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Topic 9.

8 Chemical Reactions Flashcards Set

Reactant

a substance or molecule that


participates in chemical reaction

Product

a substance that forms in a chemical


reaction

Chemical Energy

the energy released when a chemical


compound reacts to produce new
compounds

Exothermic Reaction

chemical reaction in which energy is


released to the surroundings as heat

Endothermic Reaction

Chemical Equation

Mole Ratio

Synthesis Reaction

a chemical reaction that requires energy


input

a representation of a chemical reaction


that uses symbols to show the
relationship between the reactants and
products

the relative number of moles of the


substances required to produce a given
amount of product...

reaction in which multiple substances


combine to form a new compound

Decomposition Reaction

a reaction in which a single compound


breaks down to form two or more
simpler substances

Combustion Reaction

the oxidation reaction of an organic


compound in which heat is released

Double- Displacement Reaction

Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

a reaction in which a gas, a solid


precipitate, or a molecular compound
forms from the swapping of a pair of
cations between a pair of anions

any chemical change in which one


species is oxidized and another species
is reduced

Catalyst

a substance that changes the rate of a


chemical reaction without being
consumed or changed

Collision Theory

atoms, ions, and molecules can react to


form products when they collide with
one another, provided that the colliding
particles have enough kinetic energy.

Substrate

Concentration

the reactant in reactions catalysed by


enzymes

a measure of the amount of solute


dissolved in a given amount of solvent
or solution

Molarity

Moles of solute per litre of solution.

Mass percent

(Grams of solute / Grams of solution) x


100%

Mass

Limiting reactant

Excess reactant

The reactant that limits the amount(s)


of the other reactant(s) that can
combine and the amount of
product(s) that can form in a chemical
reaction.

The reactant that there is so much of


that it is not completely used up in the
chemical reaction

Coefficient

In the equation: 2 C6H10 + 17


O2 12 CO2 + 10 H2O
2 moles of C6H10 react with (a)___
moles of O2 ----->
to make (b)____ moles of CO2 and
(c)____ moles of H2O.
(Fill in the blanks)

Relative atomic mass (Ar)

Relative molecular mass(Mr)

the number to the left of the formula for


a substance in a chemical equation;
indicates the number of moles or
molecules

A. 17
B. 12
C. 10

the ratio of the


average mass of atoms of an element to
1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom

the sum of the relative atomic


masses of the atoms making up an
ionic substance

To balance a chemical equation, it


may be necessary to adjust the
..

Coefficients

A chemical equation is balanced


when

The same number of each kind of atom


appears in the reactants and in the
products

This quantity can be used in the


same way as moles when
interpreting balanced chemical
equations

This is conserved in every


ordinary chemical reaction

Particles or molecules

Mass

How is the rate of a chemical


change expressed?

What four factors influence the


rate of a chemical reaction?

Activation energy

rate of chemical change (reaction rate)


is usually expressed as the amount of
reactant changing per unit time or
amount of a product produced per unit
time.

the rate of a chemical reaction depends


upon:
- temperature,
- concentration,
- particle size (surface area) , and
- the use of a catalyst.

the minimum energy that colliding


particles must have in order to react.

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