Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

Technical Session I

Advance Materials and Materials


Processing

SMART MATERIALS
Dinesh Sirimalla, Ravi Teja Yendamuri, Bhargav Krishna Arimanda
JNTU HYDERABAD

Abstract
In the twenty first century a new generation of materials promises to again reshape our world and
solve some of the planets most pressing problems. Smart materials come under this category.
Smart or intelligent materials are materials that have the intrinsic and extrinsic capabilities, first,
to respond to stimuli and environmental changes and, second, to activate their functions
according to these changes. The stimuli could originate internally or externally. Since its
beginning, materials science has undergone a distinct evolution: from the use of inert structural
materials to materials built for a particular function, to active or adaptive materials, and finally to
smart materials with more acute recognition and reaction capabilities. To achieve a specific
objective for a particular function or application, a new material or alloy has to satisfy specific
qualifications such as technical& technological properties, environment characteristics and
economic criteria. The field of smart materials is emerging rapidly with technological
innovations in engineering materials, sensors, actuators and image processing. The use of sensor
and actuator materials is continuing to grow in an increasing effort to optimize operating
systems. The objectives of this work are to study the properties and applications of various smart
materials such as piezoelectric, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive and shape memory alloys.
Structural ceramics, superconducting wires and Nano structural materials are good examples of
the complex materials that will fashion Nanotechnology.Self-adaptability, self-sensing, memory,
and multiple functionalities of the materials are the key characteristics to provide numerous
possible applications for these materials in aerospace, manufacturing, civil infrastructure systems
and biomechanics. Smart materials can be used directly to make smart systems or structures or
embedded in structures whose inherent properties can be changed to meet high value-added
performance needs.
Understanding and controlling the composition and microstructure of any new materials are the
ultimate objectives of research in this field, and is crucial to the production of good smart
materials.

ABSTRACT ON THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS


Amit Kumar
NIT JAMSHEDPUR
Abstract
The eld of thermoelectrics has long been recognized as a potentially transformative
power generation technology and the eld is now growing steadily due to their ability to convert
heat directly into electricity and to develop cost-effective, pollution-free forms of energy
conversion. Of various types of thermoelectric materials, nanostructured materials have shown
the most promise for commercial use because of their extraordinary thermoelectric
performances. This article aims to summarize the present progress of nanostructured
thermoelectrics and intends to understand and explain the underpinnings of the innovative
breakthroughs in the last decade or so. We believed that recent achievements will bring the
possibility for thermoelectric power generation and cooling, and discuss several future directions
which could lead to new exciting next generation of nanostructured thermoelectrics.

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES


Mohammad Abrar Ul Farahan, K. Nuthan Kumar
JNTU HYDERABAD

Abstract
The
earliest
man-made
composite
materials
were straw and mud combined
to
form bricks for building construction. Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb
paintings. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000
years old. Concrete is also a composite material, and is used more than any other man-made
material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each year
more than one cubic metre for every person on Earth.
Metal matrix composites (MMC) have been subject of scientific investigation and applied
research for about two decades but only in the past few years these advanced materials
became realistic candidates in engineering. Conventional monolithic materials have limitations
in achieving good combination of strength, stiffness, toughness and density. To overcome these
shortcomings and to meet the ever increasing demand of modern day technology, composites are
most promising materials of recent interest. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) possess
significantly improved properties including high specific strength; specific modulus, damping
capacity and good wear resistance compared to unreinforced alloys. There has been an increasing
interest in composites containing low density and low cost reinforcements. Metal matrix
composite materials are increasingly replacing traditional materials used in building engineering,
aeronautics, mechanical engineering and in many other domains.
Metal matrix composites are processed in following methods:1) Solid state processing
a) Powder blending and consolidation (PM processing)
b) Diffusion bonding
c) Physical vapour deposition
2) Liquid state processing
a) Stir casting:
b) Inltration process
c) Spray deposition
d) In-situ processing (reactive processing)
There is lot to discover, innovate and invent. More detailed work and research in matrix
composites may change the course of human civilization in all aspectsstarting from households
to modern warfare, from golf sticks to cockpits and the list goes on.

INVISIBILITY- AN ATTEMPT VIA METAMATERIALS


Simpa Thakur, Shikha Chaudhary
N.I.T. Jamshedpur

Abstract
Certain synthetic materials also known as metamaterials have been observed to manipulate
electromagnetic waves in a manner to render objects invisible to the incident radiation. Unlike
natural materials which have a strong interaction only with the electric component of the
electromagnetic waves, metamaterials have been found to interact strongly with the magnetic
component as well. Metamaterials guide the light around the object instead of reflecting it. In
such materials the material properties can be varied from point to point with each point designed
for specific electromagnetic interaction. Metamaterials can be engineered with arbitrarily
assigned positive or negative values of permittivity and permeability which can also be
independently varied as desired. This accomplishes a gradient in the material properties leading
to bending and distortion of light around the shielded object as different components responds
independently to a radiated spectrum of light. The emerging rays are found to be in phase with
the incident rays and propagating along the same path giving the impression as if no object was
placed in its path and casting no shadows.
This technology has been efficiently applied to microwaves having larger wavelength, but
materials on the small scale required to manipulate light waves are yet to be manufactured.
Moreover with the contemporary technology we can shield an object from only a single
electromagnetic wave. In order to make the object completely invisible broadband metamaterial
which is capable of bending light over a broader range of spectrum needs to be fabricated. This
can be achieved by employing nanotechnology to fabricate such composite materials which are
capable of interacting with various frequencies. Further regarding its applications as an
invisibility shield for humans it is essential for the shield to be asymmetrical in the way that the
surrounding must be visible to the person on the inside while keeping him invisible, in order to
have any practical application.
Metamaterial shielding has vast potential in future. It can be used in defence organisations to
shield stealth bombers from being detected by radars. Its application can be extended to shielding
of tanks and submarines. It can also be manipulated for shielding structures from earthquakes.

STUDY ON REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE DISPERSED-COPPER BASE


COMPOSITE
*

Keerti Pandey1, Debdas Roy1, Praveen Kumar2


1. NIFFT, Ranchi
2. IIS, Bangalore

Abstract
Graphene is a rigid planar nanostructure made of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a
hexagonal crystal lattice. Graphene has been experimentally studied for the last several years and
measurements of transport properties in micromechanically exfoliated layers, of graphene grown
on Carborundum(SiC), large area graphene grown on copper (Cu) substrates, as well as a variety
of studies involving the use of chemically modified graphene (CMG) to make new materials.
Also, studies have been conducted to enhance the mechanical strength of Cu alloys either
through solid solution and precipitation strengthening by addition of an appropriate solute
element whose solid solubility decreases with lowering of temperature(say, Cr, Ag, Nb, Zr, or Ta)
or by dispersing insoluble oxides/ceramics to form metal-matrix composites. Precipitation or age
hardening of these alloys produces fine coherent precipitates that provide the necessary strength
in Cu alloys. In our proposed research, composite containing different quantities of Reduced
graphene oxide in Cu has been prepared and hence tested.
Reduced graphene oxide (RgO) platelets were synthesized via chemically optimized
methodology from graphite (100 microns), wherein graphitic oxide was formed from the powder
through modified Hummers method. Further, exfoliated graphitic oxide was thermally reduced
in a two-step process. RgO samples were sent for Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis for
verification. Further, samples were prepared taking certain volume percentage of RgO in Copper
(40 micron). These samples were taken to a two-step thermal treating process and sent for
electrical measurement and micro-mechanical characterization. To have an inward
comprehension of behaviour of such a composite, study of interfacial energy and grain boundary
resistance is being done and the samples were sent for FESEM for the same. The samples were
also sent for nano-indentation, density and conductivity measurement.
Keywords: Reduced Graphene oxide, hummers method and exfoliation

A STUDY ON THE COMPOSITES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS IN


THE FIELDS OF AEROSPACE AND AUTOMOTIVE
Arnab Bhowmick
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
A Composite material is a heterogeneous material created by the synthetic assembly of two or
more materials at macroscopic level, to obtain specific characteristics and properties. The
individual components are separate and distinct within the finished structure. It consists of two
phases; one is termed as the reinforcement phase in the form of fibers, sheets and particles;
which is embedded in the phase called matrix phase.
This paper discusses about the composites and their types which are subdivided into:
Reinforcement fibres (Carbon,Glass,Kevlar,Ceramic,Natural); Matrix (Polymer,Metal,Ceramic)
and structural composites(Sandwich structures) namely Honeycomb and cladded sandwich
structure. The composite have many advantages over the other metallic materials (high strength
to weight ratio, highly corrosion resistant, exceptional formability and durability etc). This paper
highlights the contribution of composites in the fields of automotive and aerospace. In aerospace
sectors CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Plastic) and sandwich structures (eg: GLARE: Glass
Laminate Aluminium Reinforced Epoxy) play an important role. A study of the composite
aircraft is highlighted. Some examples of composites success in this field is also mentioned
(namely BOEING787, AIRBUS A380). Further their application in the automotive sector is
discussed. In this sector Thermosets, Thermoplastics and CFRP composites play an important
role. The reasons behind their use are discussed. The composite car structure and the importance
of carbon fibers in this sector have been focused. Some examples of composites success in this
field is mentioned (namely japanese dcf wheel, australian cr-9 wheel, lamborghinis sesto
elemento 2011).
The Future innovations in the field of composite in these sectors to combat the challenges
have been focused. The future innovations in the aerospace include the CENTrAl composites and
use of Carbon-nanotubes. In the automotive sector the use of advance composites (combination
of carbon and glass fiber) and the advantages they would provide are discussed.

A BRIEF STUDY ON NANOMATERIALS AND THE GROWTH OF


NANOTECHNOLOGY IN RECENT TIME
Sheeraz Zama Khan
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Nanomaterial are defined as materials with at least one external dimension in size range from
approximately 1-100 nanometers and posseses special physical and chemical properties because
of their nanoscale dimension.The paper discusses about the different types of
nanomaterial(i.e.carbon based material, metal basedmaterials,dentrimers,composits,natural
nanoparticles),physical properties of nanomaterial(ie.reduced melting point,hardness,electrical
conductivity,magnetic properties etc.
The paper discusses about the nanotechnology which is the manipulation of matter with at least
one dimension ranging from 1-100 nanometers.It will emphasize upon why there is need for
nanotechnology,what are the changes which occurs when we change the size of material,benefits
of nanotechnology. The paper demonstrates use of nanotechnology in the field of medical
sciences(such as cancer therapy),in establishing nano computing technology,making sunscreen
cosmetics, fuel cells,magnetic nano material applications,medical implantation,water purification
etc.Finally the paper discusses about the hazards which are occurring from the use of
nanotechnology and what are the measures which could be taken to prevent them.

UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC AND RUBBER IN


COMPOSITE SLEEPERS
Pritam Banerjee
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Economic growth, increasing population ,urbanization, production patterns and changing
consumption resulting into rapid increase in generation of waste plastic and rubber in the world.
Waste plastic are non-biodegradable, non-eco-friendly and causes air and water pollution. Waste
tyres causes increase in cost of raw material, resource constraints, air pollution associated with
open burning. This paper discusses the utilization of waste rubber and plastic in formation of
environmental friendly composite sleepers.
A US company, TieTek LLC of Houston, Taxas has developed a railroad sleeper made of postconsumer waste passenger tyres and waste plastic. Composite sleeper can be used as an
alternative railroad sleeper that is superior in performance, environmentally responsible, and
provides a significant value to rail customers. It can be treated as a green product in two ways as
its use not only reduces the pollution but also ensure less destruction to the forest .It has high
strength having a life of 40 to 50 years, low weight, high corrosion resistance, fire resistant, low
thermal and electrical conductivity, non-magnetic properties, good attenuation of sound and
vibration, excellent design flexibility, low life cycle cost,recyclable, reuse of waste resources.
This paper also discusses the manufacturing process used by TieTek Company and comparison
with wood and concrete sleeper. The result achieved in lab as well as field trail in India has been
discussed in the paper.
Survey, test results and performance of the sleeper in abroad as well as in this country revels that
composite sleeper may be an alternative for wooden sleeper. The use of composite sleepers in
India can make a huge impact on the rail industry.

Ti BASED ALLOYS - AN INERT BIOMATERIAL


B. Abhishek
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, IIIT
Basar, Mudhole Mandal, Pin-504107

Abstract

An ideal biomaterial is expected to exhibit properties such as a very high biocompatibility, that
is, no adverse tissue response. Also, it must have a density as low as that of bone, desirable
properties such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, and machinability
and corrosion resistance. Such properties can be best seen in Ti based Biomaterials. These
materials are aptly considered as biologically inert biomaterials or bio inert. As such, they remain
essentially unchanged when implanted into human bodies. Furthermore, they do not induce
allergic reactions such as has been observed occasionally with some stainless steels. So, In
corollary to above my presentation deals with discussing these tantalizing properties as well as
physiological behaviour of Ti based alloys. At the wide spectrum I would like highlight the most
promising titanium implants, Nitinol as it possesses mixture of novel properties such as shape
memory effect and high damping properties which deserves to hold the title of the next
generation biomaterials as it possess unique surface and mechanical properties similar to the
bone and hence are considered to be the future generation orthopaedic biomaterials. Wide use
and research on Ti materials as biomaterials is going on due to their specialised properties when
compared to other conventional biomaterials such as stainless steels, cobalt based alloys,
polymers and composite materials. Finally I would hope to wind up my presentation by
discussing about the present as well as future scope of Ti based alloys which now acts as a boon
for those who are in a dire need to get their organs implanted for longevity of the unfortunate
ones.

10

SUPERALLOY TECHNOLOGY IN AERO ENGINES


Kumari Jyoti, Umul Baha Murmu, Kumari Supriya
B.I.T. Sindri, Dhanbad

Abstract
High temperature structural materials, such as superalloys provide the backbone for many
applications within key industries that include chemical and metallurgical processing, energy
generation and aerospace propulsion. In the aeroengine business commercial success relies on
continuous improvements in engine efficiency, reduced adverse impact on the environment and
lower maintenance and operating costs. Innovation through advanced materials have arisen their
demands for efficient and highly durable jet engines.
So, here we discuss the recent advances in the technologies of these materials for aeroengine
components with particular reference to enhancing the fatigue life of turbine disc components by
the new trends that are in developing dual microstructure and dual alloy concepts and
manufacturing materials in which the microstructure or composition is varied within the
component to resist the high operating temperature and stress distribution. Computational
modeling of the materials processing contributes strongly to the improved design of the
microstructure and the delivery of the enhanced high temperature of the fatigue properties.
The processing of turbine disc alloys require careful control to achieve the high level of
properties demanded in discs, free from defects and segregation. This is achieved by applying
various methods in series like vacuum induction melting (VIM), vacuum arc remelting (VAR)
and in some highly critical applications introducing electroslag remelting (ESR) process between
them. In the dual alloys the position of the coarse to the fine grain transition in the disc is critical
to achieving the lowest mass, most efficient design.
A unique combination of severe stress/temperature cycles, long life requirements, minimum
weight and the safety critical nature of the components has driven alloy and process design to
move away from cast and wrought nickel alloys to higher strength powder alloys that combine
excellent strength with creep fatigue and environmental alloys.

11

SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY - A SMART MATERIALFOR EMERGING


TECHNOLOGY
Soumesh Kumar Dash
VSS University of Technology, Burla, Odisha

Abstract
Smart materials can be defined as those materials that have one or more properties which can be
significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature,
moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields.Shape Memory Alloys (SMA's) are one of those smart
materials which have the ability to return to a pre-determined shape when heated. When an SMA
is cold, or below its transformation temperature, it has a very low yield strength and can be
deformed quite easily into any new shape--which it will retain. However, when the material is
heated above its transformation temperature, it undergoes a change in crystal structure which
causes it to return to its original shape. If the SMA encounters any resistance during this
transformation, it can generate extremely large forces.
The Main Objective of this paper is to bring awareness about the application of the property of
this material as advanced technology in various Engineering fields like automobile sectors.Upgradation of Science & Technology in Industrial Sectors is in line with the Customer
requirements and business development.
SMAs have been used in a wide variety of applications because of their unique thermomechanical characteristics. Two quite successful applications are SMA-made eyeglass frame and
the antenna of mobile phone. The advantage of using SMA is that after severe deformation, SMA
can still fully return its original shape due to its excellent super elasticity. SMA couplings have
been sold as products for many years. More than one hundred thousand of these have been
installed in advanced air-planes such as the F-14 and there have been no reported failures.
Similar devices include SMA rivets, SMA clamps and SMA seals, etc.Its shape memory effect
can be used in actuators, engines,which are very important in industrial purpose.

12

GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS-THE ROAD TO


FUTURE
Ambar Katyayyan
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Graphene is a combination of graphite & the suffix-ene. It first appeared in 1987,to describe
single sheets of graphite as one of the constituents of graphite intercalation compounds(GICs).It
is an allotrope of carbon that is made up of very tightly bonded carbon atoms organised into a
hexagonal lattice. Its sp2 hybridisation makes it special & tougher than diamond.
The carbon to carbon bonds in graphene are quite small and strong so they possess various
properties. It inherits mechanical strength with 0.142 Nm-long carbon bonds & with tensile
strength of 130 gigapascals. It contains elastic properties with spring constants in the region of 15 N/m & a Young's modulus of 0.5 TPa. It has got good optical property which increases the
amount of white light absorbed by approximately (2.3%) in the previous absorbed value.It
exhibits electronic properties that are dictated by bonding & antibonding of pi orbitals.It is
thermodynamically stable for molecules larger than 24,000 atoms and has high magnetic
properties.
Graphene has got various forms such as 3D graphene (three dimensional honeycomb of
hexagonally arranged carbon),bilayer graphene which displays anomalous quantum hall effect,
graphene oxide, nanostripes etc. It is synthesised in quite number of ways. These follows the
exfoilation technique involving splitting single layers of graphene forming multi-layered
graphite.Others techniques used :- Epitoxy which refers deposition of a crystalline over layer on
a crystalline substrate,Graphite sonication,Sodium ethoxide pyrolysis,Chemical vapor deposition
which helps to produce large graphene domains, Arc-discharge method which involves
electrodes including a steel chamber etc.
Graphene has got numerous applications owing to its properties. It is used in integrated
circuits,transparent conducting electrodes,desalination,medical items,coolant additive,energy
storages,solar cells,reference material for characterizing transparent material etc. Graphene has
series of properties never found in any other material. This miracle material is surely going to be
a revolution in electronics, civil engineering and medicine in the coming decades.

13

NANOTECHNOLOGY: BUCKYPAPER
Kumar Harsh Vardhan, Manish Kumar, Shanni Raghuwar
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Presently the materials that we produce have specific properties and lack multi utility making
production cost higher in order to manufacture different materials for our various uses. The
purpose of this review paper was to search for a material that was lighter stronger and far better
in physical properties than present date steel and could act as a substitute for production in
several other fields as well. While studying various nanotech materials, we found out one which
was 10 times lighter but 250 times stronger than steel. A thin sheet made from an aggregate of
carbon nanotubes (CNT) also known as "buckypaper," has shown promise in a variety of
applications, including the development of aerospace structures, the production of more-effective
body armor and armored vehicles, and the construction of next-generation computer displays. A
single material whose property can be set accordingly and hence be used from making tougher,
lighter and fuel efficient aircraft to a light weight and high intensity displaying monitor.

14

TITANIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES (TMCs)


Vinay Kumar,Thakur Prasad Saw,Satyam Kr. Pal
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

In today's world, there is increasing demand of lighter weight high strength materials to reduce
weight and improve performance of power plants, aircrafts etc. Titanium metal matrix composites
have offered the promise of significant weight savings since their development.A titanium
matrix composite having eutectically formed titanium alloy reinforcement containing at least two
of the elements of silicon, aluminum, zirconium, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, carbon,
iron, boron, cobalt, nickel, germanium and copper. Titanium matrix composites can sustain higher
mechanical and thermal loading at elevated temperature. As for example, introducing SiC fibers
into a titanium matrix reduces the density of the material.The fabrication process for the titanium
matrix composites are the foil-fibre-foil technique,the mono tape technique and the matrix- coated
fiber technique. TMCs properties strongly depend on the properties of the single constituents.
The important properties of titanium matrix composites (TMCs) are strength and stiffness, creep
properties, fatigue properties, thermal residual stress etc. The main use of TMCs is in aerospace
applications where high temperature is required. Various components like hollow airfoils,
compressor rotors, casing structures, connecting elements and actuators, gas turbine engines can
be made with TMCs.TMC ducts offer 40% greater stiffness and25% weight savings relative to
monolithic titanium alloys. TMCsused in connecting elements or actuators are capable of 40%
savings in structuralweight.

15

ZINC OXIDE NANOCRYSTALS


Saurav Paul & Vivek Ranjan
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

The research is important as the detection of material failure is a difficult task for engineers,
because cracks inside a material block can hardly be identified from the outside. However, early
detection can prevent fatal disasters such as the world's deadliest high-speed train accident in
1998 near Eschede, Germany, caused by failure of a metal wheel. A new concept has been
developed to design so-called self-reporting composite materials. The concept utilizes zinc oxide
tetrapod crystals as a filler material for composites which at the same time reveals material
failure by a visual signal under UV light. The new concept may solve many engineering
problems as numerous fields from vehicle construction to medical engineering are actively
seeking new composite materials for high-strain applications. To learn how detection of material
failure can prevent fatal disasters. To get a deep knowledge about strength and pronounced
variations in the characteristic of the material under a mechanical load.
Nanostructures of ZnO can be synthesized into a variety of morphologies including nanowires,
nanorods, tetrapods, nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoparticles etc. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is emerging as
a material of interest for a variety of mechanical applications as application as a highly sensitive
atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever, Piezoelectrical application as a potential applications
in nano-electromechanical systems even harvesting hydrogen when zno placed in vibrations of
water, electronic application as a semiconductor, ZnO nanowire as field effect transistor (FET),
optical applications as ZnO has a direct band gap energy of 3.37 eV at room temperature so it
opens the possibility of creating Ultra Violet (UV) LEDs.
ZnO offers tremendous potential in future applications of electronic, optoelectronic, and
magnetoelectronic devices. Last but not the least, obtaining room temperature ferromagnetism
and demonstrating spin-polarized transport in ZnO nanostructures will greatly advance future
research on spin-based nanoscale devices.

16

DIELECTRIC COMPOSITES
Divya, Pooja Jaiswal, Ankita Singh
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Dielectric composites are a major advancement in dielectric materials. These are a class of
material which is fabricated by the incorporation of several new carbon nanostructures into a
dielectric host matrix. The permittivity of the resulting composites is widely altered by varying
the type and content of the conductive fillers such as carbon black, graphite or metal particles.
Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone), which is a multi-walled carbon nanotube coated with
polyaniline, is an example of dielectric composites and has a dielectric constant of over 800.
Nanoscale changes in the structure of the conductive filler result in significant changes in the
dielectric properties of composites. Dielectric composite materials are used in making high
energy density capacitors. Dielectric composite materials are also used as Radar Absorbing
Structures (RAS). Electromagnetic wave absorption characteristics of a material
depend on its dielectric properties (the permittivity, ), magnetic properties
(the permeability, ), thickness and frequency range. Conductive fillers are added to composites
like polyurethane so as to efficiently increase their absorbing capacity. A dielectric loss material
like carbon black is used with a matrix such as glass fabric to fabricate the composite face sheets.
This is used along with polyurethane foam cores which are fabricated using multi-walled carbon
nanotube and a conductive filler, it imparts mechanical stiffness to the sandwich type RAS. The
composite face sheets and the foam cores are adhered together to give an efficient RAS. These
structures can be useful in reducing the radar detectability of aircrafts or warships. Moreover, the
design of the RAS can be optimized by exploiting precise fabrication techniques for the
enhancement of its performance.

17

ADVANCE MATERIALS AND MATERIALS PROCESSING


Rajashekhar Marthi (author),Sangeet Vijay Sagar (author) ,Tanmoy Sarkar (author)
NIT, Raipur

Traditionally, structural components in aerospace have used carbon fiber pre-impregnated with
epoxy resins (pre-pregs) that require to be cured in an Autoclave. This increases the cost. Hence
The prime objective of this abstract is to reduce such costs by the use of dry composites.Often
bulky equipment is required when it comes to inspecting the aircraft for damage a problem that
is hoped to solve with the development of a new type of composite material that incorporates
carbon nanotubes.
Dry Composites
In order to reduce these costs, a strong effort has been performed to develop dry composite
materials. Due to this effort, the use of dry composite materials emerges as a new material
feasible for the manufacture of structural components.
Some of the structural components, such us the wings can be manufactured by using dry
composite materials. It is expected to reduce 20% the fuel consumption, and have 25% less
maintenance costs. The manufacture of these components also takes benefit of the combined
infusion of the different parts (skin and stringers), avoiding about 3000 metallic rivets.
Carbon Nanotubes
Currently advanced composites can be inspected using infrared thermography the material is
heated and any area that has been cracked or delaminated will show differing redirection of heat
that is visible using a thermographic camera. The problem heating an aircraft's surface requires
bulky equipment which makes this method difficult.
To solve this, an advanced composite material is developed. Carbon nanotbes are incorporated
into the composite material and when a small electric current is applied to the surface, the
nanotubes heat up. This means that abnormal flow of heat is then clearly visible to an inspector
equipped with a thermo graphic camera not only are flaws now easier to detect,it also shows
superior mechanical properties compared to existing composite.

18

Technical Session II
Mathematical Modelling and
Simulation

19

MD SIMULATION STUDIES ON STRUCTURE AND DEFORMATION


BEHAVIOR OF FECONI METALLIC GLASSES
Vidhukesh Vaidehi 1 and Natraj Yedla

1. NIT JAMSHEDPUR
2. NIT ROURKELA

Keywords: Metallic glasses, MD simulation, RDF, tensile deformation, strain rate


Today, the overwhelming development of science and technology has paved the way for
scientists to find out new materials for high technology applications. Iron-based metallic glasses
are one of the modern engineering materials which have attracted considerable attention of
material scientists. The main aim of this paper is to investigate structure and tensile deformation
behaviour of Fe-based metallic glasses with Ni and Co additions. Since the fabrication of
metallic glasses require high cooling rates and sometimes their formation is practically
impossible in laboratory conditions, various properties and behaviour of metallic glasses are
examined using computational approach. So, at present, this paper presents a molecular
dynamics simulation (MD) study to create FeCoNi alloy glassy systems (Fe 76Co14Ni10,
Fe79Co14Ni7, Fe83Co9Ni8 and Fe80Co12Ni8)followed by structural studies and uniaxial tensile
deformation at strain rates varying between 109 s-1, 1010 s-1 and 1011 s-1. MD simulations are
carried out on LAMMPS (Large Scale Atomistic/ Molecular Massively Parallel simulator)
platform which is a widely used open source code. We used embedded-atom potential provided
by Mendeleev et al. The results show an increase in strength of the alloys with increasing strain
rate. Also with increasing cobalt content strength increased while increasing Nickel content has
no significant effect on the strength of the alloy.

20

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO COMPUTE RESIDUAL STRESS IN


WELD JOINT
Anandkumar A. Bhatta*, Rajneesh Kumar Gupta b , Naishadh Patel a
a
b

Indus Institute of Technology & Engineering, Ahmedabad, 382115, Gujarat


CSIR- National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, 831007, Jharkhand

Abstract
Welding is one of the most reliable and efficient permanent metal joining processes in the
industry. When two plates are joined by welding, a very complex thermal cycle is applied to the
weldment. Thermal energy applied results in irreversible elastic-plastic deformation and
consequently gives rise to the residual stresses in and around fusion zone and heat affected zone
(HAZ).The finite element analysis of residual stresses in butt-welding of two similar plates is
performed with FE code ABAQUS/Standard. This analysis includes a thermo- mechanical finite
element model for the welding simulation. It includes a moving heat source, material deposit,
temperature dependant material properties, metal plasticity and elasticity, transient heat transfer
mechanical analysis. The welding simulation was considered as a coupled thermo-mechanical
analysis and the element birth and death technique was employed for the simulation of filler
metal deposition. The residual stress distribution and magnitude in the axial direction was
obtained. The computational results for temperature profile have been related with the
experimental and a very close match was found.

Keywords: finite element method,welding joint, residual stress, stress analysis.

21

CALCULATION OF BOND WORK INDEX


Rajiv Khandelwal, Vikram Jha, Gourav Raj & Ranjit Prasad*
NIT JAMSHEDPUR
* Faculty, NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
The energy required to grind one tonne of an ore from a given feed size to a specified product
size is a material property that needs to be determined for different ore deposits. The Bonds
Work Index has generally been accepted as a measure of the grind ability of an ore. This paper
will be helpful in understanding How to determine Bond Work Index of an ore. The BWI is the
amount of energy utilised in grinding the test ore with the same particle size under the same
grinding condition to produce the required size reduction. We have done a detailed study on BWI
and finds that it is very useful and an important tool for any company in selecting or rejecting an
ore based on economic viability. So, the knowledge on this topic is must for the grooming
metallurgist which one day will fight for picking the lean grade ores which will be suitable in
undergoing mineral beneficiation.

22

Technical Session III


Physical Metallurgy

23

EFFECT OF TWIN BOUNDARIES ON STRENGTH AND


CONDUCTIVITY OF PURE COPPER
Srijan Sengupta
PhD Scholar, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur

Abstract
Copper has been used in electric wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the
telegraph in the 1820s.The invention of the telephone in 1876 created further demand for copper
wire as an electrical conductor. Today copper wire is not only used in power generation, power
transmission, power distribution, telecommunications, electronics circuitry, and countless types
of electrical equipment. Modern use of copper involves working of copper under oscillating
strain field, rapid change of temperature or drastic change in stress condition where high strength
is needed along with good conductivity.
Strain-hardening and grain refinement in pure materials are the two methods for improving the
strength. However this comes at a price of reduced conductivity (due to increase in dislocation
density and high angle grain boundary area respectively). So a sustainable design of the
microstructure of pure copper was in demand which is capable of providing both high strength
and high conductivity.
It has been proved that controlled introduction of coherent twins lead to an increase in strength
while maintaining a great deal of conductivity. A coherent twin boundary is high angle low
energy boundary which helps in strengthening by impeding dislocation motion; but, does not
hamper electric flow due to its coherency (continuity) with the matrix. The aim of the current
work is to understand coherent twin formation and growth behaviour in pure copper and the
dependency of twin formation on the deformation temperature for the same heat-treatment cycle.
Further the effect of coherent twin boundaries on strength and conductivity is also correlated.
Keywords: coherent twins, copper, copper stacking fault, EBSD, grain
growth, recrystallization

24

VARIATION IN HARDNESS OF COLD ROLLED (CR) SHEETS DUE TO


ANNEALING PARAMETERS
Ved Prakash Rai and Md. Salim
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Cold Rolled Sheet (CR) of low carbon steel was heated above Recrystallisation temperature in
the Batch Annealing Furnace (BAF) using heating hood by the burner with Hydrogen medium
and after that it was cooled and passed from the Temper Mill especially Temper T55 then the
Hardness of cold rolled sheets varied from desired hardness value. We found that the Hardness of
CR Sheets depends upon several different parameters like- the maximum temperature upto
heating , soaking time, cooling with heating hood(CHH), Number of coils which are being taken
in one time, Thickness of the sheet. When Cooling with Heating hood (CHH) time decreases
then hardness of CR Sheets increase and vice versa.

It results that CR Sheets regain actual

Grain size and it become free from internal defects so we can easily achieve the required
hardness.

Keywords: Recrystallisation temprature, Annealing, Soaking time, CHH, Temper T55

25

CHANGES IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FERROUS AND


NONFERROUS ALLOYSON HEAT TREATMENT
Gokul Chandra Thakur, Ved Prakash ray
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
Heat treatment on nonferrous alloys (Duralumin, Muntz Metal and Gun Metal) and ferrous alloys
(Cast iron, Pig iron, Wrought iron, HSLA steel, high speed steel) are done to improve ductility,
toughness, strength, hardness and tensile strength and to relive internal stress developed in the
material.
The mechanical properties vary depending upon the various heat treatment processes. Hence
depending upon the properties and applications required we should go for a suitable heat
treatment processes. When ductility is the only criteria tempering at high temperature for 2 hours
gives the best result among all tempering experiments however if simply the hardness of the low
carbon steel is desired than we should go for low temperature tempering for 1 hour or so. And if
strength is also desired along with hardness, this should not be done. It is seen that annealing
causes a tremendous increase in % elongation (ductility). And comparing all the heat treatment
processes that optimum Combination of UTS, Yield Strength, % Elongation as well as hardness
can be obtained through austempering only. The property of the material varies with the type of
cooling rate and different types of the heat treatment process like annealing ,normalizing,
tempering and quenching thats why choosing suitable heat treatment process such as annealing
,normalizing ,tempering and quenching of Non ferrous alloys (Duralumin, Muntz Metal and Gun
Metal) and Ferrous alloys (Cast iron, Pig iron, Wrought iron,HSLA steel,High speed steel) is
necessary to measure the change in the mechanical properties like hardness, toughness,
ductility,ultimate tensile strength etc. It will help several metal and alloy based industries to
produce metals of desired mechanical properties andselecting best heat treatment process for
different ferrous and nonferrous alloys.

26

PROCESSES THAT ENHANCE WEAR RESISTANCE OF METALS


Rajnish Kumar, Rahul Yadav, Abhishek Kumar
NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract
God, it is said, created materials but their surfaces are the work of devil. When two surfaces
touch and slide, there is friction, and where there is friction there is wear. When two surfaces are
placed in contact under a normal force and one is made to slide over the other, a force exist
which opposes the motion. This force is proportional to the normal force but does not depend on
the surface area. When surfaces slide, they wear. Material is lost from both the surfaces, even
when one is much harder than the other. It is true that if friction could be eliminated, the
efficiency of engines, gearboxes, drivetrains and the like would increase enormously, and if wear
could be eliminated, they would also last much longer.
There are certain processes enhances the wear resistance of the important metals which are not
so expensive and also does not hamper the other properties of the metals such as strength. These
processes include processes such as cryogenic treatment, laser alloying, and other processes of
surface engineering.
Already, these processes were carried out on the brake disc of a high performance Formula
student prototype car and the result was in favour. Also, the brake disc was analysed on computer
simulation software, and results showed the metal with increased wear strength. Microstructural
test can be carried out using optical emission microscope. Pin-on Disc wear test can be carried
out for more authentic results.

27

28

Failure Analysis in Rails Due To Residual Stresses & Its Measurement Using
Strain-Gauge Method
Ketan Anand1and Priya Kumari1
NIT Jamshedpur

Keywords: Rail, Residual stress, Strain Gauge, Fatigue damage


In recent years, analysis of residual stress in rails is of prominent importance due to
several modern railway advancements i.e. higher axle load, increased traffic density
and faster speed of trains.All modern rails are hot-rolled products having crosssectional profile approximating an I-beam having asymmetric distribution about the
horizontal axis: a broad head to resist wear so as to give a good ride, an
interconnecting web and a flat- bottomed foot to suit the fixing system
(fishplates).These rails develop residual stresses due to uneven cooling after hotrolling and also during finishing operations, such as roller-straightening/levelling.
Development of these stresses on the surface and inside the rolled products (such
as rails) has serious implications in fatigue damage in service applications. Residual
stress significantly influences the structural and dimensional stability as well as life
span of different rolled products like rails. These stresses when combined with
external static and dynamic loads may cause catastrophic premature failure of rails,
leading to high casualty and loss of property.Several methods are employed for
measurement of residual stresses in rails: the most easy and accurate being
Transverse Template Cutting Method which involves use of a sensing element to
measure surface strain, known as Strain-Gauge.In this method, a sample of onemeter length is taken from the rail and a slice of 50-60 mm thick is cut in the centre
of the sample. Stresses in the slice are measured before and after cutting. The
difference of two measurements gives residual stress in the sample.
The stress is calculated as given below:
=E where, E=2.06105 N/mm2
= Measured value in , (micro-strain)
The strain is measured by using strain balancing method (principle of
Wheatstone bridge) and digital strain indicator which is considered as reference
(zero strain).

29

Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel


Saurav Suman
NIT Jamshedpur
Abstract
Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Electrical Steel (CRGO) is now-a-days the most important soft
magnetic material being used extensively in large power and distribution transformers as
magnetic cores. CRGO is a must for the production of energy saving electrical machines and also
ensures reduction of noise related problems. Grain oriented Electrical Steels are iron-silicon
alloys that provide low core loss and high permeability needed for more efficient and economical
electrical transformers as it has 3 3.2 % silicon content which in return decreases the electrical
conductivity of the material and further reduction in eddy current takes place which accounts for
lower hysteresis loss and thus economical working. It has very large grain size of about few
millimetres which can be detected by our naked eyes. This texture formed is known as GOSS
Texture and is formed by thermochemical processes like hot rolling followed by cold rolling ,
primary and secondary annealing. Secondary annealing is the process during which grain size
increases significantly. Thus the paper consists of the microstructural study of various samples
prepared with varying temperatures or soaking time duration. It also consists a detailed study by
X-Ray Diffraction methods of the various samples.

30

Technical Session IV
Process Metallurgy

31

HYL IV- AN ALTERNATIVE FOR IRON MAKING

Reeta Kumari, Priya Kumari


NIT JAMSHEDPUR

Abstract

Although currently blast furnaces continue to be the most dominant method of producing hot
metal all over the world and the position is unlikely to change in the future, the alternative
processes of iron making have received considerable attention in recent years. This is because the
availability of coke, both in terms of quality and quantity required for efficient operation of
modern blast furnaces has been limited. The alternate processes use solid or gaseous reducing
agent to reduce iron ore in solid state. Developed in Mexico, the HYL process is gas based
reduction process. It involves reformed gas (produced from natural gas) as the reducing agent.
After continuous research for many years , the latest trend is to go for self-reforming i.e. HYL
IV , in which reforming of natural gas occurs within the reduction reactor itself, with the metallic
iron in DRI acting as the catalyst. This allows insitu reforming of natural gas to proceed in
parallel with the reduction of iron oxide and carburization of DRI. No separate gas reformer is
used.Claimed advantages are proven equipment performance based on HYL I and HYL III
equipment, raw material flexibility, process is tolerant of high sulphur as the reactor off-gas is
not recycled back to the reformer, Sulphur reports to the off-gas as H 2S, producing lower sulphur
DRI, high energy efficiency, lower operating costs.

32

LASER SOLDERING
M.Abhinav, S.Dinesh
JNTU HYDERABAD

Abstract
The trends toward miniaturization of electronic devices and the use of expensive, temperature
sensitive components used in the telecom equipment industry have led to the demand for new,
highly controllable selective laser soldering technology. Secondly, modern high density
electronic and electro-optic subassemblies usually include thermally-sensitive components as
well as complex three-dimensional (3-D) circuit geometries that cannot be soldered using
conventional wave or reflow soldering techniques. Laser soldering is a technique where a
precisely focused laser beam provides controlled heating of the solder alloy leading to a fast and
non-destructive of an electrical joint. The process uses a controlled laser beam to transfer energy
to a soldering location where the absorbed energy heats the solder until it reaches its melting
temperature leading to the soldering of the contact and this completely eliminates any
mechanical contact. This work broadly describes various types of lasers used in different types of
laser soldering processes. Also a comparison is explained against other soldering methods.
Industrial lasers deliver large amounts of heat with great precision and without contact, making
them ideal for applications such as soldering. Laser soldering uses the well-focused, highly
controlled beam to deliver energy to a desired location for a precisely measured length of time.
Laser soldering is applied in Photovoltaic module manufacturing, Electronic manufacturing,
Automobile industry and Medication technology.
As a selective soldering process, it enables the precise amount of energy to be delivered to
specific soldering areas, even those areas difficult to reach, without causing collateral heat
related damage. It represents the best method to solder surface mount components onto the
printed circuit boards.

33

DEVELOPMENT OF STAINLESS STEEL BY RECYCLING OF SCRAP


MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Supriti Swati&Pinkey Preshma Kujur
Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India831014

Abstract
A series of stainless steel has been developed to resist different corrosion environment, thermal
and earth shock and other working condition ensuring that factories, building and multi-storeys
are safe and long-lasting. Stainless steel is even used in systems to clean up the exhaust gases
from cars and power stations.
Stainless steel is highly recyclable: when scrapped, it can be re-melted to make new casting for
the solid purposes.The popularity of stainless steel is because of its special features and
properties like aesthetic appearance, corrosion and oxidation resistance, ease of fabrication,
handling & storage, fire and heat resistance properties make these alloys to use broadly for civil
engineering structural purposes, besides impact resistance, long term and recycle value with
higher strength to weight ratio.
Stainless steel are chromium containing steel alloys with maximum Cr-content of 10.5% for
structural and architectural purposes for making the multi-storey structure dams and bridge
etc.The high chromium and Ni up to 6.5% makes steel stainless and this means improved
corrosion resistance. The excellent Cr-Ni additions increase the corrosion resistance due to
chromium oxide film that is formed on the steel surface. This extremely thin layer, under the
right condition, is also self -repairing. Like India, Japan, Germany, China, South Korea, France,
Australia, Canada, Usa, Italy are the todays major stainless steel makers for the construction
purposes. This paper highlights the methods and techniques to use the recyclable materials as
well as efficient use of resources like blast furnace slag to manufacture the best and cheapest
structural materials.
Keywords: - Corrosion, Construction, Hygienic, Stainless Steel, etc.

34

STUDY OF ECAP (EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING) ON PURE


AL SAMPLE
Rohit Kumar Singh
Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India 831014

Abstract

Equal-channel angular (ECAP) pressing is a processing procedure whereby an


intense plastic strain isimposed upon a polycrystalline sample by pressing
the sample through a special die. This procedureis capable of producing
large fully-dense samples containing an ultra small grain size in the
submicrometer or nanometer range. The strain rate produced on it depend
on the number of passes (N) , channel angle and curvature angle.
Different Al samples where made to undergo ECAP
at different channel
angles of 90,120 and 150 degree for N= 2, 4 and 8 number of passes.X Ray
diffraction was done on strained samples at different channel angles and its
result was studied using MAUD software. Microstrain in different
planes,crystallite size,and lattice parameter was calculated using the
results.Sample was also prepared to observe its etched microstructure.
Correlation of microstructure with those obtained XRD results was done to
see the changes from the undeformed pure Al sample.

35

NANO INDENTATION
Vipul Kumar, Shubham Choudhary
NIT Durgapur

Abstract
Nano indentation is a variety of indentation hardness tests applied to small volumes. In Nano
indentation small loads and tip sizes are used, so the indentation area may only be in few square
micrometers or even nanometers.
With the help of depth of penetration and the area of indent (for known geometry of indentation
tip), a graph is plotted to create load-displacement curve (as shown below in figure).

The mechanical properties that can be determined from the above curve are:

Youngs modulus
Hardness
Strain rate sensitivity
Activation volume i.e. volume swept out by dislocations during thermal activation.

Nano indentation provides accurate measurements of contact stiffness at all depth.


Factors affecting Nano indentation are thermal drift, instrument compliance, pilling-up &
sinking-in, surface roughness, residual stress etc.
Conventional Nano indentation methods for calculation of modulus of elasticity are limited
to linear, isotropic materials.One significant problem with the method is that it doesnt
account for pile-up of material around the contact impression as is observed in elastic-plastic
materials.

36

PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY [PAUT]


Challa Dinesh Reddy, TLP Vinaya Vardhini, Vempati Sindhusha Reddy
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledges and Technologies

Abstract
Non-destructive testing[NDT] of engineering materials, components and structures has steadily
increased in recent years at an unprecedented rate because of the all-round thrush for improving
material quality, material integrity and performance reliability. Ultrasonic testing[UT] and
Radiography testing[RT] forms two major testing methods in evaluating the homogeneity of
materials and internal flaws inside the material. UT works on acoustic impedance mismatch
principle of ultrasonicswhere as Radiography works on principle of differential absorption of
radiation.UT is good at detecting defects but is not reliable for detecting defect shape. While RT
is good in finding the geometry of flaw, but hazardous. Here comes the highlighted feature of
PAUT-Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing. Its ability to detect the defects is higher compared to
classical UT and it is non-hazardous.
The distinguishing feature of phase array ultrasonic testing is computer controlled excitation
[amplitude and delay] of individual elements in a multilement probe. The excitation and multiple
piezocomposite element can generate a focused ultrasonic beam with the possibility of
dynamically modifying beam parameters such as angle , focal distance and focal spot size
through software to generate a beam in phase by means of constructive interference, the various
active transducer elements are pulse rate slightly different times. Similarly the echo from the
desired focal point hits the various transducers with a computable time shift. The echos received
by the each element are time shifted before being summed together. The resulting sum is A-scan
that emphasis the exposure from the desired focal point and attenuates echo from the other point
in the test piece.
Being able to control parameters such as beam angle andfocal distance flaw detection is done
withmore speed and accuracy.Apart from detecting flaws in components PAUT can be used for
wall thichkness measurements,corrosion inspection. This advantages and many other
applications in medical feild make it most important NDT method now.

37

Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology[PAUT]


Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledges and Technologies
Challa Dinesh Reddy, TLP Vinaya Vardhini, Vempati Sindhusha Reddy

Abstract
Non-destructive testing[NDT] of engineering materials, components and structures has steadily
increased in recent years at an unprecedented rate because of the all-round thrush for improving
material quality, material integrity and performance reliability. Ultrasonic testing[UT] and
Radiography testing[RT] forms two major testing methods in evaluating the homogeneity of
materials and internal flaws inside the material. UT works on acoustic impedance mismatch
principle of ultrasonicswhere as Radiography works on principle of differential absorption of
radiation.UT is good at detecting defects but is not reliable for detecting defect shape. While RT
is good in finding the geometry of flaw, but hazardous. Here comes the highlighted feature of
PAUT-Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing. Its ability to detect the defects is higher compared to
classical UT and it is non-hazardous.
The distinguishing feature of phase array ultrasonic testing is computer controlled excitation
[amplitude and delay] of individual elements in a multilement probe. The excitation and multiple
piezocomposite element can generate a focused ultrasonic beam with the possibility of
dynamically modifying beam parameters such as angle , focal distance and focal spot size
through software to generate a beam in phase by means of constructive interference, the various
active transducer elements are pulse rate slightly different times. Similarly the echo from the
desired focal point hits the various transducers with a computable time shift. The echos received
by the each element are time shifted before being summed together. The resulting sum is A-scan
that emphasis the exposure from the desired focal point and attenuates echo from the other point
in the test piece.
Being able to control parameters such as beam angle andfocal distance flaw detection is done
withmore speed and accuracy.Apart from detecting flaws in components PAUT can be used for
wall thichkness measurements,corrosion inspection. This advantages and many other
applications in medical feild make it most important NDT method now.

38

39

Environmental Impact of Hexavalent Chromium


Animesh Kumar
BESU

Abstract
Today running an industry demands a lot of considerations. Especially when the environmental
implications of an industry have been taken into account, strict norms related to the proper
disposal of solid wastes and effluents and their effective utilisation has been enforced.
Hexavalent Chromium (existing in compounds viz. Chromium Trioxide, Zinc Chromate, etc.)
has been one among the several compounds which is of immense industrial importance. It has
been widely applied in the production and welding of Stainless Steels (SS). It is also employed in
electroplating, used in wood preservation, textile dyes or as a corrosion resistant and in many
more applications. Though Cr (VI) has been in industrial use now for over a century, there are
still holes in the basic knowledge about how chromium affects major organ systems in animals
and humans, as well as the risk associated with various pathways of exposure. In human being, it
has been known to cause lung cancer, irritation in eyes, neck and throat; besides causing skin
infection and allergies. In plants, it has been known to affect their growth. Excessive levels of Cr
(VI) in groundwater resources have also proved detrimental.

Technical Session V

Extractive Metallurgy

With the strict rules and regulations being enforced in the industries, it has become evident to
improve the quality of work environment for the safety of the workers and to follow environment
friendly techniques. One such technique to control the level of Cr (VI) in plants is Phytoremediation. Another effective measure applied in the control of hexavalent chromium is by
treatment with Calcium Polysulphide. Although several attempts have been made to reduce the
level of Cr (VI) in human bodies, in plants and in groundwater resources, a better technique is
still sought for.

40

RECOVERY OF VALUABLE METALS FROM SLAG


Khushboo Singhania & Sweta Agrawal
Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur,
India-831014

Abstract
Most ferroalloy plants lose considerable amounts of metal in their slag and metalslag mix. A
potential source of income for alloy smelters is the massive reserves of metal contained in their
slag dumps. Depending on the smelting process and the age of the slag dump, the metal contents
vary between 3% and 15%.
One important means of reducing costs has been the widespread introduction of metalfrom-slag recovery techniques in vogue since mid-1990s. Recovery of metal from mixed metal
and slag through mechanized means is widely practiced and assumes immense importance from
the metal recovery and environment point of view. A metal-from-slag plant allows producers to
cope with fluctuating ferroalloy markets. During times of low prices, a producer can shut down
furnaces and rely on the low-cost metal-from-slag product to remain viable. When demand is
high, the plant is a low-cost means to boost production. Simple physical (gravity) separation
methods like jigging and tabling are in vogue for the recovery of metal.
Many different processes are used to extract various metals from slag such as recovery of
Cu from Cu blast furnace slag, Fe recovery from steel making slag, recovery of Co, Ni and Cu
from slag, extracting precious metals from slag using induction process, etc.
Recovery of metals from melting furnace slag has become an important branch of the recycling.
The separation of metal from the waste part gives both an economical and environmental benefit
to this process.
This presentation deals with different processes employed for extraction of some
valuable metals and the further use of slag in various areas.
Key-Words: Blast Furnace Slag, Ferroalloy Plants, Costs, Extraction Process

41

RAW MATERIALS SECURITY AND IMPORTANCE OF THEIR


PROPERTIES IN IRON OR STEEL MAKING
Monu Kumari, Geeta Kumari
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology
Jamshedpur, India-831014

Abstract

At present, the production of iron is mainly done in the blast furnace in the form of hot metal
(also called pig iron which is 92% pure). The main materials needed for blast furnace are iron ore
and coke. But, sometimes to increase the reducing behavior of ore dolomite, manganese ore,
quartzite and limestone is added. The main aim of this paper is preparation of burden for the
blast furnace which reduces the coal/coke consumption as much as possible without
compromising with the production and quality of iron produced with the help of increasing the
quality of raw materials and addition of waste materials. Since, production of pig iron in blast
furnace depends upon many factors such as reducibility, size and size distribution, strength,
temperature and range of softening, iron, moisture and guange contents, swelling and volume
change properties etc, by suitable handling of these properties can improve the productivity and
overall performances of blast furnace. Also, raw materials accounts 60-70% cost of iron and
hence addition of waste materials can reduced the cost of materials without affecting the quality
of product formed. Means, by addition of waste plastics along with coal/coke will reduce its
consumption and behaves as a reducing system, also, sinter and pellets from iron ore fines are
prepared materials to add to the productivity of the furnace and at the same time they serves as
waste utilization.
This result shows a proper handling of factors affecting the production in blast furnace and the
waste materials can reduce the cost of the product without affecting the quality. More research
and study of the same will sure be beneficial for iron making.

42

HYDROMETALLURGY IN RECOVERING ACID AND CONTROLLING


METAL IMPURITIES
Ravi chandra prakash,Amit ranjan and debojyoti mandal
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology
Jamshedpur, India-831014

Abstract
Hydrometallurgy originated in the 16th century, but its principal development took place in the
20th century, stimulated partly by the desire to extract gold from low grade ore.It is a extraction
of metal from ore by preparing an aqueous solution of salt of the metal and recovering the metal
from the solution.it works when strong minerals acid like sulfuric acid can be separated from
dissolved metal salt using Eco-tecs technology, Eco-tecs recovery system, economical approach
to purifying acid bleed streams,allowing their recycle and reuse. The separated metals can then
be cost effectively reclaimed following acid-purification treatment. Its benefits in greater
performance ,lower,cost,greater efficiency,smaller footprint,easy installation.it is highly efficient
ion exchange
process and
unique integrated cation exchange and its also in
proven,quality,corrosion resistant components and materials selected and for long service life in
an aluminium processing facility. Its new advancement in saparicon is working with research
partners and industry to maximize the yields from mineral resources using hydrometallurgy
processes while reducing the environmental impact of these processes.
This reason shows that it become a significant technology in the production of todays precious
and base metal.it works closely with industry to improve current processes through the
implementation of MCSGP processes by replacing batch ion exchange processes or by adding
new process steps to precious metal, rare earth element and base metal. Its aim of employing our
technology not only for improvement of process economics but also to reduce the environmental
impact of metal extraction processes.

43

NEED OF INNOVATION RESEARCH IN IRON & STEEL INDUSTRIES


Smitirupa Biswal, G.Meghana Priya
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

Abstract
Metals are the backbone that has supported the development of human race since the pre-historic
times. Without steel and aluminium metals, development of the nation in all directions is
impracticable. At the same time, we should look after the sustainable of the planet with respect to
global warming because of emission of anthropogenic carbon dioxide production from the metal
industries. Worldwide, there is an increasing emphasis on environmental issues. Minerals and
metals industries are growing globally and the growth is phenomenal particularly in China and
India.
The Indian steel industry is consuming 6.9 against world average of 4.5 gcal/tcs and emitting 2.7
ton/tcs CO2 gas against 1.75 ton/tcs world average. The factors affecting specific energy
consumptions are outdated technology, inferior raw materials quality, high alumina to silica ratio
in iron ores and high ash coal. On a macro basis, there are three ways to lower CO 2 emissions
i.e., (i) reduce energy consumption by improving the raw material quality and existing
technologies, (ii) sequester underground for storage and (iii) use an alternative energy source
with less carbon than coal. Raw material quality plays the vital role for energy consumption in
steel sector. Iron ore quality directly decides the process adaptation. It is essential need for
technological up-gradation in iron ore processing circuit by introducing advanced technologies
for iron ore beneficiation through R&D back up. Challenges and solutions for upgrading Indian
iron ores should be taken seriously to maximize the utilization of ore resources for long term
sustainability by using suitable beneficiation techniques. Agglomeration process i.e., sintering
and pelletisation should be improved to handle Indian ores with respect to particle size, high LOI
and high Blaine number. Till today the coal is the main resources to provide energy for the steel
sector. Indian coal has high ash content due to its drift origin. It needs innovative research to
reduce the ash content in coal before utilising in steel sectors. Alternative energy source like
hydrogen or non-conventional energy needs serious attention to reduce the cost of energy
production for its utilisation in this sector. In overall, innovation research needs in iron and steel
sector at present scenario in raw material preparation and reduction process not only support to
reduce the process cost but also reduce the generation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

44

MODERNIZATION & CAPITAL REPAIRS OF BLAST FURNACE AT


VIZAG STEEL
Anand Mohan , D Vivek ,Amit Kumar Shaw
NIT Raipur

Abstract
This paper incorporates theoretical as well as on-site observations done at Visakhapatnam Steel
Plant as a part of project based training done there. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, a public sector
enterprise owned by RINL has, at present, three operating Blast Furnaces. Among them, the
Blast Furnace no.1 also known as 'GODAVARI' was commissioned in 1990. The prescribed
campaign life of Blast furnaces is between 20-25 years. But this rugged Russian technology
based furnace has been in operation for 23 years and has produced more than 35 MT of hot metal
since commissioning. The rated capacity of this furnace was 1.7 MTPA. However, with
improvements & high operational efficiency it started producing 2.0 MTPA or 5715 tons/day. In
recent times, it was observed by the management to repair this blast furnace keeping in mind the
deteriorating health of critical equipments as well as, it intends to further increase the production
capacity to meet its hot metal requirement.
Major points regarding this modernization of already shut down furnace are as follows:
Increasing of production to 2.5 MTPA (7150 tpd) from 2.0 MTPA (5715 tpd) by increasing
useful volume from 3200 m3 to 3800 m3.

This will be achieved by reducing furnace refractory thickness by replacing soft water cooled
Cu staves in place of CI staves and covering the rest uncovered part by CI Staves.

To increase bed permeability a central coke charging system will be introduced

To increase Blast humidification and oxygen enrichment of hot blast.

Implementation of Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to reduce coke rate.

To meet the pollution control norms of stack emission of 50mg/Nm3 and work zone
environment dust content of 5mg/Nm3 , new Dust extraction System at burden handling
system & cast house fume extraction system consisting of ESP's will be installed.

Addition of additional scrubber in 2nd stage of gas cleaning at Gas Cleaning Plant (GCP).

All the details of this challenging task will follow in the main paper.

45

STUDY OF LANCE IN LD CONVERTER


Manmohan Garg
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India831014

Abstract
This article summarizes the outcome of research work carried out on the generation of interfacial
area between the slag foam and liquid steel in the LD steelmaking process. It is stated that the
lack of existing knowledge in the creation and maintenance of this interfacial area between the
foamy slag and the metal are the major hindrances in running the process effectively for
improved turn-down steel quality. The fundamentals of gas jet behavior have to be emphasized
including the importance of physics, mechanics and chemistry and their role in steelmaking
reactions involving slag, gas and metal. In order to augment the droplet generation and interfacial
area creation, a study of hydrodynamic model has been carried out where air jet expands in the
high density medium using a 2-D model with square jet. Among effects studied were those due to
lance height, gas flow rate and air injection from the bottom of the model.
This article also tells that how can we improve steel quality as well as how can we decrease blow
time.

46

REDUCTION OF CO2 AND OTHER GASES EMISSION IN IRON AND


STEEL PRODUCTION
Nikhil Kumar Singh, A.Abhinav
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, India831014

Abstract
Iron and steel industries are important for economic growth of a country but they are also major
source of harmful pollutants. The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO 2
emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and
reductants, and the large volume of steel produced. Worlds total steel production accounts to
more than 1.3 billion tonnes of CO2. Steel industries are responsible for the 5% of worlds total
CO2 emission and in turn the third biggest sector of CO 2 emission. This adversely affects the
environment causing greenhouse effect and ultimately global warming. With the growing
concern over climate change, there is a great need to reduce the emission of CO 2 with the
challenge of finding ways of lowering CO 2 emissions without seriously undermining process
efficiency or considerably adding to costs. There are number of technologies and measures
available to abate direct and process CO2 emissions from the different iron and steel making
process. These include increasing the energy efficiency of production process which reduces the
indirect emission of CO2. By using alternative energy source or nuclear energy, the indirect CO2
emission can be decreased. It could result on nearly zero emission for a scrap based EAF and a
major reduction can be achieved by direct ore reduction. For DRI gas sources like CBM (Coal
Bed Methane) and Hydrogen needs to be exploited. Presently India has 4th largest reserves of
CBM. New processes like ENERGIRON ZR are quite effective in reducing CO 2 emission. By
using physical adsorption system ENERGIRON ZR technology, 85% of CO 2 emission can be
selectively removed from exhaust stream. Use of biomass for the steel production can also help
in decreasing CO2 emission. This paper highlights the various harmful effects of CO2 emission
and methods of its control. By this study an attempt has been made to reach to an optimum
condition for reducing direct & indirect CO2 emitting from Iron & Steel Industries.

47

48

With best compliments


From

Linde India

Leading Company in project management, planning &


controlling schedules, engineering design, procurement,
construction and commissioning as well as after-sales services

49

With best compliments


From

Best & Crompton


Engineering Projects Ltd
Chennai, India

Pumps, Castings, Plugs and Sockets,


Electrical Machines

50

51

52

With best compliments


From

Ghanshyam Mishra & Sons


Pvt. Limited

GORUMAHISANI, MAYURBHANJ, ORISSA

Mining operations, Iron & Steel Merchants, Mining


of limestone & Chinaclay.

53

In the Memory of Dr. P. S. Gupta, who was a


source of inspiration for us

(1938 2011)

With best compliments


From

SAFE MINES

Sonari, Jamshedpur
Telefax: 0657-2309730

54

55