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Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers
are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in
large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesale, and then sells smaller
quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations like stores
or markets, door-to-door or by delivery. Retailing includes subordinated services, such as
delivery. The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large
number of individuals, such as for the public. Shops may be on residential streets, streets with
few or no houses or in a shopping mall. Shopping streets may be for pedestrians only. Sometimes
a shopping street has a partial or full roof to protect customers from precipitation. Online
retailing, a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions and
mail order, are forms of non-shop retailing.

Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain
necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it is done as a recreational activity. Recreational
shopping often involves window shopping (just looking, not buying) and browsing and does not
always result in a purchase Etymology.

Retail comes from the Old French word trailer, which means "to cut off, clip, pare, divide" in
terms of tailoring (1365). It was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small
quantities" in 1433 (from the Middle French retail, "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring"). [1] Like
in French, the word retail in both Dutch and German also refers to the sale of small quantities of

Types of retail outlets

San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara, Jalisco

Inside a supermarket in Russia
Walnut Market in Katra, Jammu & Kashmir, India

A marketplace is a location where goods and services are exchanged. The traditional market
square is a city square where traders set up stalls and buyers browse the stores. This kind of
market is very old, and countless such markets are still in operation around the whole world.
In some parts of the world, the retail business is still dominated by small family-run stores, but
this market is increasingly being taken over by large retail chains.
Retail is usually classified by type of products as follows:
Food products
Hard goods or durable goods ("hardliner retailers") - appliances, electronics, furniture, sporting
goods, etc. Goods that do not quickly wear out and provide utility over time.
Soft goods or consumables - clothing, apparel, and other fabrics. Goods that are consumed after
one use or have a limited period (typically under three years) in which you may use them.
There are the following types of retailers by marketing strategy:

Department stores - very large stores offering a huge assortment of "soft" and
"hard goods; often bear a resemblance to a collection of specialty stores. A retailer
of such store carries variety of categories and has broad assortment at average
price. They offer considerable customer service.

Discount stores - tend to offer a wide array of products and services, but they
compete mainly on price offers extensive assortment of merchandise at affordable
and cut-rate prices. Normally retailers sell less fashion-oriented brands.

Warehouse stores - warehouses that offer low-cost, often high-quantity goods

piled on pallets or steel shelves; warehouse clubs charge a membership fee;

Variety stores - these offer extremely low-cost goods, with limited selection;

Demographic - retailers that aim at one particular segment (e.g., high-end

retailers focusing on wealthy individuals).

Mom-And-Pop: is a small retail outlet owned and operated by an individual or

family. Focuses on a relatively limited and selective set of products.

Specialty stores: A typical speciality store gives attention to a particular category

and provides high level of service to the customers. A pet store that specializes in
selling dog food would be regarded as a specialty store. However, branded stores
also come under this format. For example if a customer visits a Reebok or Gap
store then they find just Reebok and Gap products in the respective stores.
Boutiques or Concept stores are similar to specialty stores. Concept stores are
very small in size, and only ever stock one brand. They are run by the brand that
controls them. An example of brand that distributes largely through their own
widely distributed concept stores is L'OCCITANE en Provence. The limited size
and offering of L'OCCITANE's stores are too small to be considered a specialty
store proper.

General store : a rural store that supplies the main needs for the local

Convenience stores: is essentially found in residential areas. They provide

limited amount of merchandise at more than average prices with a speedy
checkout. This store is ideal for emergency and immediate purchases as it often
works with extended hours, stocking everyday;

Hypermarkets: provides variety and huge volumes of exclusive merchandise at

low margins. The operating cost is comparatively less than other retail formats.

Supermarkets: is a self-service store consisting mainly of grocery and limited

products on non-food items. They may adopt a Hi-Lo or an EDLP strategy for
pricing. The supermarkets can be anywhere between 20,000 and 40,000 square

feet (3,700 m2). Example: SPAR supermarket.

Malls: has a range of retail shops at a single outlet. They endow with products,

food and entertainment under a roof.

Category killers or Category Specialist: By supplying wide assortment in a
single category for lower prices a retailer can "kill" that category for other
retailers. For few categories, such as electronics, the products are displayed at the
centre of the store and sales person will be available to address customer queries
and give suggestions when required. Other retail format stores are forced to
reduce the prices if a category specialist retail store is present in the vicinity.

E-tailors: The customer can shop and order through internet and the merchandise
are dropped at the customer's doorstep. Here the retailers use drop shipping
technique. They accept the payment for the product but the customer receives the
product directly from the manufacturer or a wholesaler. This format is ideal for
customers who do not want to travel to retail stores and are interested in home
shopping. However it is important for the customer to be wary about defective
products and non-secure credit card transaction. Example: Amazon, Pennyful and

Vending Machines: This is an automated piece of equipment wherein customers

can drop the money in the machine and acquire the products.
Some stores take a no frills approach, while others are "mid-range" or "high end",
depending on what income level they target.

Other types of retail store include:

Automated Retail stores are self-service, robotic kiosks located in airports, malls and grocery
stores. The stores accept credit cards and are usually open 24/7. Examples include ZoomShops
and Redbox. Big-box stores encompass larger department, discount, general merchandise, and
warehouse stores.
Retailers can opt for a format as each provides different retail mix to its customers based on their
customer demographics, lifestyle and purchase behaviour. A good format will lend a hand to
display products well and entice the target customers to spawn sales.

Global top five retailers

Worldwide Top Five Retailers
Retail Sales Rank


Country of Origin














Metro AG


Retail pricing
The pricing technique used by most retailers is cost-plus pricing. This involves adding a markup
amount (or percentage) to the retailer's cost. Another common technique is suggested retail
pricing. This simply involves charging the amount suggested by the manufacturer and usually
printed on the product by the manufacturer.

In Western countries, retail prices are often called psychological prices or odd prices. Often
prices are fixed and displayed on signs or labels. Alternatively, when prices are not clearly
displayed, there can be price discrimination, where the sale price is dependent upon who the
customer is. For example, a customer may have to pay more if the seller determines that he or
she is willing and/or able to. Another example would be the practice of discounting for youths,
students, or senior citizens.
Because patronage at a retail outlet varies flexibility in scheduling is desirable. Employee
scheduling software is sold which, using known patterns of customer patronage, more or less
reliably predicts the need for staffing for various functions at times of the year, day of the month
or week, and time of day. Usually needs vary widely. Conforming staff utilization to staffing
needs requires a flexible workforce which is available when needed but does not have to be paid
when they are not, part-time workers; as of 2012 70% of retail workers in the United States were
part-time. This may result in financial problems for the workers, who while they are required to
be available at all times if their work hours are to be maximized, may not have sufficient income
to meet their family and other obligations.
Transfer mechanisms
There are several ways in which consumers can receive goods from a retailer:
Counter service, where goods are out of reach of buyers and must be obtained from the seller.
This type of retail is common for small expensive items (e.g. jewelry) and controlled items like
medicine and liquor. It was common before the 1900s in the United States and is more common
in certain countries like India.
Delivery, where goods are shipped directly to consumer's homes or workplaces. Mail order from
a printed catalogue was invented in 1744 and was common in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. Ordering by telephone was common in the 20th century, either from a catalog,
newspaper, television advertisement or a local restaurant menu, for immediate service (especially
for pizza delivery), remaining in common use for food orders. Internet shopping - a form of

delivery - has eclipsed phone-ordering, and, in several sectors - such as books and music - all
other forms of buying. Direct marketing, including telemarketing and television shopping
channels, are also used to generate telephone orders. Started gaining significant market share in
developed countries in the 2000s.
Door-to-door sales, where the salesperson sometimes travels with the goods for sale.
Self-service, where goods may be handled and examined prior to purchase.
Digital delivery or Download, where intangible goods, such as music, film, and electronic books
and subscriptions to magazines, are delivered directly to the consumer in the form of information
transmitted either over wires or air-waves, and is reconstituted by a device which the consumer
controls (such as an MP3 player; see digital rights management). The digital sale of models for
3D printing also fits here, as do the media leasing types of services, such as streaming.
Second-hand retail
Some shops sell second-hand goods. In the case of a nonprofit shop, the public donates goods to
the shop to be sold. In give-away shops goods can be taken for free.
Another form is the pawnshop, in which goods are sold that were used as collateral for loans.
There are also "consignment" shops, which are where a person can place an item in a store and if
it sells, the person gives the shop owner a percentage of the sale price. The advantage of selling
an item this way is that the established shop gives the item exposure to more potential buyers.

To achieve and maintain a foothold in an existing market, a prospective retail establishment must
overcome the following hurdles:
Regulatory barriers including

Restrictions on real estate purchases, especially as imposed by local governments

and against "big-box" chain retailers;

Restrictions on foreign investment in retailers, in terms of both absolute amount

of financing provided and percentage share of voting stock (e.g., common stock)

Unfavourable taxation structures, especially those designed to penalize or keep

out "big box" retailers (see "Regulatory" above);

Absence of developed supply chain and integrated IT management;
High competitiveness among existing market participants and resulting low profit
margins, caused in part by Constant advances in product design resulting in

constant threat of product obsolescence and price declines for existing inventory;
Lack of properly educated and/or trained work force, often including
management, caused in part by Lack of educational infrastructure enabling
prospective market entrants to respond to the above challenges.

Sales techniques
Behind the scenes at retail, there is another factor at work. Corporations and independent store
owners alike are always trying to get the edge on their competitors. One way to do this is to hire
a merchandising solutions company to design custom store displays that will attract more
customers in a certain demographic. The nation's largest retailers spend millions every year on
in-store marketing programs that correspond to seasonal and promotional changes. As products
change, so will a retail landscape. Retailers can also use facing techniques to create the look of a
perfectly stocked store, even when it is not.
A destination store is one that customers will initiate a trip specifically to visit, sometimes over a
large area. These stores are often used to "anchor" a shopping mall or plaza, generating foot
traffic, which is capitalized upon by smaller retailers.
Customer service
Customer service is the "sum of acts and elements that allow consumers to receive what they
need or desire from your retail establishment." It is important for a sales associate to greet the
customer and make himself available to help the customer find whatever he needs. When a

customer enters the store, it is important that the sales associate does everything in his power to
make the customer feel welcomed, important, and make sure he leaves the store satisfied. Giving
the customer full, undivided attention and helping him find what he is looking for will contribute
to the customer's satisfaction.[4] For retail store owners, it is extremely important to train
yourself and your staff to provide excellent customer service skills. By providing excellent
customer service, you build a good relationship with the customer and eventually will attract
more new customers and turn them into regular customers. Looking at long term perspectives,
excellent customer skills give your retail business a good ongoing reputation and competitive

Statistics for national retail sales

United States
The United States retail sector features the largest number of large, lucrative
retailers in the world. A 2012 Deloitte report published in STORES magazine
indicated that of the world's top 250 largest retailers by retail sales revenue in
fiscal year 2010, 32% of those retailers were based in the United States, and those
32% accounted for 41% of the total retail sales revenue of the top 250.[6]
U.S. Monthly Retail Sales, 19922010
Since 1951, the U.S. Census Bureau has published the Retail Sales report every
month. It is a measure of consumer spending, an important indicator of the US
GDP. Retail firms provide data on the dollar value of their retail sales and
inventories. A sample of 12,000 firms is included in the final survey and 5,000 in
the advanced one. The advanced estimated data is based on a subsample from the
US CB complete retail & food services sample.
CE region
In 2011 the grocery market in six Central European [disambiguation needed] (CE)
countries was worth nearly 107bn, 2.8% more than the previous year when
expressed in local currencies. The increase was generated foremost by the
discount stores and supermarket segments, and was driven by the skyrocketing

prices of foodstuffs. This information is based on the latest PMR report entitled
Grocery retail in Central Europe 2012[8]
Among retailers and retails chains a lot of consolidation has appeared over the last
couple of decades. Between 1988 and 2010, worldwide 40,788 mergers
&acquisitions with a total known value of 2.255 trillion USD have been
announced. [9] The largest transactions with involvement of retailers in/from the
United States have been: the acquisition of Albertson's Inc. for 17 bill. USD in
2006, [10] the merger between Federated Department Stores Inc. with May
Department Stores valued at 16.5 bill. USD in 2005[11] - now Macy's, and the
merger between Kmart Holding Corp and Sears Roebuck & Co with a value of
10.9 bill...



Big Bazaar was introduced by the Future Group in September 2001 with the opening of its first
four stores in Kolkata, Indore, Bengaluru and Hyderabad within a period of 22 days.
Started by Kishore Biyani, Big Bazaar was launched mainly as a fashion format selling apparel,
cosmetics, accessories and general merchandise. Over the years, the retail chain has included in
its portfolio a wide range of products and services, ranging from grocery to electronics.
The current retail formats of the Future Group include Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Electronic
Bazaar and Furniture Bazaar. According to Kishore Biyani, the inspiration behind this entire
retail format was from Saravana Stores, a local store in T. Nagar, Chennai. Big Bazaar is
popularly known as the Indian Walmart today.
In the second year of operations, Big Bazaar tied up with Indian banking giant ICICI Bank and
launched the Big Bazaar ICICI Bank Card. In the same year, the first Food Bazaar store was also
launched at High Street Phoenix mall in Mumbai, marking the retailers entry into dedicated food
In 2003, Big Bazaar made its foray into small towns and cities. The first store in this category
was launched that year in Nagpur. The franchise also welcomed its 10 millionth customer at its
new store in Gurgaon in the same year.
Over the next two years, Big Bazaar consolidated its position in the Indian retail landscape. This
phase of growth included the setting up of the Mumbai store in Lower Parel, which registered a
record Rs 10 million turnover in a single day on Diwali-eve in 2004. In 2005, the first Big
Bazaar Exchange Offer was launched, which has quickly gained popularity among customers.
In 2006, further changes in loyalty marketing took place with the launch of the housewife-centric
credit card, Shakti. Jewellery store Navaras was also launched that year within Big Bazaar

stores which became the first store-in-store concept to be launched by the brand. Another
dedicated retail format launched in 2006 is Furniture Bazaar.In 2007, Big Bazaar partnered with
a shopping portal Futurebazaar.com and expanded its retail footprint to 50 stores.
The following year, 2008, witnessed by far the fastest growth in terms of retail expansion for Big
Bazaar, with the launch of the 101st store. Joining the league of Indias Super brands and voted
among the top ten service brands in the country by the Pitch-IMRB international survey, Big
Bazaar became much more than a household name. The year also saw the launch of the Monthly
Bachat Bazaar (Monthly Budget Market) campaign, which provided significantly low prices and
gave discounts on bulk purchases in the first week of the month.
Over the next two years, Big Bazaar carved its own niche in modern retail and became the
largest brand in the hypermarket format. Capturing one-third of the food and grocery market in
modern retail, celebrity endorsements and tie-ups with other brands allowed it to enhance its
retail footprint. In 2009, Big Bazaar won the CNBC Awaaz Consumer Awards for the third
consecutive year. It was adjudged the Most Preferred Multi Brand Food & Beverage Chain, Most
Preferred Multi Brand Retail Outlet and Most Preferred Multi Brand One Stop Shop.



Various formats and store concept


Most Big Bazaar outlets are multi-levelled stores and are located in stand-alone buildings in city
centres as well as within shopping malls. These stores have more than 2,00,000 Stock Keeping
Units (SKU) in a wide range of categories, led primarily by fashion and food products. The retail
space of these stores in the metros range between 50,000 and 1,60,000 sq. ft.
Since its launch in 2001 in metro cities like Kolkata, Bengaluru and Hyderabad, Big Bazaar is
the largest Hypermarket chain with presence in 90 cities and towns across the country.

CSR activities
As a part of Future Group, Big Bazaar is involved in various social activities that include green
initiatives for the community, blood donation camps, Diwali celebrations with orphanages, visits
to orphanages and other NGOs helping underprivileged children. These activities usually involve
all members of the management as well as staff of Big Bazaar.

In September 2011, Future Group signed a strategic partnership with the

Himachal Pradesh Government to directly source, market and promote the states
products and services through its Big Bazaar stores under the brand Himachal.
The aim of this partnership is to aid the development of various source-tomarket initiatives to enhance livelihoods for more than 25,000 families in the

Big Bazaar created a platform called Yatra to provide women of self-help groups
across various towns and regions of Maharashtra and Gujarat the opportunity to
market their wide assortment of indigenous food and non-food products. As part
of the programme, women from over 30 regional self-help groups were invited,
encouraged and helped to set up stalls to exhibit their products at Big Bazaar

Big Bazaar Mysore started offering a free wholesome meal to all its customers,
who in return contribute Shraddha Anussar for a community cause. In other


words, the customers donate any amount for the meal which would be used for a
local, regional or topical cause.

Schemes and innovations

The introduction of Sabse Sasta Din (Cheapest Day) in the year 2005 was a turning point for
the Big Bazaar franchise. As part of this effort, the Republic Day holiday was used to ensure that
consumers visited Big Bazaar outlets across the country in large numbers to get required
household items at cheaper rates.
Taking cue from this highly successful concept, another initiative was introduced, named the
Purana do aur naya lo (give old and get new) scheme. In this scheme, consumers were asked to
bring and sell old clothes, utensils and other household items in exchange of discount coupons.
The concept proved to be a success yet again as people from across the country responded
spontaneously, in spite of the different preconditions associated with it.
The franchise further inaugurated the concept of Haftekasabsesasta din (Cheapest Day of the
Week), wherein Wednesday was designated to be the day when special discounts were offered to
consumers during a week.

Wednesday Bazaar
The concept of Wednesday Bazaar was promoted as Hafte Ka Sabse Sasta Din (Cheapest Day
of the Week). Initiated in January 2007, the idea behind this scheme was to draw customers to
stores on Wednesdays, the day when consumer presence is usually less. According to the chain,
the aim of the concept was to give homemakers the power to save the most.
Big Bazaar introduced Sabse Sasta Din (Cheapest Day) with the intention of attaining a sales
figure of Rs 26 crore in a single day. The concept became such a hit that the time period for the
offer had to be increased from one day to three days in 2009 (January 24 to 26) and to five days
in 2011 (January 22 to 26).


The concept of MahaBachat (Mega Saving) was introduced in the year 2006 as a single day
campaign with attractive promotional offers across the company outlets. Over the years, the
concept has grown to become a six-day biannual campaign. During this campaign, attractive
offers are given in all the value formats including Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Electronic Bazaar
and Furniture Bazaar.
Introduced on February 12, 2009, The Great Exchange Offer allows customers to exchange
their old goods for Big Bazaar coupons. The coupons can be redeemed later for buying brand
new goods from Big Bazaar outlets across the nation.


To deliver everything, everywhere, every time to every Indian customer in the

most possible manner.
One of the core value of future group is Indian ness and is cooperate credo is
rewrite rules retain value.

We Share the vision and belief that our customer and stakeholder shall be served
only by creating and executing future scenario in the consumption space leading
to economic development.
We will be the trendsetter in evolving delivery formats creating retail making
consumption affordable for all customer segment for classes and masses.
We shall infuse Indian brands with confidence and renewed ambition.
We shall be efficient and, cost conscious and committed to quality in whatever we
We shall ensure that out positive attitude, sincerity, humility and united
determination shall be the driving force to make us successful.


Indianans confidence in ourselves.

Leadership: to be a leader, both in thought and business.
Introspection: leading to purposeful thinking.
Openness: to be open and receptive to new ideas, knowledge and information.
Valuing and nurturing relationships to build long term relationships.
Simplicity &positivity: simplicity and positivity in our thought business and work.
Adaptability: to be flexible and adaptable, to meet new challenges

Flow: to respect and understood the universal laws of nature.









Area Managers are too valuable to be thrown in at the deep end. They need the best initial
training possible. This is the ideal covering the very basics workshop. The focus is on the Area
Manager Function, the tasks required of the job and the qualities required to lead rather than
just manage.
Thinking ahead, analyzing the current situation, and formulating a written business development
strategy is an essential starting point for all newly appointed Area Managers. On completion of
this workshop your area managers will have started formulating a strategic development plan for
their areas and discussed methods of communicating the plan to all managers within their areas
of responsibility.


HEAD Store managers can be found in all shops as they are the main cog in its running. They
are employed to ensure that the day-to-day operation of the shop is efficient and effective, with
the main aim of bringing in the maximum profit possible. They are responsible for all employees
within the store and are present to ensure the shop runs without hitch.

Every shop needs a store manager, making it a very versatile job that is widely in demand. The
retail sector employs around 11% of the UKs total workforce, so there are many opportunities
available in this field
Trains store staff by reviewing and revising orientation to products and sales training materials;
delivering training sessions; reviewing staff job results and learning needs with retail store
manager; developing and implementing new product training.

Evaluates competition by visiting competing stores; gathering information such as style,

quality, and prices of competitive merchandise.

Purchases inventory by researching emerging products; anticipating buyer interest;

negotiating volume price breaks; placing and expediting orders; verifying receipt.

Attracts customers by originating display ideas; following display suggestions or

schedules; constructing or assembling prefabricated display properties; producing
merchandise displays in windows and showcases, and on sales floor.

Promotes sales by demonstrating merchandise and products to customers.

Helps customers by providing information; answering questions; obtaining merchandise

requested; completing payment transactions; preparing merchandise for delivery.

Prepares sales and customer relations reports by analyzing and categorizing sales
information; identifying and investigating customer complaints and service suggestions.

Retail Floor Manager Jobs have a responsibility for the day-to-day management of a department
or store in accordance with overall company policy.
The main focus of any Retail floor manager jobs is to improve the commercial performance of
the store by increasing its turnover and maximizing profitability. Achieving performance
objectives will require action in one of the main areas of retail activity: store operations; human

resources; finance; buying; customer care; marketing; logistics; information technology; and
Major parts of the retail floor manager jobs on a day-to-day basis include managing staff, finding
new ways to improve sales, and meeting customer demand.
An account manager is a person who works for a company and is responsible for the
management of sales, and relationship with particular customers. The account manager does not
manage the daily running of the account itself. They manage the relationship with the client of
the account(s) they are assigned to. Generally, a client will remain with one account manager
throughout the duration of hiring the company. Account managers serve as the interface between
the customer service and the sales team in a company. They are assigned a company's existing
client accounts. The purpose of being assigned particular clients is to create long term
relationships with the portfolio of assigned clients. The account manager serves to understand the
customer's demands, plan how to meet these demands, and generate sales for the company as a




Big Bazaar is one of the largest retail hypermarket in India with 214 stores (as on


June12) located all over India.

It is owned by Future group, which owns other retail brands like Central
Hypermarket, Brand Factory, Pantaloons, eZONE, Hometown, futurebazaar.com.

3. It offers a wide range of product category like fashion and apparel, food products,
leisure & entertainment section general merchandise, furniture, electronics, books,
fast food.
4. The customers enjoy better shopping experience and discount offers.
5. Big bazaar brings lot of innovation in retail shopping sector by bringing attractive
promotional programs. (Wednesday Bazaar, SabseSasta Din, MahaBachat, The
Great Exchange Offer).
6. Its economy pricing model attracts Indian customers to large extent BIG BAZAR.
1. Customers face delays in billing services during offer seasons.
2. Big bazaar doesnt have wide range of branded products.
3. The customers perceive its products to have low quality due to its economy
pricing strategy like Walmart.
4. Most of the products are sold under its own private labels.
5. There were recent controversies with Big Bazaar for holding expired and
adulterated stocks.
6. Offers are given only for selected brands.

1. There are lot of opportunities available for expansion to rural and semi-urban

2. The volume of organized retailing in India is only 5-7% and players like Big
Bazaar have lot of scope to fill the gaps
3. The increase in disposable income of Indian middle class families and the
increase in earning youth population have increased the buying potential
4. The consumers are looking for purchasing products in malls and supermarkets
5. People prefer to shop all products in one roof and the consumers shopping
experiences have changed to new dimensions
6. Big Bazaar has partnered with several other players in India and across the world
for joint ventures.
1. Availability of space to set up large infrastructure is difficult
2. The government policies keep changing and the foreign players entering into
retail segment may cause threats
3. There are other existing players like Sponsors, Aditya Birlas More, Reliance,
Tata, Heritage etc
4. Training staff members and retailing is big challenge for human resources
5. The economic slowdown has resulted in job cuts which reduces buying power.

Roles and responsibilities:

To know the perception of customer and their satisfaction level in home fashion.
Collect data regarding different product of home fashion.
Attending the customer on mahabachat offer day and providing different services.
Like gift wrapping, home delivery and special offer.
Providing services at customer seva desk.
Interact with customer regarding awareness of advertisement in local newspaper.
Sell profitclub cards to customers.


Marketing is the moving and exciting activity in everybody activities. The sellers, distributors,
advertising agencies, consultants, transporters, financers, store agencies and every one as a
counter are part of the marketing system. Any exchange process be it consumer, goods,
intermediary goods, services of ideas, comes under the preview of marketing. It is very often
regarded that the development of markets and marketing is synonymous with the economic
development of account. Through marketing is an action discipline. In the ever-growing
corporate world, marketing is being regarded as a crucial element for the success of an
The marketing discipline is undergoing fresh re appraisal in the light of the vast global,
technological, economic and social challenges facing todays companies and countries.
Marketing at its best is about value creation and raising the worlds living standards. Todays
winning companies are those who succeed most in satisfying, indeed delighting their target
As quoted by P.P.Drucker Marketing is so basic that it cannot be considered a separate function.
It is whole business seen from the point of view of its final result, that is, from the customers
point of view. Business success is not determined by the producer but by the customer
Philip Kotler has therefore defined marketing as it is a social and managerial process by which
individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and
exchanging products of values with others. Many Indian companies espouse a satisfied
customer philosophy and describe marketing as customer-satisfaction engineering. Since the
economy in this country has changed from a primary condition of scarcity to gradual and steady
stage of affluence, largely giving consumers the opportunity to choose among many varied
alternatives, satisfaction has become a major concern of business.


One thing that we have in common is that we all are consumers. In fact everybody in this world is a
consumer. Every day of our life we are buying and consuming an incredible variety of goods and services.
However, we all have different tastes, likes, dislikes, and adopt different behaviour patterns while making
purchase decisions.
The term consumer behaviour refers to the behaviour that consumers displaying searching for purchasing
using evaluation and disposing in searching for purchasing using evaluating and disposing of products
and services that they exact will satisfy o how individuals make decisions to send their available
resources (time, money and effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of What they buy,
Why they buy, When they buy it, Where they buy it, how often they buy it and how often they use.

Consumer Behaviour (or Buyer Behaviour) is broadly defined by various scholars & researchers as:
1. Its the behaviour displayed by the consumers during the acquisition, consumption and disposition of
products, services, time and ideas by decision making units.
2. It is the body of knowledge which studies various aspects of purchase and consumption of products and
services by individuals with various social and psychological variables at play.
3. The behaviour that the consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing
of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs.
4. The process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using,
evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires.
5. The activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services,
including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions.
6. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines consumer behaviour as The dynamic interaction
of cognition, behaviour & environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspect of
their lives.


Consumer behaviour is helpful in understanding the purchase Behaviour and preferences of different
consumers. As consumers, we differ in terms of sex age, education, occupation, income, Family setup,
religion, nationality and social status. Because of this different background factors, have different needs
and we have only buy those products and services, which we think, will satisfy our needs.


A consumer decisions to purchase a particular product of service is the result of complex interplay of a
number of variables. The starting point of the decision process is provided by the companys marketing
stimuli in the shape of product, promotion, price and distribution strategy. Consumer often purchase new
products that are associated with a favourable viewed brand name. The term consumer behaviour refers to
the behaviour that consumer displaying searching for purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of
products and services that they expect will satisfy these needs.
The study of consumer behaviour in the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available
resources (time, money, effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of what they buy, why
they buy, when they buy, where they buy, how often they buy and how they use


The main objective is to determine the current consumer behavior levels of the customers with
regards to Big Bazaar.
To study and analyze consumer shopping behavior towards Big Bazaar.
To assess the behavior level of different type of customers shopping at Big Bazaar.
To identify what type of strategies are suitable for the company to reach the targeted
To find out the factors which influence the consumption of the products in Big Bazaar.
To identify effective advertising sources which are influencing customer purchasing
behavior at Big Bazaar.

The survey technique is intended to secure one or more items of information from a sample of
respondents who are representatives of a larger group. The information is recorded on a form
known as questionnaire. As data are gathered by asking questions from persons who are believed
to have desired information, the method is known as questionnaire technique.

It can secure both quantitative and qualitative information directly from the respondents.
It is the only method of directly measuring attitudes and motivations.
It is quite flexible in terms of the types of data to be assembled, the method of collection
or the timing of research.

Meaning of Research
According to D. Slessinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of social sciences define
research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to
extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in
the practice of art.
1. Exploratory Research,
2. Descriptive Research,
Exploratory Research:
Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulate research studies. The main
purpose of such studies in that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of
developing the working hypothesis forms an operational point of view.
Descriptive Research:
Diagnostic Research studies determine the frequency with something occurs or its association
with something else. In this project, information pertaining to customer needs satisfaction and
their demographic profile was collected; hence it is a descriptive research.


1) Primary data:Meaning: Primary sources of data are the data which needs the personal efforts
of collect it and which are not readily available. Primary source of data are the other type of
source through which the data was collected.
Following are few ways in the data was collected:
1. Questionnaires: It is the set of questions on a sheet of paper was being given to fill it, bases
on which the data was interpreted.
2. Direct interviewing: Direct interviewing involved the process where I asked the questions
directly to the customers and I got the feedback.
2) Secondary data:Secondary sources are the other important sources through which the data
was collected.
These are the readily available sources of the data where one had need not put much effort to
collected, because it is already been collected and part in an elderly manner by some researcher,
experts and special.
The secondary sources helpful for the study were
1) Text books like marketingmanagement research methodology Advertisement and sales
promotion etc.
2) Internet was made use for the collection of the data
3) Newspapers were also referred.
4) Business magazines were referred.
3) Sample size:By using judgment random sampling technique 100 respondents are selected for
the purpose of the study.
4) Period of study:The study is undertaken in the duration of 30days.
5) Research approach:The survey method was adopted for collected the primary data. Survey
research is systematic gathering of data from respondent through questionnaire.
6) Research instrument:The data for this research study was collected by survey technic using
interview method guided by questionnaire.
7) Collection of Data:Questionnaire and personal interviews are the methods that I have used
for collecting the data.



My scope is limitation to one Branch (RAJAJI NAGAR). The scope of the study is to identify
the consumer behavior towards Big Bazaar. It is aimed at enlightening the company about
different steps to be taken up to increase the share of Big Bazaar with regard other competitors
and also to make the company to provide better customer services. The scope of the study is only
confined to the area covered under Bangalore and only confined in studying about the consumer
behavior towards Big Bazaar.

Time has been a major constraint throughout the study as it has been only for duration of
1 months.
As this survey was restricted to Bangalore this cannot be stated as an in depth research on
this subject.
Enough care is taken in formulating the questionnaire, still some errors may creep in.
The consumer behavior varies according to different products.
Quality verses price was not taken into the consideration.
The project is based on the interview methodology by a sutured questionnaire and the personal
skills of the person undertaking the project affect the results.



No of Customers




Q1) Respondents in Gender?
Table no1 Number of Respondents in Gender
Sample size: 100
The above table shows 77% of the respondents are male, 23% of the respondents are
Chart No 1 - Showing Respondents in Gender








Sample size: 100

From the above graph we can interpret that majority of the respondents are male and other are


Q2) Age groups?

Table No 2 Customers Age groups
Age Groups
Less than 25
56 and above
Sample size: 100

No of customers


The above table shows 30% of customers are age group of less than 25 & 48% are age group of
25-35 & 17% are age group of 35-45 & 3% are age group of 46-55 and 2% of them are age
group of 56 and above
Chart No 2 Showing Customer Age groups

No of Customers



less than 25



56 and above


Sample size: 100

From the above graph we can interpret that majority of the respondents are age group of 25-35
from this we can say that large of visitors to Big Bazaar are age group of 25-35 and 30% of

visitors are age group less than 25. Hence company should concentrating on attracting customers
of age group from less than 35
Q3) Marital Status?
Table No3 Respondents Marital Status
Marital Status
Un married
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


The above table shows 60% customers are married and 40% of customers are unmarried

Chart No3 Showing Respondents Marital Status

Marital Status


Sample size: 100

From the above graph we can interpret that 60% of the respondents are married and reaming
40% respondents are unmarried as we conclude majority of customers are married then
unmarried. Hence the company should focus more on married people


Q4) Income per month?

Table No4 Respondents Income Level per month
Income per month
Less than 10000
50000 and above

No of Customers


Sample size: 100

Above Table shows 20% of customers belong to income level of less than 10000 per month &
26% of customers belong to 20000-30000 income per month & 25% of customers belong to
30000-40000 income per month & 5% of customers belong to income per month of 4000050000 per month and reaming 8% of customers belong to 50000 and above
Chart No4 Showing Respondents Income Level per month

Income per Month






Sample size: 100



From the above graph we can interpret that majority of respondents belong to income level of
10000-20000 per month & 20% belong to less than 10000. Hence we conclude the company
should focus on targeting customers belong to income level of less than 30000
Q5) How frequently do you visit Big Bazaar?
Table No5 Respondents frequently visiting Big Bazaar
Frequent visit
Twice in a week
Once in a week
Once in 15days
Once in month
As and when required
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


Above Table shows that 13% of respondent visit twice in a week & 30% of respondents visit
once in a week & 20% visit once in 15days & 18% of respondents visit once in month and
remaining 25% of respondents visit as and when required

Chart No5 Showing Respondents frequently visiting Big Bazaar

Visitors to Bigbazaar



Twice in a week

Once in a week

Once in 15 days

Once in Month

As and when required

Sample size: 100



Above Graph shows that majority of customers visit once in a week & 25% visit as and when
required & 20% visit once in 15days, we conclude that majority of customers visit as and when
required and once in a week. Hence company should increase visitors by providing more
promotion offers and create awareness about the offers to customers
Q6) What is the main purpose of Purchase?
Table No6 Respondents main purpose of Purchase at Big Bazaar
Purpose of Purchase
Personal usage
To Gift
Regular home Usage
Events and Celebrations
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


Above Table shows that 44% respondents purchase for personal usage & 13% to gift & 39%
purchase for regular home usage and remaining 4% purchase for events and celebrations

Chart No6 Showing Main purpose of Purchase at Big Bazaar

Purpose of purchase


Personal Usage

To Gift

Regular home usage

Events and Celebrations

Sample size: 100



From the above Graph we can see that 44% of the respondents purchase for personal usage &
39% purchase for regular home usage and remaining to gift & events and celebrations, we
conclude majority of customer purchase for personal and home usage.

Q7) Which type of products do you Purchase more in Big Bazaar?

Table No7 Types of products Purchased by Respondents in Big Bazaar
Types of Products
Process food and staples
Home fashion
Vegetables and fruits
Utensils and Crockery
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


The above table shows that 21% of respondents purchase process food and staples & 32%
purchase clothing/fashion & 11% purchase home fashion & 23% purchase vegetables and fruits
&10% purchase electronics and remaining 3% purchase utensils and crockery
Chart No7 Showing Types of products Purchased by Respondents in Big Bazaar

Products Purchased more

10; 10% 3; 3%
21; 21%
23; 23%

Process food and



Home Fashion

Vegatables and Fruits


Utensils and Crockery

11; 11% 32; 32%

Sample size: 100


From the above Graph we can see that majority 32% of customers purchase clothing/
Fashion & 21%-23% of customers purchase process food, staples, vegetables and fruits and
remaining purchase home fashion, electronics, utensils and crockery
Q8) What is the reasons behind Purchase in Big Bazaar?
Table No8 Respondents reasons behind Purchase in Big Bazaar
Reasons of Purchase
Satisfaction of Products
Reasonable price
More and good Offers
Extra facilities provided by Big Bazaar
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


The above table shows that 11% of respondents say they purchase because of satisfaction of
products & 27% because of reasonable price & 46% for more and good offers and remaining
11% purchase because of extra facilities

Chart No8 Showing Reasons behind Purchase in Big Bazaar

Reasons behind Purchase


Extra Facilities


More and good Offers


Reasonable Price


Satisfaction of Products

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Sample size: 100



From the above Graph we can see that majority of the respondents purchase because of more
and good offers & 27% purchase because of reasonable price and remaining purchase because of
extra facilities and satisfaction of products

Q9) How often do you ask for Assistance from staff while purchase?
Table No9 Respondents asking Assistance from staff while purchase
Assistance from staff
Almost always
Sample size: 100

No of Customers


The above table shows that 9% of customers take assistance from staff almost always & 25%
take frequently & 54% of customers take assistance some times and remaining 12% never

Chart No9 Showing Customers Assistance from staff while purchase

A ssistance from staf







Almost Always




Sample size: 100



From the above Graph we decide that 9% of the customers take assistance from staff always &
where as 25% take help frequently & 54% have taken assistance sometimes and 12% will not
depend on others. From the collected data, we can say that the minority of customers take
assistance from the store staff sometimes

Q10) How do you feel the pricing of products in Big Bazaar?

Table No10 Respondents perception towards the pricing of products in Big Bazaar
Pricing of Big Bazaar

No of Customers


Sample size: 100

The above table shows that 5% of respondents said they feel prices are expensive & 16% said as
competitive & 38% as affordable and remaining 41% as reasonable

Chart No10 Showing Customer Perception towards the pricing of products in Big Bazaar

Pricing of Bigbazaar








Sample size: 100

From the above Graph we can see that majority of customers feel prices as reasonable & 38% as
affordable and remaining as competitive and expensive. Hence we conclude majority of
customers have good perception toward the pricing of the products


From the responses of 100 customers the findings can be listed as:
As per the findings 77% of male customers are come to Big Bazaar for shopping
The customers who are mainly age group of 25-35 years are shopping at Big Bazaar
As per the findings, Majority of customers of income level less than 30000 visit to Big
As per findings, Majority of the respondents are visits Big Bazaar once in a week. By
this, we can say that most of the customers are coming to Big Bazaar regularly
As per findings, Majority of the respondents are purchasing for the purpose of personal
usage and regular home usage
As per findings, Majority of the respondents are interested to shopping at clothing/
As per findings , 65% of customer prefer in Big Bazaar for more and good offers
As per findings, most of the respondents are taking assistance from the store staff during
purchase period. We can say that customers take assistance from staff when they
shopping in Big Bazaar
Majority of the customers are rate for reasonable pricing in Big Bazaar
As per the findings, majority of the customers choose the Big Bazaar for the availability
of variety of products as well as offers and discounts
Majority of the respondents are interested to visit Big Bazaar when compare to other
As per findings, majority of customers are making use of payback card
As per findings 72% of customers prefer to shop on Wednesday Bazaar

All most all customers said there overall experience is good at Big Bazaar
As per the findings, almost all of 96% of the respondents are recommended to others for
shopping in Big Bazaar
As per findings, as must as 76% of the respondents to suggest the Big Bazaar to give
more offers and discounts
As per findings majority of customers are having awareness of Big Bazaar from
As per finding, majority of 81% of customers are attracted to Big Bazaar by TV-ads
Majority of customers suggested Big Bazaar that TV-ads can reach easily to customers

As attempt has been made to suggest to the Big Bazaar a few measures. These suggestions have
been made within the preview of the data available
1) The company has to conduct the periodical meeting with customers and take their
valuable suggestion
2) The company may adopt policy of payback cards and gifts to customers while purchasing
the products
3) The store staff should be trained adequately so as to convince the potential buyers,
because his performance on jobs has great impact on sale of the products
4) Most of the customers belongs to age group of less than 25 years. So, company hasI to
concentrate on those people to enhance the sales
5) Moreover, the company has to concentrate more on the customers of age group 25-35
years to enhance the sales
6) Big Bazaar should provide more offers and discounts to attract new customers
7) The company should go with TV-ads and newspaper in order to reach customers

The study has basically helped to know theCustomer behavior towards Big Bazaar and what
influence people shop at Big Bazaar. Most of the consumers are influenced by the offers and

price discounts in Big Bazaar. Big Bazaar has great offers for their customer that acts as the
motivating actor, which brings customer to Big Bazaar.
The majority of consumers perception is almost all the products are available at one roof with
one stop shopping experience. Customers shop more in the Food Bazaar and Clothing in Big
Bazaar. Customers feel that big bazaar has variety of products available in various departments.
Customer feels that shopping with Big Bazaar is convenient.
The more than 72% of customers prefer to shop on Wednesday Bazaar compared to other offer

Text Books
Consumer Behavior: Albert J. Dells Bittas
Consumer Behavior: David L. Loudon

Principles of Marketing: Philip Kotler

Marketing Management: Philip Kotler