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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

COMPUTATIONAL MATHEMATICS
SEMINAR ON

SHOOTING METHOD
PRESENTED
BY

SOWMITH NALLURI
14481D8714
MTECH 1ST YEAR

INTRODUCTION:

Many problems in science and engineering can be reduced to the problem of


solving differential equations satisfying certain given conditions. The analytical
methods of solution, with which the reader is assumed to be familiar, can be
applied to solve only a selected class of differential equations. Those equations
which govern physical systems do not possess, in general closed-form solutions
and hence recourse must be made to numerical methods for solving such
differential equations.
To describe various numerical methods for the solution of ordinary
differential equations, we consider the general first order differential equation
dy/dx=f(x,y)

With initial condition, y(x0) =y0, and illustrate the theory with respect to this
equation. The methods so developed can, in general be applied to the solution of
systems of first order equations, and will yield the solution in one of the two
following cases:
Case (a):
A series for y in terms of powers of x, from which the value of y can be
obtained by direct substitution.
Case (b):
A set of tabulated values of x and y.
The methods like Taylor and Picard belong to case (a), whereas those of Euler,
Runge-kutta, Adams-Bashforth, belong to case (b)
These methods are called step-by-step methods or marching methods because the
values of y are computed by short steps ahead for equal intervals h of the
independent variable. In the methods of Euler and Runge-kutta, the interval length
h should be kept small and hence these methods can be applied for tabulating y
over a limited range only. If, however the function values are desired over a wider
range, the methods Adams-Bashforth, Adams-Moulton, Milne and so on may be
used. These methods use finite-differences and require starting values which are
usually obtained by Taylors series or Runge-Kutta methods.

It is well known that a differential equation of the nth order will have n arbitrary
constants in its general solution. In order to compute the numerical solution of such
an equation, we therefore need n conditions, problems in which all the initial
conditions are specified at initial point only are called initial value problems.
On the other hand, in problems involving second- and higher order equations, we
may need the conditions of two or more points. Such problems are called
Boundary value problems
Solutions to Initial value problem and boundary value problem:
1. Taylors series:
Consider D.E as y=f(x,y) conditions: y(x0)=y0
y=y0+ (h/1!) y0+ (h2/2!)y0+..
2. Picards method:
Yn+1 = y0+ f(x,yn) dx
3. Eulers method:
Yn+1 = yn+h f (xn , yn)
4. Modified Eulers method:
Yn+1=yn+ (h/2) [f(xn,yn)+f(xn+1,yn+1)]
SHOOTING METHOD:
The shooting method uses the methods used in solving initial value problems. This
is done by assuming initial values that would have been given if the ordinary
differential equation were a initial value problem. The boundary value obtained is
compared with the actual boundary value. Using trial and error or some scientific
approach, one tries to get as close to the boundary value as possible.
Shooting method appears to be a straightforward way to solve nonlinear BVPs but
many problems arise while actually carrying out numerical calculations using it.
For Instance, it requires an intelligent guess for the missing initial conditions. Here,
the problem of convergence of the Newton iterates can be very troublesome, the
major problem being the location of the root within the radius of convergence and

that too is not known a priority degree of difficulty increases as the dimension $
increases and shooting method practically becomes useless. Due to this drawback,
the conventional simple shooting methods are not preferred to obtain numerical
solutions to non linear BVPS.
PROBLEM:
Using shooting method, find the solution of boundary value problem y11 = y,
y (0) = 0; y (1) = 1.1752. Use Taylors method to solve initial value problem.
SOLUTION:
Assume y(x) = y0 (x) + k1y1(x) + k2y2 (x)+ .
Where y0 , y1 , y2 are the solutions of given differential equation.
Y011 - y0 = 0
y0(0)= 0 ;
11
y1 - y1 = 0
y1(0)= 1 ;
y211 - y2= 0 y2(0)= 0 ;
1st DE:

y11 y = 0

y(0) = 0

y01(0) = 0
y11(0) = 0
y21(0) = 1
y1(0) = 0 this is a trival solution.

y0 = 0
2nd DE: y11 - y = 0

y(0) = 1

y1(0) = 0

Taylors formula: y(x) = y0 + h/1! (y0)1 + h/2! (y0)11 + h/3! (y0111) +.


Here y0 = 1 y01 = 0
y11 = y
y0 11 = y0 = 1
y111 = y1 y0111 = y01 = 0
yiv = y11
y0iv = y011 = 1
If h= x then
Y(x) = 1 + x(0) + x2/ 2(1) + x3/ 6 (0) + x4 / 24(1) + .
Y(x) = 1 + x2/ 2 + x4/24 +..

Y1(x) = (ex + e-x )/ 2

3rd DE: y11 - y = 0


y(0) = 0
y1(0) = 1
Taylors formula: y(x) = y0 + h/1! (y0)1 + h/2! (y0)11 + h/3! (y0111) +. Here
y0 = 0 y01 = 1
y11 =
y
y0 11 = y0 = 0
y111 =
y1
y0111 = y01 = 1
yiv = y11
y0iv = y011 = 0
If h= x then
Y(x) = 1 + x(1) + x2/ 2(0) + x3/ 6 (1) + x4 / 24(0) + .

Y2(x) = (ex - e-x) / 2

Applying boundary conditions


At x=0

Y0(0) = 0
y1(0) = (e0 + e-0)/2 = (1+1)/2 = 1
y2(0) = (e0 - e-0)/2 = (1-1)/2 = 0

At x=1

Y0(1) = 0
y1(0) = (e1+ e-1)/2 = 1.543
y2(0) = ( e1 - e-1)/2 = 1.175

We have
x=0

x=0 & x=1

y(x) = y0 (x) + k1y1(x) + k2y2 (x)

y(0) = y0 (0) + k1y1(0) + k2y2 (0)


0 = 0 + k1 + 0

k1= 0
x=1

y(1) = y0 (1) + k1y1(1) + k2y2 (1)


1.1752 = 0 + k1 (1.543) + k2(1.175)

k2= 1.00018

The general solution is y = ex - e-x / 2