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Process Fundamentals

Theme Fundamentals

Starting Up a Project (SU)

Business Case

There must be a business requirement that triggers a project.


The question Do we have a worthwhile and viable project needs to
be answered. This process clarifies this answer and sets up an
organization structure to manage the project throughout its life.

The project starts with an idea which is considered to have potential


value for the organization concerned. This Theme addresses how the
idea is developed into a viable investment proposition for the
organization and how project management maintains the focus on the
organizations objectives throughout the project.

Directing a Project (DP)

Organization

This process is conducted by the Project Board, above the Project


Manager. The Project Board manages by exception, monitors via reports
and controls through a small number of decision points. These are the DP
activities.

The organization sponsoring the project needs to allocate the work to


managers who will be responsible for it and steer it through to
completion. Projects are cross-functional so the normal line
management structures are not suitable. This theme describes the
roles and responsibilities in the temporary PRINCE2 project
management team required to manage the project effectively.

Initiating a Project (IP)


A project needs planning and setting up properly. IP plans the project
at high level and sets up all the controls and files. The main document
for the project is created - the Project Initiation Document (PID). The PID
forms the basis of a contract which ensures there is a common
understanding of the project and encourages the Project Board to take
ownership of the project.

PRINCE2
Quick Reference
Guide

Controlling a Stage (CS)

Quality
The initial idea will only be understood as a broad outline. This
Theme explains how the outline is developed so that all participants
understand the quality attributes of the products to be delivered and
then how project management will ensure that these requirements are
subsequently delivered.

Plans
PRINCE2 projects proceed on the basis of a series of approved
plans. This theme complements the Quality theme by describing the
steps required to develop plans and the PRINCE2 techniques that
should be applied. In PRINCE2, the plans are matched to the needs
of the personnel at the various levels of the organization. They are
the focus for communication and control throughout the project.

Once a decision has been made to proceed with work, and the
appropriate resources have been committed, the project management
team must be focussed on delivering within the tolerances agreed. CS
describes the work of the Project Manager in handling the day-to-day
management of the project. It starts after the Project Board approves the
Stage Plan. It is closely linked with the MP process.

Risk
Projects typically entail more risk than stable operational activity.
This theme addresses how project management manages the
uncertainties in its plans and in the wider project environment.

Managing Product Delivery (MP)


This process allows a controlled break between the Project
Manager, Team Manager and the creation/provision of the products. In
MP products are created, quality checked and delivered.

Managing Stage Boundaries (SB)


All projects, need to be focussed on delivering business benefit, either in
their own right, or as part of a larger programme. At each stage end, the
continuing viability of the project should be confirmed. If needed, the
project can be redirected or stopped to avoid wasting time or money.

Change
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Closing a Project (CP)


One of the defining features of a project is that it is finite it has a start
and an end. Just as SU and IP ensure a controlled start to the project,
this process ensures a controlled end (closure). All loose ends are tied
off and lessons identified.

CUPE Limited 2012 Version 5.July 2009


PRINCE2 is a registered trade mark of the Cabinet Office.
The Swirl Logo is a Trade mark of the Cabinet Office.

This theme describes how project management assesses and acts


upon issues which have a potential impact on any of the baseline
aspects of the project (its plans and completed products). Issues may
be unanticipated general problems, requests for change or instances
of quality failure.

Progress
This theme addresses the ongoing viability of the plans. The theme
explains the decision-making process for approving plans, the
monitoring of actual performance and the escalation process if events
do not go according to plan. Ultimately, the Progress theme
determines whether and how the project should proceed.

Based upon PRINCE2 Manual 2009 Edition

Processes & Activities


Starting Up a Project (SU)
Appoint Executive and Project Manager
Capture Previous Lessons
Design & Appoint PM Team
Prepare the Outline Business Case
Select Project Approach & Assemble Project Brief
Plan the Initiation Stage

Directing a Project (DP)


Authorise Initiation
Authorise the Project
Authorise a Stage or Exception Plan
Give Ad Hoc Direction
Authorise Project Closure

Plans
Quality
Risk
Organization
Business Case

Stages

Business Case

Themes Used

The key philosophy of PRINCE2 is that the project is driven by the


Business Case. The focus on the Business Case should be on its totality of
business change, not just one element of it. The following diagram shows
where the Business Case is created and updated throughout the project
life-cycle.
Project
Mandate

Project
Brief

PID

Stages are divisions of the project for management purposes. Each stage is
reviewed by the Project Board who approve them one at a time (at an End
Stage Assessment). Stages are major decision making points in PRINCE2.
Management stages equate to commitment of resources and authority to
spend. Technical stages are groups of specialist skills / activities required
to create the specialist products.
Technical Stages
PID

Outline Business Case


Refined & Approved
Business Case

Reasons for the Project

Specification
Design

Business
Case

Build

Progress
Business Case
Risk

Expected Benefits

Updated Business Case

Test

Reviewed Business Case

Benefits
Review
Plan

Implement
End
Stage
Report

Project
Issues

End-Stage
Assessments
(Project Board
Decision Points)

Controlling a Stage (CS)


Authorise Work Package
Review Work Package Status
Receive Completed Work Package
Review Stage Status
Report Highlights
Capture & Examine Issues and Risks
Escalate Issues & Risks
Take Corrective Action

Management Stages

Products
Progress
Plans
Quality
Risk
Business Case
Change
Organization

Progress
Change
Risk
Quality

In PRINCE2 there are three types of management products, Baseline,


Records & Reports. Specialist products are the unique outputs of the
project.
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A7
A.8
A.9
A.10
A.11
A12
A.13

Benefits Review Plan


Business Case
Checkpoint Report
Communication Management Strategy
Configuration Item Record
Configuration Management Strategy
Daily Log
End Project Report
End Stage Report
Exception Report
Highlight Report
Issue Register
Issue Report

A.14
A.15
A.16
A.17
A.18
A.19
A.20
A.21
A.22
A.23
A 24
A.25
A.26

Lessons Log
Lessons Report
Plan
Product Description
Product Status Account
Project Brief
Product Initiation Documentation
Project Product Description
Quality Management Strategy
Quality Register
Risk Management Strategy
Risk Register
Work Package

Managing Product Delivery (MP)


Accept a Work Package
Execute a Work Package
Deliver a Work Package

Progress
Business Case
Quality

From Customer

Project Response

Customers Quality
Expectations

Acceptance Criteria

Project Product
Description

Quality Management
Strategy

Quality Components
Quality Criteria &
Tolerances

Product Descriptions
PRINCE2
Product-based
Planning Technique

Quality Methods

Quality Responsibilities

Quality Register

COMMUNICATE

PRINCE2
Quality Review
Technique

Risk Assessment evaluates the risk using


the probability of it happening & the impact
if it does. Responses are considered to
decide the best way forward.

PRODUCT

Quality & Approval


Records

CONTROL

Closing a Project (CP)


Prepare Planned Closure
Prepare Premature Closure
Hand Over Products
Evaluate the Project
Recommend Project Closure

Progress
Plans
Business Case
Risk
Organization

Risk
Project management must control and
contain risks if a project is to stand any
chance of being successful. Assumptions
about risk have to be regularly revisited
and reconsidered, for example at each
End Stage Assessment. Risk requires,
identification prior to assessment
leading to a plan which is implemented.
This Risk Management Cycle diagram
shows the relationship between them.

Identify all the Projects Products.


Define the products in Product Descriptions
Implement and track the Quality Methods employed throughout the
Project.

QUALITY

Managing a Stage Boundary (SB)


Plan the Next Stage
Update the Project Plan
Update the Business Case
Report Stage End
Produce an Exception Plan

Progress
Change
Plans
Quality

The specific treatment for quality in PRINCE2 is the focus on products from
the outset, requiring systematic activities to:

QUALITY

Management products shown in Appendix A of the manual.

The Quality Approach

PLANNING

Initiating a Project (IP)


Prepare the Risk Management Strategy
Prepare the Quality Management Strategy
Prepare the Configuration Management Strategy
Prepare the Communication Management Strategy
Set up the Project Controls
Create the Project Plan
Refine the Business Case
Assemble the Project Initiation Documentation

Acceptance Record

Crown Copyright 2009.


Reproduced under license from OGC

Crown Copyright 2009.


Reproduced under license from OGC