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PC481PC481 FiberFiber OpticsOptics FallFall 20102010 Instructor:Instructor: DapengDapeng ZhouZhou
PC481PC481 FiberFiber OpticsOptics
FallFall 20102010
Instructor:Instructor: DapengDapeng ZhouZhou
LectureLecture 11 Introduction to PC481 Chapter 1: Overview of Optical Fiber Communications
LectureLecture 11
Introduction to PC481
Chapter 1:
Overview of Optical Fiber Communications
IntroductionIntroduction toto PC481PC481 Course Description: Types of optical fibers. Basic theory: characteristics,
IntroductionIntroduction toto PC481PC481
Course Description:
Types of optical fibers. Basic theory: characteristics, numerical aperture,
losses, dispersion, modes. Passive fiber devices: couplers, connectors,
splices. Light sources: LED, solid and semiconductor lasers. Modulators.
Detectors. Systems design. The major emphasis is on fundamentals and
on individual devices which make up the system rather than on detailed
design of optical communication networks.
Contents:
1. Overview of optical fiber communications (Chapter 1)
2. Optical fibers: structures, waveguiding, fabrication and optical cable
(Chapter 2)
3. Signal degradation in optical fibers (Chapter 3)
4. Optical sourses: Laser diodes and LEDs (Chapter 4)
5. Power launching and coupling (Chapter 5)
6. Photodetectors (Chapter 6)
7. Photonic transmission systems (Chapter 7)
8. Wavelength-division multiplexing (Chapter 8)
InstructorsInstructors Lecture instructor: Dapeng Zhou, Science Building, Room N2079 (519)884-0710, ext. 2974
InstructorsInstructors
Lecture instructor:
Dapeng Zhou, Science Building, Room N2079
(519)884-0710, ext. 2974
d4zhou@uwaterloo.ca
Office hour: Fridays 13:00 pm-15:00 pm
Lab instructor:
Hasan Shodiev, Science Building, Room N2086
(519)884-0710, ext. 2461
hshodiev@wlu.ca
TextText BookBook Optical fiber communications, by Gerd Keiser, 4th edition, McGraw Hill, 2011. (The 3
TextText BookBook
Optical fiber communications, by Gerd Keiser, 4th edition,
McGraw Hill, 2011. (The 3 rd edition is no long in print; it is
OK if you already have it.)
EvaluationEvaluation Assignment: 20% Lab: Midterm: 25% (At least 12.5% to pass) 20% (End of October
EvaluationEvaluation
Assignment:
20%
Lab:
Midterm:
25% (At least 12.5% to pass)
20% (End of October 2010)
Final exam:
35%
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications OpticsOptics Optics is
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
OpticsOptics
Optics is an old subject involving the generation,
propagation & detection of light.
Optical theory development:
Quantum Optics
Ray optics: short wavelength
Electromagnetic Optics
Wave
Optics
Ray Optics
Wave optics: scalar approximation
Electromagnetic optics: complete classical treatment
Quantum optics: explanation of all optical phenomena
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications PhotonicsPhotonics
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
PhotonicsPhotonics
Optoelectronics: refers to devices & systems that are
essentially electronics but involve lights, such as LED, liquid
crystal displays & array photodetectors.
Quantum Electronics: is used in connection with devices &
systems that rely on the interaction of light with matter, such
as lasers & nonlinear optical devices.
Quantum Optics: Studies quantum & coherence properties of
light.
Lightwave Technology: describes systems & devices that are
used in optical communication & signal processing.
Photonics: in analogy with electronics, involves the control of
photons in free space and matter.
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications TheThe ScopeScope ofof
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
TheThe ScopeScope ofof Photonics:Photonics:
1- Generation of Light
(coherent & incoherent)
2- Transmission of Light (through free space, fibers,
imaging systems, waveguides, … )
3- Processing of Light Signals (modulation, switching,
amplification, frequency conversion, …)
4- Detection of Light (coherent & incoherent)
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications At sending end: Data are
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
At sending end: Data are transferred over the communication channel by
superimposing the information onto an EM wave ( known as Carrier)
At the destination, the information is removed from the carrier wave
and processed as desired
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications BasicBasic
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
BasicBasic componentscomponents ofof opticaloptical fiberfiber linklink
Optical fibers
Step/Graded-index; single-mode/multimode
Sources for optical transmitters
Semiconductor/fiber lasers; LEDs
Detectors for optical receivers
Pin photodetector/Avalanche photdiodes
Signal processing equipments
Modulators; multiplexer/demultiplexer; couplers
Optical amplifiers
Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications Elements of an optical
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
Elements of an optical fiber transmission link
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications MilestonesMilestones
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
MilestonesMilestones
Three major developments are responsible for
rejuvenation of optics & its application in
modern technology:
1- Invention of Laser
2- Fabrication of low-loss optical Fiber
3- Development of Semiconductor
Optical Device
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications EvolutionEvolution ofof
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
EvolutionEvolution ofof fiberfiber--opticoptic systemssystems
1950s:Imaging applications in
medicine & non-destructive testing,
lighting
1960s:Research on lowering the fiber
loss for telecom. applications.
1970s:Development of low loss fibers,
semiconductor light sources &
photodetectors
1980s:single mode fibers (OC-3 to
OC-48) over repeater spacings of 40
km.
1990s:Optical amplifiers (e.g. EDFA),
WDM (wavelength division
multiplexing) toward dense-WDM.
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications UnitUnit Decibels (dB)
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
UnitUnit
Decibels (dB) – ratios or relative units
In designing and implementing an optical fiber link, it is
convenient to reference the signal level either to some absolute
value or to a noise level.
Power ratio in dB =
2
10 log P
P
1
P 1 and
P
are optical powers in mW
2
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications UnitUnit The dBm –
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
UnitUnit
The dBm – absolute value
Decibel power level referred to 1 mW
P
Power level =
1
10log 1
mW
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications ExamplesExamples 3dB
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ExamplesExamples
3dB loss
P
2
3
dB
=
10 log(
)
P
1
P
2
3/10
=
10
0.5
P
1
200 µW in dBm unit
6
PW (
)
200
×
10
W
P
=
10log[
]
=
10log[
]
=−
7.0
dBm
3
1
mW
1
×
10
W
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications BasicBasic fiberfiber
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
BasicBasic fiberfiber opticoptic systemsystem modelmodel
SystemSystem performanceperformance Bit Error Rate (BER) Probability of error per bit Receiver Sensitivity Minimum
SystemSystem performanceperformance
Bit Error Rate (BER)
Probability of error per bit
Receiver Sensitivity
Minimum number of photons per bit necessary
to guarantee that the BER is smaller than a
prescribed rate
Design Strategy
Attenuation/dispersion-limited performance
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications WDM: wavelength-division
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
WDM: wavelength-division multiplexing
WDM technology: The technology of combining a number of
wavelegnth onto the same fiber is known as WDM
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications Conceptual WDM systems
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
Conceptual WDM systems
TX1
SMF
TX2
MUX
OA
OA
TXn
RX1
components for today’s typical
optical fiber communication
De
RX2
MUX
OA
TX: optical transmitter e.g. laser, modulator etc…
RX: optical receiver e.g. photodiode etc…
OA: optical amplifier e.g. EDFA, SOA etc…
SMF: single mode fiber
MUX: optical wavelength multiplexer
DeMUX: optical wavelength demultiplexer
RXn
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications OpticalOptical
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
OpticalOptical NetworksNetworks
Point-to-point links VS Complex networks
Basic Topologies: Logical manner in which
nodes are linked together
Standards (SONET/SDH) : Specify formats for
optical signals so they can be shared between
networks
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications EarlyEarly
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
EarlyEarly applicationapplication ofof fiberfiber opticoptic communicationcommunication
Digital link consisting of time-division-multiplexing (TDM) of 64 kbps voice
channels (early 1980).
Digital transmission hierarchy used in the North American telephone network
The fundamental building block is a 1.544 Mb/s transmission rate known as a T1
rate. At any level, a signal at the designated input rate is multiplexed with other
input signals at the same rate.
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications SONETSONET &&
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
SONETSONET && SDHSDH StandardsStandards
SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) is the network standard used in north
America & SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is used in other parts of the
world. These define a synchronous frame structure for sending multiplexed digital
traffic over fiber optic trunk lines.
The basic building block of SONET is called STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal)
with 51.84 Mbps data rate. Higher-rate SONET signals are obtained by byte-
interleaving N STS-1 frames, which are scramble & converted to an Optical Carrier
Level N (OC-N) signal.
The basic building block of SDH is called STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module)
with 155.52 Mbps data rate. Higher-rate SDH signals are achieved by
synchronously multiplexing N different STM-1 to form STM-N signal.
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications SONETSONET &&
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
SONETSONET && SDHSDH transmissiontransmission ratesrates
SONET level
Electrical level
Line rate (Mb/s)
SDH equivalent
OC-1
STS-1
51.84
-
OC-3
STS-3
155.52
STM-1
OC-12
STS-12
622.08
STM-4
OC-24
STS-24
1244.16
STM-8
OC-48
STS-48
2488.32
STM-16
OC-96
STS-96
4976.64
STM-32
OC-192
STS-192
9953.28
STM-64
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications SONETSONET
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
SONETSONET multiplexmultiplex hierarchyhierarchy
STS: Synchronous transport signal
SPE: Synchronous payload envelope
VT: Virtual tributary
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications DWDMDWDM
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
DWDMDWDM employmentemployment
ChapterChapter 11 OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications
ChapterChapter 11
OverviewOverview ofof OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationsCommunications