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AMT

Aerodynamics, Aircra1 Assembly


and Rigging
Chapter 2

Pressure

Vector

Speed - the rate of moAon

100 Knots
! If you are going 100 knots, where are you going?
!

You dont know

Vector - quanAty which has both direcAon and


magnitude
Velocity - the rate and direcAon of moAon
!

Southwest at 100 knots

Vector

45

Vector A shown here has a length, or magnitude, of 10 units,


and its direcAon is 45 clockwise from north.

Sum of Two Vectors - Resultant

The resultant, vector R, is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with vectors A and B as the two sides. The length of R is the
square root of the sum of the squares of the lengths of A and B.

Newtons First Law of MoAon

Objects at rest tend to remain at rest; objects in


moAon tend to remain in moAon at the same
speed and in the same direcAon.
!

Objects dont like to change

Newtons Second Law of MoAon

When a force acts upon a body, the momentum


of that body is changed. The rate of change of
momentum is proporAonal to the applied force.
The harder you push, the faster you go
! AcceleraAon and DeceleraAon
!

Newtons Third Law of MoAon

For every acAon there is an equal and opposite


reacAon.
The law behind thrust propulsion
! Push enough air backwards and the aircra1 moves
forward
!

Bernoullis Principle

Bernoullis Principle

ConverAng energy forms


!

PotenAal to KineAc
Height to speed

KineAc to PotenAal
Speed to height

The amount of energy must always stay the same

Bernoullis insight was to apply these principles


to uids

Airfoil

Airfoil Li1

Li1 produced when the aircra1 moves through


the air
Flight surfaces use special shape to create li1
The shape is called an airfoil
! Pressure dierences between the top and bo_om of
the airfoil creates li1
!

Airfoil

Aerodynamic li1 is produced by a relaAvely low pressure above the airfoil surface pulling air
down to the surface, while a relaAvely high pressure below the surface forces the air away. The mass
of the air deected downward is balanced by an equal upward force on the airfoil.

Airfoil Li1

Bernoulli's Principle
!

The total energy in the air owing over an airfoil


remains constant
ConservaAon of Energy

Any increase in its velocity will cause a


corresponding decrease in its pressure
! Airow moves faster over the top of a wing
!

Lower pressure
!

Airow moves slower over the bo_om of a wing


Higher pressure

Dierence between high and low pressure is li1

Airfoil Li1

Newtons third law - For every force there is an


equal and opposite reacAng force
The air hibng the bo_om of the wing and
leaving the trailing edge push up on the wing
!

That is li1

Airfoil

Aerodynamic li1 is produced by a relaAvely low pressure above the airfoil surface pulling air
down to the surface, while a relaAvely high pressure below the surface forces the air away. The mass
of the air deected downward is balanced by an equal upward force on the airfoil.

Airfoils

Wing Geometry

Angle of Incidence

Angle of A_ack (AOA)

Wing Angles

Angle of Incidence the angle made by the


aircra1s longitudinal axis and the wings cord.
!

This is xed during ight


A mechanic may change this while rigging the aircra1

Angle of A_ack (AOA) the angle between the


cord line of the wing and the direcAon of the
relaAve wind

Center of Pressure

Center of Pressure

Center of Pressure - the point on the chord line


of an airfoil at which all of the aerodynamic
forces are concentrated
Typically located somewhere around 30% to 40%
of the chord line back from the leading edge
(subsonic)
Center of pressure, for a asymmetrical airfoil,
moves forward as the angle of a_ack increases,
and backward as it decreases

Center of Pressure

Center of pressure, for a symmetrical airfoil,


does not move, but remains in essenAally the
same locaAon as the angle of a_ack changes

Center of Pressure

Aerodynamic Li1

As air density goes down, li1 goes down


Higher air temperature, lower density
! Higher alAtude, lower density
!

Higher airspeed, higher li1


!

Li1 goes up by the square of the airspeed


Double airspeed -> 4 Ames the li1

Li1 increases as angle of a_ack increases


!

0 to 20

Aerodynamic Li1

CriAcal angle of a_ack The angle when the air


ceases to ow smoothly over the top of the
wing, and the wing stalls
!

About 20

Aerodynamic Li1

Stall

Wing Plalorm and Progression of Stalls

Slots Ahead of Aileron

Figure 1-24. A xed slot in the leading edge of the wing ahead of the aileron forces high-energy air down over the aileron
and prevents this porAon of the wing from stalling before the inboard porAon of the wing stalls.

Stall Strips

Figure 1-25. A stall strip forces the root of the wing to stall before the Ap area stalls. This allows
the pilot to have lateral control during the stall.

DisconAnuous Leading Edge

Boundary Layer

Development of boundary layer on a smooth at surface.

Boundary Layer

Goal is to keep air layer smooth


Slots and slats force high-energy air from below
the wing into the upper-surface boundary layer
at high angles of a_ack to help control air at high
angles of a_ack
Wing fences - verAcal vanes that extend chord
wise across the upper surface of an wing to
prevent airow from bleeding along the span
No one has been able to get an pracAcal acAve
boundary layer to system to work
!

Boeing is working on one for tail surfaces

Vortex Generators

Pairs of small low-aspect-raAo airfoils


Installed on the upper surface of a wing, on both
sides of the verAcal n just ahead of the rudder,
and on the underside of the verAcal stabilizer
Pulls high-energy air down to the surface, which
energizes the boundary layer and prevents
airow separaAon unAl the surface reaches a
higher angle of a_ack.

Vortex Generators

Vortex generators pull high-energy air down to the surface to energize


the boundary layer and reduce drag.

Vortex Generators

Vortex Generators

Four Forces in Balance

Thrust
Li1
Downward force (Weight/Gravity)
Drag

Four Forces in Balance

Four Forces in Balance

Thrust Push from propeller or jet engine


Part of the power from the helicopter main blades
! A falling aircra1 creates thrust
!

Four Forces in Balance

Li1 Most of it comes from the wings


!

Some can come from the fuselage and addiAon


surfaces

Down Force Weight of plane and load


!

The lighter the load the more ecient the aircra1

Four Forces in Balance

Drag - sum of the forces that hold it back against


the forward force of thrust
Induced drag drag produced by an airfoil when it is
producing li1
! Parasite drag Drag caused by fricAon between the
air and the surface over which it is owing
!

Aerodynamic Li1 and Induced Drag

Five factors aect aerodynamic li1 and induced


drag:
Shape of the airfoil secAon
! Area of the airfoil
! Air density
! Speed of the air relaAve to the airfoil surface
! Angle between the airfoil and the relaAve wind (the
angle of a_ack)
!

Induced Drag

Drag

Increases with increased angle of a_ack


! For a given li1, angle of a_ack decreases with
increased speed
!

Induced drag decreases with increased speed

Parasite Drag increases as speed increases


Behind the power curve total drag is greater
than the thrust provided by the engine
!

Pilot must convert alAtude to thrust

Drag

Wing-Tip VorAces

Wing-Tip VorAces

Winglets extend upward from the wing Aps of many modern airplanes to reduce
drag and increase the L/D raAo by minimizing wing-Ap vorAces.

Aircra1 Axes

Stability

StaAc Stability - The characterisAc of an aircra1


that causes it to return to straight and level ight
a1er it has been disturbed from that condiAon
Dynamic stability is the measurement of how
changes to stability reacts

StaAc Stability

Dynamic Stability

Longitudinal Controls

Longitudinal controls control the aircra1 along


the longitudinal axis and about the lateral or
pitch axis
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator
! Stabilator - ight control that acts as both a
stabilizer and an elevator. The enAre horizontal tail
surface pivots and is moved as a unit
!

Uses anA-servo tab


!

Ruddervators V- tail. Control surfaces move


together to act like an elevator; move dierenAally
(opposite each other) to act like a rudder

Horizontal Stabilizer and Elevator

Stabilator

Ruddervators

Ruddervators

Lateral Controls

Lateral controls control the aircra1 along the


lateral axis and about the longitudinal, or roll
axis.
Aileron
! Spoilers
! Adverse yaw - induced drag pulls the nose the
opposite direcAon
!

Minimized by the use of dierenAal aileron travel - aileron


moving upward travels a greater distance than the aileron
moving downward
Corrected with Rudder

Aileron

Aerodynamic Balance

Spoilers

Turn

The horizontal component of li1 pulls the nose of a banked airplane around
in a turn. When the bank is started, the down aileron produces enough induced drag to
temporarily start the nose moving in the wrong direcAon.

Dihedral

Dihedral The posiAve angle formed between


the lateral axis of the airplane and a line that
passes through the center of the wing or
horizontal stabilizer
!

Increases lateral stability of an airplane


About the longitudinal axis

Dihedral

Dihedral produces lateral stability. When the right wing drops in ight, its angle of
a_ack increases, and the angle of a_ack of the le1 wing decreases. Increasing the angle of a_ack
increases the li1, and the wings return to level ight.

DirecAonal Stability

Stability about the verAcal axis is called


direcAonal stability, and it causes the nose of the
airplane to turn into the relaAve wind when it
has been disturbed from this condiAon
!

VerAcal Stabilizer
Parallel to the verAcal axis but not the longitudinal axis
!

Longitudinal oset provides direcAonal stability and correcAon for


engine thrust.

DirecAonal Stability

Figure 1-37. DirecAonal stability.

DirecAonal Controls

Yaw control
Rudder
Ruddervators V- tail. Control surfaces move
dierenAally (opposite each other) to act like a
rudder

Rudder

Ruddervators

Secondary Control Surfaces

Also known as Auxiliary Control Surfaces


Tabs
Flaps
Spoilers
Speed Brakes
Slat & Slots

Secondary Control Surfaces

Purposes

Reduce primary control forces


! Reduce land/takeo speed or length
! Change aircra1 speed
!

Must provide a means to indicate to the pilot


the posiAon of the trim device

Secondary Control Surfaces

Secondary Control Surfaces

Tab

Used to move control surface


Tab forces control surfaces in the opposite
direcAon
!

e.g. up facing tab forces control surface down

Servo Tab

Acts like power assist


Tab is used to move ight control

Spring Tab

Spring is used to help link tab movement


Acts like power assist
Has more eect at high control forces
Several dierent spring conguraAons

Balance Tab

Acts like power assist

AnA-Servo Tab

Acts against the pilots acAons


Helps add stability to a control

AnA-Servo Tab

Ground Adjustable Tab

Adjustable Surface

Flap

Increase li1
Used at slow speed
Increase drag
Moves center of pressure a1 on the airfoil
!

Causes a nose-down pitching moment

Flap

Plain Flap

Split Flap

Slo_ed Flap

Fowler Flap

Only ap type that increases the wing size

Fowler Flap

Leading Edge Slot

Leading Edge Slat

Leading Edge Flap

Spoiler

Spoiler

Speed Brake

Helicopter Main Components

Video

Bell Huey

Video

Helicopter

The main rotor blades are rotaAng wings


Rotor turns a constant RPM
The angle of a_ack (AOA) of the blades are
changed to change the li1
Change all the blades at once, more li1 is generated
! Change individual blades and direcAonal thrust is
generated
!

Forward/backwards
Side to side

Main Rotor System Swashplate

Video 1

Video 2

Main Rotor System

Classied by how blades move relaAve to the


main hub
3 types:
Fully arAculated (having a joint)
! Semi-rigid
! Rigid
!

Fully ArAculated Rotor System

Semi-Rigid Rotor System

Stabilizer Bar

Rigid Rotor System

Video

Helicopter Cockpit Controls

CollecAve

CollecAve

Raise the collecAve

Increase li1
! Raise the swashplate
! Increase the pitch of ALL blades
! Increase engine power
! Pilot must correct for extra torque
!

Can be locked in place

Cyclic Control

Cyclic Control

Moving the cyclic control changes the pitch of the main rotor blades at a point
in their rotaAon. This Alts the rotor disc and creates a horizontal component of li1 that moves
the helicopter in the direcAon the disc is Alted.

Cyclic Control

Changes blade pitch to match direcAonal change


!

Blades move independently

Move forward and back


Pitch helicopter forward or back
! Forward pitch less forward li1/more backward li1
! Backward pitch more forward li1/less backward li1
!

Cyclic Control

Move le1 and right

Pitch helicopter le1 or right


! Le1 pitch less le1 li1/more right li1
! Right pitch more le1 li1/less right li1
!

Horizontal stabilizer helps pitch stability


!

Some horizontal stabilizers move

Gyroscopic precession - inputs are made 90


degrees before the direcAon change needed
Cyclic input robs li1
!

More collecAve to maintain level

Horizontal Stabilizer

A horizontal stabilizer on a helicopter provides a downward aerodynamic


force to hold the tail down in forward ight.

Gyroscopic Precession

The rotor of a helicopter acts as a gyroscope and is aected by gyroscopic precession.


If the blade pitch is increased on the le1 side of the rotor, the disc will Alt forward.

AnA-Torque System

Torque of the engine driving the main rotor tries to rotate the fuselage to the right.
This rotaAon is prevented by thrust from the tail rotor.

AnA-Torque System

Main blades turns one way, helicopter body


wants to turn the other way
US helicopters blades turn counter-clockwise
! Overseas helicopter blades turn clockwise
!

AnA-torque systems are used to stop the


rotaAon
Tail rotors oppose the torque generated by the
main rotors
!

More li1 more torque

AnA-Torque System

Pilot adjusts torque with anA-torque (rudder)


pedals
Tail rotor blades turn at a constant speed
!

Hard linked to main rotor

Tail rotor blades change pitch to change torque


VerAcal ns help reduce tail rotor load during
forward ight
Robs power from power plant
Stay clear very dangerous

Tail Rotor

Fenestron

NOTAR

AnA-Torque System

Tail rotor dri1 or translaAng tendency


Combined eect of tail rotor thrust and main rotor
li1 - causing helicopter to dri1.
! The tail rotor and mast is Alted to correct for this
! Pilot must add cyclic input to correct
!

TranslaAng Tendency

Hover

Flying with no movement


Requires the most power
Easier to hover in ground eect
Heights less than 1/2 main rotor diameter
! Eected by ground surface material
!

Density alAtude and temperature will eect how


well a helicopter can hover

Ground Eect

Forward Flight

Move cyclic forward


Part of main rotor li1 pushes helicopter forward
TranslaAonal or transiAonal li1
An increase of air volume through the blade caused
by forward movement
! Causes increase li1
! Happens at about 15 knots
!

Forward Flight

Transverse ow eect

Air passing through the rear porAon of the rotor disc


has a higher down wash velocity than air passing
through the forward porAon
! Rear porAon of disc losses li1
! Gyroscopic precession means is causes li1 imbalance
between the le1 and right sides of the rotor disk
!

VibraAon felt around 12 to 15 knots

Dissymmetry of Li1

Dissymmetry of Li1

Happens in forward ight


Forward moving blade has higher relaAve
airspeed
!

More li1

Backward moving blade has lower relaAve


airspeed
!

Less li1

Helicopter will try to roll towards backward


moving blade

Dissymmetry of Li1

Limits forward speed of helicopters


Blade apping helps solve problem

Forward moving blade moves up


! Backward moving blade moves down
! Coriolis force blade coning
!

Semi-rigid rotors Alt to solve the problem

Vortex Rings

Airow through a helicopter rotor during power se_ling.

AutorotaAon

Land when there is a power failure


Sprag clutch disengages power plant
Lower collecAve to store energy in blades
Raise collecAve to are
!

Convert energy in spinning blades into li1 to slow


down descent

Video

Dead Man's Curve/Con Corner

Helicopter Turbine Engine

Helicopter Clutch

Enable engine starAng


Types:
Centrifugal
! Belt Drive
!

Turbine engines dont need clutch


!

Video

Freewheeling Unit

AutomaAcally disengages the engine from the


main rotor when engine rpm is less than needed
to maintain the main rotor rpm
!

Allows the main rotor and tail rotor to conAnue


turning at normal in-ight speeds

Most common type is a one-way sprag clutch


Video

Blade Adjustment

Both main and tail rotors are adjusted


Blade tracking adjust links to bring the Aps of
all blades into the same Ap path throughout
their enAre cycle of rotaAon
Blades should cone the same amount if tracked
correctly
! Doesnt adjust their path of ight
! Flag and Pole
! Electronic
!

Balance and vibraAon


!

Electronic

Flag and pole

StaAon Numbers and LocaAon IdenAcaAon


Fuselage StaAons numbered in inches from a
reference or zero point know as the reference
datum. (length wise)
Bu_ock Line (bu_ line) width measurement
le1 or right of, and parallel to, the verAcal center
line. (width wise)
Water Line the measurement of height in
inches perpendicular from a horizontal plane
located at xed number of inches below the
bo_om of the aircra1 fuselage (height wise)

Water Line and Fuselage StaAon

Bu_ock Line

Rebalance of Control Surface


The trialing edge is checked

Rebalance of Control Surface

A control surface must be rebalanced a1er any


maintenance that will eect the weight or
balance of the surface
!

This includes painAng

Each manufacturer and aircra1 will have its own


procedures
!

Follow the manufacturers service manual

Rigging InformaAon

Type CerAcate Data Sheets (TCDS) will contain


informaAon on how far a control surface should
move (deecAon).
O1en in angle of moAon
! Doesnt include procedures (how to)
!

Manufacturers Service and Maintenance


Manual will contain both data and procedures
!

Gold Standard

Airworthiness DirecAve (AD) may contain


informaAon
Service Le_er and BulleAns include
recommendaAons

Rigging Work Setup

Conduct inside a hanger so there is not wind


disturbing the aircra1
!

If outside, face aircra1 nose into wind

Insure the aircra1 is level


If aircra1 is jacked up, insure all criAcal stress
panels and plates are installed
!

This may include closing the hatches and doors

Primary Flight Control Surfaces

Cessna Aileron Control Cables

3 max deflection for Fairlead

Cable Guides

Pulleys are used to change cable direction

Cable Rigging

Control surfaces are o1en moved by cables,


push-pull rods or torque tubes (twisAng)
Cable material
!

Carbon steel
Older style
Corrodes
!
!

Coated in zinc or An
Lubricate with Par Al Ketone

CRES
May be coated in nylon

Comes pre-streched

Control Cable

Control Cable

Cable Rigging

Cable DesignaAon

Number of strands
! Number of wires per strand
! e.g. 7 X 19 7 strands, each strand has 19 wires
!

7 X 19 is the only acceptable type for primary


controls
Most exible
! Minimum size is 1/8 diameter for primary controls
!

7 X 7 used for things like engine controls and


aps

Cable Rigging

Cable TerminaAons
!

Woven splice
75% of cable strength
Not used any more

Nicopress
100% of cable strength
Use go/ no go gauge for tesAng

Swage type
AN & MS type terminaAons
100% of cable strength
Use go/ no go gauge for tesAng

Test the cable by proof-loading it to 60 percent


of its rated breaking strength

Nicopress
Thimble

Nicopress

Nicopress

Swag Type TerminaAons

Swag Type Gauge

Cable Splices

Cable Splices

Used to x broken cable


Used in free lengths of cable which do not pass
over pulleys or through fair-leads
Locate splices so that no porAon of the splice
comes closer than 2 to any fair-lead or pulley
Locate connecAons at points where jamming
cannot occur

Cable InspecAon/Replacement

Look for corrosion with carbon steel cables


Passing a cloth over an area to snag on broken
wires
!

Dont use your hand

Look for hairline crack


May need magnifying glass
! Remove and bend cable to show cracks
!

Look for cracks in nylon jacket


Look for outer wires wear of 40 to 50 percent
Most breakage occurs at ends, pulleys and
through fairleads

Cable InspecAon

Cable InspecAon

Tensiometer

Cable Tension

Turnbuckle

Cable Tension

A1er maintenance or a repair, check and adjust


the tension of the cables
Use a Tensiometer
Rigging charts are calibrated with temperature
As the temperature lowers, the aircra1 shrinks
faster than the cables
Cable loosen with colder temperatures
! Large aircra1 use tension regulators to retain the
correct tension as temperature changes
!

Excessive tension causes the control to feel sA


or heavy

Turnbuckle

Turnbuckle

No more than three threads can be exposed


On iniAal installaAon, the turnbuckle terminals
should not be screwed inside the turnbuckle
barrel more than four threads
Witness holes are used to insure terminal is
screwed in far enough
!

Look for thread in hole


A piece of wire should not pass through hole

Safety wire or clip turnbuckle


!

Safety wire requires a minimum of 4 turns around


the terminal end shanks

Turnbuckle Safety Wire

Turnbuckle Safety Wire

Clip Type Turnbuckle

MS Clip-type locking device for turnbuckles.

Pulley Wear

Check bearing wear also

Push Pull Rod

Rod A_achment End

Cessna Type Wing Adjustment

The angle of incidence of some canAlever airplanes is adjusted by rotaAng


eccentric bushings in the rear wing spar bng.

Wing Measurement

Measurement taken on the front spare

The dihedral angle is checked with a dihedral board and a spirit level.

Rigging Wing

Dihedral - The posiAve angle formed between


the lateral axis of an airplane and a line that
passes through the center of the wing or
horizontal stabilizer
Wash IN - A twist in an airplane wing that
INcreases its angle of incidence near the Ap
!

Increase wash in wing li1 is INcreased and drag is


INcreased

Wash out - A twist in an airplane wing that


decreases its angle of incidence near the Ap
!

Increase wash out wing li1 is decreased and drag is


decrease

Rigging Wing

Wing heavy - An out-of-trim ight condiAon in


which an airplane ies hands o, with one wing
low
The low wing is the heavy wing
! Correct by:
!

Increase the angle of incidence (add wash in) to the low


wing, or
Decrease the angle of incidence (add wash out) to the high
wing, or
Both

Rigging Wing

The manufacturer will give you instrucAon on


how to create a dihedral board; and xtures to
measure incidence and twist
!

The boards and xtures are then measured with a


level
Also called a bubble level or spirit level

Dihedral board is usually placed on the front spar

Propeller Protractor

Propeller Protractor

Used to measure the deect of control surfaces


such as the ailerons, elevators, and aps
Protractor is zero with the control surface in
the neutral posiAon
Measurements are made in degrees