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Water Chemical Properties

CE100
Introduction to
Civil Engineering

C
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1

Two atoms of hydrogen

One atom of oxygen

Lecture 7

o
+

From where is water?

Dr
T

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Oceans 97.2%

0
0

Freshwater lakes

0.009%

Saline lakes & Inland Seas

0.008%

Soil Moisture

0.005%

Stream channels

0.0001%

Atmosphere

0.001%

2.
8%

A
L
A
T

Glaciers
2.15%
Groundwater

0.62%

B
A
D
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R

A
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Water Engineering

Dr

B
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Dr
C
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0

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Non-ocean Component

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Ground Water

Dr

Condensation

The movement through plants

The Clouds form

Transpiration

T
A

Precipitation
The rain falls

Evaporation
The vapor rises

A
T

Dr
T

B
A
D
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R

Surface Water & Water in Soils


C
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0

Dr
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A
L
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B
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B
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Water Resources In Saudi Arabia

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Dr

Surface
Water

Ground
Water

Other Surface
Water

Desalination

A
L
A
T
B
A
D
E
R

Water Resources In Saudi Arabia

Dr
T

C
Surface
Water

Ground
Water

Other Surface
Water

Desalination

A
L

Water Resources In Saudi Arabia

C
E

Surface
Water

Ground
Water

Other Surface
Water

Desalination

E
1
0
0

Surface
Water

Ground
Water

Other Surface
Water

Desalination

B
A
D
E
R

Targeted National Water Balance


during the Six Development Plant

Dr
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A
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B
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A
L

B
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Water Resources In Saudi Arabia

Dr

C
Water Demand & Supply

E
1
0

Water Demand
Municipal & Industrial Purposes
Agriculture
Total Demand

Water Supply
Surface Water & underground water
liable for renewal
Underground water (non-renewable
deep)
Desalinated water
Reclaimed treated sewage water
Total Supply

Dr
T

1993-1994
14141415H
X 106 m3

1998-1999
14191420H
X 106 m3

Average
Annual
Growth (%)

1,800
16,400

2,800
14,700

9.2
(2.2)*

18,200

17,500

(0.8)*

2,500
14,836
714
150

3,000
13,040
1,550
310

3.7
(2.6)*
10
15.6

18,200

17,500

(0.8)*

B
A
D
E
R

(xx) Negative average growth


Decrease in the amount used from non-renewable resources from 14,836 to 13,040 = (-2.6%)

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Water Demand & Supply

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The Demand for water in Saudi Arabia is about 17


billion meter cube per year is needed.
Where are we going to get this amount of water?
From Desalination about 0.5 billion m3/year
From Surface water about 2 billion m3/year
This total about 17 - 2.5 = 15 billion m3/year from
where Ground water !!!!
If we look at the total amount of precipitation over the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia then we can say we really
have a problem????????

Water Resources Engineering

1
0

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There is demand for water resources


engineers for the following reasons:
Water Projects cant be cut.
Demand will keep Increase.

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0

A
L
A
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Limited water, limited rain, no surface water.


Increase in demand of water
Not enough specialists to set up scientific
system to solve water problem.
Not enough information, data to help plan for
the future.
Many people do not think of water as a
valuable source.

Water is needed?

1
0
0

A
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B
A
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R

Dr
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C
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Dr
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Dr

B
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Do we have Water Resources Problems

B
A
D
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R

C
E

Dr

Water is needed more than ever before


for the following reasons:
Development in medicine increased
population.
Increased standard of personnel cleanness.
Industrial expansion.

A
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B
A
D
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R

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Reclamation of wastewater.
Develop water saving methods.
Develop new irrigation practices.

T
A
L
A
T

Water Resources & Environmental


Engineering

Dr
C
E
1
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0

B
A
D
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Water Resources
&
Environmental Engineering
C
CE 111 Basics for Environmental
Chemistry

0
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Core

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CE 111 Basics for Environmental Chemistry


CE 230 Engineering Fluid Mechanics
CE 331 Engineering Hydrology
CE 370 Water & Wastewater Engineering

CE 430 Engineering Hydrology II


CE 432 Hydraulic Engineering
CE 433 Ground Water Engineering
CE 434 Irrigation Engineering
CE 435 Theory & Design of Water Wells

T
A
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A

CE 331 Engineering Hydrology

Water Resources
&
Environmental Engineering

B
A
D
E
R

T
A
L
A
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B
A
D
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R

Dr
T

CE 430 Engineering Hydrology II


L

(3-0-3)
(3-0-3)
(2-3-3)
(2-3-3)
(2-3-3)

Dr

(3-3-3)
(3-3-3)
(3-3-3)
(3-3-3)

Electives

Dr

CE 230 Engineering Fluid Mechanics

CE 370 Water & Wastewater


Engineering

Core

CE 432 Hydraulic Engineering


Electives

Future Challenge to Water


Resources Engineering

CE 433 Ground Water Engineering


CE 434 Irrigation Engineering
CE 435 Theory & Design of
Water Wells

A
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B
A
D
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The Nile flood plains


Dr
delta

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floodplain

0
0

L
A
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B
A
D
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4/20/2003

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Flood control:
The High Aswan dam,
lake Nasser and the Nile Dr
river
T
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