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ENGLISH LANGUAGE II (theory)

Marking scheme:
1 = 4/5 points
2 = 12 points
3 = 8 points (2x4)
4 = 6 points (3x2)
5 = 2 points
TOT

4/5 +28 = 32/33

ENGLISH LANGUAGE II (theory)

Name: _____________________________________________ ID Number: ____________________________________________

1. Draw a tree for the following sentence:


I want you to hold the cat tightly while I put on this collar.
S
NP
I

VP
V

S/CP

want C

NP

VP

you

V
V

to

hold

NP

S/CP

AdvP

tightly

while

S
NP

VP

the

cat

put on

AdvP

NP

this

N
collar

ENGLISH LANGUAGE II (theory)

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions:


Two Roman-era shipwrecks have been found in deep water [a] off a western Greek island, challenging the idea that
ancient shipmasters stuck to coastal routes. The merchant ships were sunk [b] nearly a mile deep between Corfu and
Italy - proving that ancient traders didn't 'hug the shore'. Greece's culture ministry said the two third-century wrecks
were discovered earlier this month during a survey of an area where a Greek-Italian gas pipeline is [c] to be sunk. Most
scholars believe that ancient traders were unwilling to veer far offshore, [d] unlike warships which were unburdened by
ballast and cargo. U.S. archaeologist Brendan Foley, who was not involved in the project, said a series of ancient
wrecks located [e] far from land over the past 15 years has forced experts to reconsider the coast-hugging theory.
Pick out the first four direct objects:
(1) the idea that ancient shipmasters stuck to coastal routes
(2) that ancient traders didn't 'hug the shore'
(3) the shore
(4) the two third-century wrecks [] be sunk
Pick out one noun complement (NC), one subject complement/predicate (sC), and one prepositional object (pO):
(5) of an area [] be sunk [ALSO: that ancient [] routes; of ancient wrecks [] 15 years].

(NC)

(6) unwilling to veer far offshore [ALSO: sunk; in deep water; involved in the project]

(sC)

(7) to coastal routes [ALSO: in the project]

(pO)

Categorise the words in bold in the text above:


(8) [a] prep.

(9) [b] adv.

(11) [d] prep.

(12) [e] adv./adj.

(10) [c] inf. part

3. Identify the form and the function of the underlined phrases.


Form

Function

(13) He passed on useful tips.

NP

DO

(14) He could tell she was ready to take the test.

CP/S

DO

(15) She was calm most of the time.

NP

adverbial/adjunct

(16) The dimming may be attributable to two planets.

PP

adj. compl.

4. Analyze the underlined verb groups (use / if a category is not realized).


(17)

People would have seen them from the street below.

Tense: past
(18)

Voice: act.

Modality: epist.

Mood: /

Voice: act

Modality: epist.

Mood: /

The driver must have been waiting outside.

Tense: past
(19)

Aspect: perf.

Aspect: perf. + progr.

Arriving early in the afternoon, I had time to look around the town.

Tense: /

Aspect: /

Voice: act.

Modality: /

Mood: /

5. For each of the following marked sentences, identify the type of structural variation and give the unmarked version:
(20) It was at her birthday that she announced she was going away.

Type: cleft

Unmarked version: She announced she was going away at her birthday.
(21) My hands, they were shaking.
Unmarked version: My hands were shaking.

Type: left-disloc.