. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.85 f c¢ j b f The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by a max = 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d d2 - - 2Mu . 34 Beam Design .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore. If M u > 0 . As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top if M u is positive. M u . and vice versa if M u is negative.003 ds d' fs' As' 0. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . no T-Beam data is to be used. However. the total tensile reinforcement.

85 f c ( b f . M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u M uf . and a1 2 ö ÷ ø . C f is given by Cf ¢ = 0.3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C ¢ = 0.2. C f . Therefore. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by M uw = j As - f æ y çd è = As1 + As 2 .7.b w Therefore.90.1) Beam Design 35 . the balance of the moment. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. As1 = Cf fy )d s . - The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d. as shown in Figure III-4.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a > d s . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.85 f c¢ j b w a max . calculation for As is done in two parts. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 d - • If a1 £ = As 2 d2 2 M uw . 0. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. Again.85 f c ba max . (ACI 10.3. C w . the value for j is 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. • If a1 > a max . and the portion of M u that is resisted by the flange is given by æ ç è M uf = C f d - ds 2 ö ÷j ø .

5. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .d¢ ù ê ë ú û c .1) þ (ACI 10. As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 . (ACI 10. 3 b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï (ACI 10. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ³ ì3 ï max í ï î As 36 Beam Design ³ f c¢ fy 4 As (required ). and ö ÷j ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M us .5.003 E s ¢ é c . f y ( d . As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top.3) .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j ø .max 2 è . and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us M uw = - M uc .2.4) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M uc a f y æç d .d¢ ) j – The total tensile reinforcement. the compression steel is computed as M us . – Therefore.d¢ ) j As¢ = f s¢ = 0. where f s ( d .

associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than ½ of the beam negative moment capacity (i.3. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.3) • The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ³ 0.1). 3 (ACI 10.1) þ 4 As (required ) .1) • At any end (support) of the beam. Beam Design 37 .e.e.2. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) (ACI 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. As(min) ³ ì3 ï max í ï î As(min) ³ f c¢ fy b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï (ACI 10. (ACI 21.1).3.025 b w d .3.5.5.4. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.2.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).2.2).3. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: • At any support of the beam.4.10.2. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table III-2 for comprehensive listing) : • The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom.1). the beam positive moment capacity (i.2).

the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the probable shear due to the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored shear force.1) Vu =V p + V D+ L (ACI 21. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. • In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). The shear force. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. V u .3. • Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.4.1) where. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. respectively. • Determine the shear force.V u . where 38 Beam Design . V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . See also Table III-2 for details. This check is done in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. V c . V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. in addition to the factored load design. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.4. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. that can be resisted by the concrete.3. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 27. The design shear force V u is then given by (ACI 21. Therefore. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames).

The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 V P1 = M I. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. See also Table III-2 for details.0).3). Beam Design 39 . V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.0).+ M J+ . M J- = Moment capacity at end J. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. with bottom steel in tension. and L V P2 = M I+ + M J.0). M I+ = Moment capacity at end I. and L = Clear span of beam. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.3.25 (ACI R21. M J+ = Moment capacity at end J.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. with bottom steel in tension.10).1).10. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. is also the same as that for columns. with top steel in tension. where L M I- = Moment capacity at end I. The procedure for calculating nominal (j = 1.0). The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force.25 (ACI R21. which is described earlier on page 28. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. with top steel in tension. • For Intermediate moment resisting frames.4.

The maximum of all the calculated Av values.6.3). j .3. (ACI 11. f ys d (ACI 11.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by V c = 2 f c¢ b w d .2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely upon shear strength considerations.2) The shear force resisted by steel is limited by V u /j - Vc £ 8 f c¢ bd .e. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.6. is 0.3.V c ) s .5.3. (ACI 11. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c . V E ³ 0. obtained from each load combination.4.9) where.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design.5.2).1. the strength reduction factor. the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (V u /j . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5 V u ) (ACI 21.V c is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect Pu is less than f c¢ Ag / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V E is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (i.85 (ACI 9. 40 Beam Design .

M u4 + M uEND ³ { } + M uSPAN { } uSPAN END END Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.0 and α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1. Moment Override Check Beam Design Shear a Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) No Requirement + M uSPAN - M uSPAN NLDa Combinations 1 M uEND 2 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and α = 1.0 plus VD+L M { } { } END END NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.025 3 fc¢ 200 . M u4 1 ³ max M u.0 NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.25 NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations r £ 0.r ³ r³ fy fy Column Shears Beam Design Flexure a NLD Combinations NLDa Combinations 1 M uEND 3 1 ³ max M u+ . M u5 1 ³ max M u+ . M u5 + M uEND ³ Beam Min.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 NLD = Number of specified loading Table III-2 Design Criteria Table Beam Design 41 .0 1% < ρ < 6% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1..Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Type of Check/ Design Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Column Check (interaction) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Column Design (Interaction) NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations α = 1.