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Aerodynamics, Aircra1 Assembly

and Rigging
Chapter 2



Speed - the rate of moAon

100 Knots
! If you are going 100 knots, where are you going?

You dont know

Vector - quanAty which has both direcAon and

Velocity - the rate and direcAon of moAon

Southwest at 100 knots



Vector A shown here has a length, or magnitude, of 10 units,

and its direcAon is 45 clockwise from north.

Sum of Two Vectors - Resultant

The resultant, vector R, is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with vectors A and B as the two sides. The length of R is the
square root of the sum of the squares of the lengths of A and B.

Newtons First Law of MoAon

Objects at rest tend to remain at rest; objects in

moAon tend to remain in moAon at the same
speed and in the same direcAon.

Objects dont like to change

Newtons Second Law of MoAon

When a force acts upon a body, the momentum

of that body is changed. The rate of change of
momentum is proporAonal to the applied force.
The harder you push, the faster you go
! AcceleraAon and DeceleraAon

Newtons Third Law of MoAon

For every acAon there is an equal and opposite

The law behind thrust propulsion
! Push enough air backwards and the aircra1 moves

Bernoullis Principle

Bernoullis Principle

ConverAng energy forms


PotenAal to KineAc
Height to speed

KineAc to PotenAal
Speed to height

The amount of energy must always stay the same

Bernoullis insight was to apply these principles

to uids


Airfoil Li1

Li1 produced when the aircra1 moves through

the air
Flight surfaces use special shape to create li1
The shape is called an airfoil
! Pressure dierences between the top and bo_om of
the airfoil creates li1


Aerodynamic li1 is produced by a relaAvely low pressure above the airfoil surface pulling air
down to the surface, while a relaAvely high pressure below the surface forces the air away. The mass
of the air deected downward is balanced by an equal upward force on the airfoil.

Airfoil Li1

Bernoulli's Principle

The total energy in the air owing over an airfoil

remains constant
ConservaAon of Energy

Any increase in its velocity will cause a

corresponding decrease in its pressure
! Airow moves faster over the top of a wing

Lower pressure

Airow moves slower over the bo_om of a wing

Higher pressure

Dierence between high and low pressure is li1

Airfoil Li1

Newtons third law - For every force there is an

equal and opposite reacAng force
The air hibng the bo_om of the wing and
leaving the trailing edge push up on the wing

That is li1


Aerodynamic li1 is produced by a relaAvely low pressure above the airfoil surface pulling air
down to the surface, while a relaAvely high pressure below the surface forces the air away. The mass
of the air deected downward is balanced by an equal upward force on the airfoil.


Wing Geometry

Angle of Incidence

Angle of A_ack (AOA)

Wing Angles

Angle of Incidence the angle made by the

aircra1s longitudinal axis and the wings cord.

This is xed during ight

A mechanic may change this while rigging the aircra1

Angle of A_ack (AOA) the angle between the

cord line of the wing and the direcAon of the
relaAve wind

Center of Pressure

Center of Pressure

Center of Pressure - the point on the chord line

of an airfoil at which all of the aerodynamic
forces are concentrated
Typically located somewhere around 30% to 40%
of the chord line back from the leading edge
Center of pressure, for a asymmetrical airfoil,
moves forward as the angle of a_ack increases,
and backward as it decreases

Center of Pressure

Center of pressure, for a symmetrical airfoil,

does not move, but remains in essenAally the
same locaAon as the angle of a_ack changes

Center of Pressure

Aerodynamic Li1

As air density goes down, li1 goes down

Higher air temperature, lower density
! Higher alAtude, lower density

Higher airspeed, higher li1


Li1 goes up by the square of the airspeed

Double airspeed -> 4 Ames the li1

Li1 increases as angle of a_ack increases


0 to 20

Aerodynamic Li1

CriAcal angle of a_ack The angle when the air

ceases to ow smoothly over the top of the
wing, and the wing stalls

About 20

Aerodynamic Li1


Wing Plalorm and Progression of Stalls

Slots Ahead of Aileron

Figure 1-24. A xed slot in the leading edge of the wing ahead of the aileron forces high-energy air down over the aileron
and prevents this porAon of the wing from stalling before the inboard porAon of the wing stalls.

Stall Strips

Figure 1-25. A stall strip forces the root of the wing to stall before the Ap area stalls. This allows
the pilot to have lateral control during the stall.

DisconAnuous Leading Edge

Boundary Layer

Development of boundary layer on a smooth at surface.

Boundary Layer

Goal is to keep air layer smooth

Slots and slats force high-energy air from below
the wing into the upper-surface boundary layer
at high angles of a_ack to help control air at high
angles of a_ack
Wing fences - verAcal vanes that extend chord
wise across the upper surface of an wing to
prevent airow from bleeding along the span
No one has been able to get an pracAcal acAve
boundary layer to system to work

Boeing is working on one for tail surfaces

Vortex Generators

Pairs of small low-aspect-raAo airfoils

Installed on the upper surface of a wing, on both
sides of the verAcal n just ahead of the rudder,
and on the underside of the verAcal stabilizer
Pulls high-energy air down to the surface, which
energizes the boundary layer and prevents
airow separaAon unAl the surface reaches a
higher angle of a_ack.

Vortex Generators

Vortex generators pull high-energy air down to the surface to energize

the boundary layer and reduce drag.

Vortex Generators

Vortex Generators

Four Forces in Balance

Downward force (Weight/Gravity)

Four Forces in Balance

Four Forces in Balance

Thrust Push from propeller or jet engine

Part of the power from the helicopter main blades
! A falling aircra1 creates thrust

Four Forces in Balance

Li1 Most of it comes from the wings


Some can come from the fuselage and addiAon


Down Force Weight of plane and load


The lighter the load the more ecient the aircra1

Four Forces in Balance

Drag - sum of the forces that hold it back against

the forward force of thrust
Induced drag drag produced by an airfoil when it is
producing li1
! Parasite drag Drag caused by fricAon between the
air and the surface over which it is owing

Aerodynamic Li1 and Induced Drag

Five factors aect aerodynamic li1 and induced

Shape of the airfoil secAon
! Area of the airfoil
! Air density
! Speed of the air relaAve to the airfoil surface
! Angle between the airfoil and the relaAve wind (the
angle of a_ack)

Induced Drag


Increases with increased angle of a_ack

! For a given li1, angle of a_ack decreases with
increased speed

Induced drag decreases with increased speed

Parasite Drag increases as speed increases

Behind the power curve total drag is greater
than the thrust provided by the engine

Pilot must convert alAtude to thrust


Wing-Tip VorAces

Wing-Tip VorAces

Winglets extend upward from the wing Aps of many modern airplanes to reduce
drag and increase the L/D raAo by minimizing wing-Ap vorAces.

Aircra1 Axes


StaAc Stability - The characterisAc of an aircra1

that causes it to return to straight and level ight
a1er it has been disturbed from that condiAon
Dynamic stability is the measurement of how
changes to stability reacts

StaAc Stability

Dynamic Stability

Longitudinal Controls

Longitudinal controls control the aircra1 along

the longitudinal axis and about the lateral or
pitch axis
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator
! Stabilator - ight control that acts as both a
stabilizer and an elevator. The enAre horizontal tail
surface pivots and is moved as a unit

Uses anA-servo tab


Ruddervators V- tail. Control surfaces move

together to act like an elevator; move dierenAally
(opposite each other) to act like a rudder

Horizontal Stabilizer and Elevator




Lateral Controls

Lateral controls control the aircra1 along the

lateral axis and about the longitudinal, or roll
! Spoilers
! Adverse yaw - induced drag pulls the nose the
opposite direcAon

Minimized by the use of dierenAal aileron travel - aileron

moving upward travels a greater distance than the aileron
moving downward
Corrected with Rudder


Aerodynamic Balance



The horizontal component of li1 pulls the nose of a banked airplane around
in a turn. When the bank is started, the down aileron produces enough induced drag to
temporarily start the nose moving in the wrong direcAon.


Dihedral The posiAve angle formed between

the lateral axis of the airplane and a line that
passes through the center of the wing or
horizontal stabilizer

Increases lateral stability of an airplane

About the longitudinal axis


Dihedral produces lateral stability. When the right wing drops in ight, its angle of
a_ack increases, and the angle of a_ack of the le1 wing decreases. Increasing the angle of a_ack
increases the li1, and the wings return to level ight.

DirecAonal Stability

Stability about the verAcal axis is called

direcAonal stability, and it causes the nose of the
airplane to turn into the relaAve wind when it
has been disturbed from this condiAon

VerAcal Stabilizer
Parallel to the verAcal axis but not the longitudinal axis

Longitudinal oset provides direcAonal stability and correcAon for

engine thrust.

DirecAonal Stability

Figure 1-37. DirecAonal stability.

DirecAonal Controls

Yaw control
Ruddervators V- tail. Control surfaces move
dierenAally (opposite each other) to act like a



Secondary Control Surfaces

Also known as Auxiliary Control Surfaces

Speed Brakes
Slat & Slots

Secondary Control Surfaces


Reduce primary control forces

! Reduce land/takeo speed or length
! Change aircra1 speed

Must provide a means to indicate to the pilot

the posiAon of the trim device

Secondary Control Surfaces

Secondary Control Surfaces


Used to move control surface

Tab forces control surfaces in the opposite

e.g. up facing tab forces control surface down

Servo Tab

Acts like power assist

Tab is used to move ight control

Spring Tab

Spring is used to help link tab movement

Acts like power assist
Has more eect at high control forces
Several dierent spring conguraAons

Balance Tab

Acts like power assist

AnA-Servo Tab

Acts against the pilots acAons

Helps add stability to a control

AnA-Servo Tab

Ground Adjustable Tab

Adjustable Surface


Increase li1
Used at slow speed
Increase drag
Moves center of pressure a1 on the airfoil

Causes a nose-down pitching moment


Plain Flap

Split Flap

Slo_ed Flap

Fowler Flap

Only ap type that increases the wing size

Fowler Flap

Leading Edge Slot

Leading Edge Slat

Leading Edge Flap



Speed Brake

Helicopter Main Components


Bell Huey



The main rotor blades are rotaAng wings

Rotor turns a constant RPM
The angle of a_ack (AOA) of the blades are
changed to change the li1
Change all the blades at once, more li1 is generated
! Change individual blades and direcAonal thrust is

Side to side

Main Rotor System Swashplate

Video 1

Video 2

Main Rotor System

Classied by how blades move relaAve to the

main hub
3 types:
Fully arAculated (having a joint)
! Semi-rigid
! Rigid

Fully ArAculated Rotor System

Semi-Rigid Rotor System

Stabilizer Bar

Rigid Rotor System


Helicopter Cockpit Controls



Raise the collecAve

Increase li1
! Raise the swashplate
! Increase the pitch of ALL blades
! Increase engine power
! Pilot must correct for extra torque

Can be locked in place

Cyclic Control

Cyclic Control

Moving the cyclic control changes the pitch of the main rotor blades at a point
in their rotaAon. This Alts the rotor disc and creates a horizontal component of li1 that moves
the helicopter in the direcAon the disc is Alted.

Cyclic Control

Changes blade pitch to match direcAonal change


Blades move independently

Move forward and back

Pitch helicopter forward or back
! Forward pitch less forward li1/more backward li1
! Backward pitch more forward li1/less backward li1

Cyclic Control

Move le1 and right

Pitch helicopter le1 or right

! Le1 pitch less le1 li1/more right li1
! Right pitch more le1 li1/less right li1

Horizontal stabilizer helps pitch stability


Some horizontal stabilizers move

Gyroscopic precession - inputs are made 90

degrees before the direcAon change needed
Cyclic input robs li1

More collecAve to maintain level

Horizontal Stabilizer

A horizontal stabilizer on a helicopter provides a downward aerodynamic

force to hold the tail down in forward ight.

Gyroscopic Precession

The rotor of a helicopter acts as a gyroscope and is aected by gyroscopic precession.

If the blade pitch is increased on the le1 side of the rotor, the disc will Alt forward.

AnA-Torque System

Torque of the engine driving the main rotor tries to rotate the fuselage to the right.
This rotaAon is prevented by thrust from the tail rotor.

AnA-Torque System

Main blades turns one way, helicopter body

wants to turn the other way
US helicopters blades turn counter-clockwise
! Overseas helicopter blades turn clockwise

AnA-torque systems are used to stop the

Tail rotors oppose the torque generated by the
main rotors

More li1 more torque

AnA-Torque System

Pilot adjusts torque with anA-torque (rudder)

Tail rotor blades turn at a constant speed

Hard linked to main rotor

Tail rotor blades change pitch to change torque

VerAcal ns help reduce tail rotor load during
forward ight
Robs power from power plant
Stay clear very dangerous

Tail Rotor



AnA-Torque System

Tail rotor dri1 or translaAng tendency

Combined eect of tail rotor thrust and main rotor
li1 - causing helicopter to dri1.
! The tail rotor and mast is Alted to correct for this
! Pilot must add cyclic input to correct

TranslaAng Tendency


Flying with no movement

Requires the most power
Easier to hover in ground eect
Heights less than 1/2 main rotor diameter
! Eected by ground surface material

Density alAtude and temperature will eect how

well a helicopter can hover

Ground Eect

Forward Flight

Move cyclic forward

Part of main rotor li1 pushes helicopter forward
TranslaAonal or transiAonal li1
An increase of air volume through the blade caused
by forward movement
! Causes increase li1
! Happens at about 15 knots

Forward Flight

Transverse ow eect

Air passing through the rear porAon of the rotor disc

has a higher down wash velocity than air passing
through the forward porAon
! Rear porAon of disc losses li1
! Gyroscopic precession means is causes li1 imbalance
between the le1 and right sides of the rotor disk

VibraAon felt around 12 to 15 knots

Dissymmetry of Li1

Dissymmetry of Li1

Happens in forward ight

Forward moving blade has higher relaAve

More li1

Backward moving blade has lower relaAve


Less li1

Helicopter will try to roll towards backward

moving blade

Dissymmetry of Li1

Limits forward speed of helicopters

Blade apping helps solve problem

Forward moving blade moves up

! Backward moving blade moves down
! Coriolis force blade coning

Semi-rigid rotors Alt to solve the problem

Vortex Rings

Airow through a helicopter rotor during power se_ling.


Land when there is a power failure

Sprag clutch disengages power plant
Lower collecAve to store energy in blades
Raise collecAve to are

Convert energy in spinning blades into li1 to slow

down descent


Dead Man's Curve/Con Corner

Helicopter Turbine Engine

Helicopter Clutch

Enable engine starAng

! Belt Drive

Turbine engines dont need clutch



Freewheeling Unit

AutomaAcally disengages the engine from the

main rotor when engine rpm is less than needed
to maintain the main rotor rpm

Allows the main rotor and tail rotor to conAnue

turning at normal in-ight speeds

Most common type is a one-way sprag clutch


Blade Adjustment

Both main and tail rotors are adjusted

Blade tracking adjust links to bring the Aps of
all blades into the same Ap path throughout
their enAre cycle of rotaAon
Blades should cone the same amount if tracked
! Doesnt adjust their path of ight
! Flag and Pole
! Electronic

Balance and vibraAon



Flag and pole

StaAon Numbers and LocaAon IdenAcaAon

Fuselage StaAons numbered in inches from a
reference or zero point know as the reference
datum. (length wise)
Bu_ock Line (bu_ line) width measurement
le1 or right of, and parallel to, the verAcal center
line. (width wise)
Water Line the measurement of height in
inches perpendicular from a horizontal plane
located at xed number of inches below the
bo_om of the aircra1 fuselage (height wise)

Water Line and Fuselage StaAon

Bu_ock Line

Rebalance of Control Surface

The trialing edge is checked

Rebalance of Control Surface

A control surface must be rebalanced a1er any

maintenance that will eect the weight or
balance of the surface

This includes painAng

Each manufacturer and aircra1 will have its own


Follow the manufacturers service manual

Rigging InformaAon

Type CerAcate Data Sheets (TCDS) will contain

informaAon on how far a control surface should
move (deecAon).
O1en in angle of moAon
! Doesnt include procedures (how to)

Manufacturers Service and Maintenance

Manual will contain both data and procedures

Gold Standard

Airworthiness DirecAve (AD) may contain

Service Le_er and BulleAns include

Rigging Work Setup

Conduct inside a hanger so there is not wind

disturbing the aircra1

If outside, face aircra1 nose into wind

Insure the aircra1 is level

If aircra1 is jacked up, insure all criAcal stress
panels and plates are installed

This may include closing the hatches and doors

Primary Flight Control Surfaces

Cessna Aileron Control Cables

3 max deflection for Fairlead

Cable Guides

Pulleys are used to change cable direction

Cable Rigging

Control surfaces are o1en moved by cables,

push-pull rods or torque tubes (twisAng)
Cable material

Carbon steel
Older style

Coated in zinc or An
Lubricate with Par Al Ketone

May be coated in nylon

Comes pre-streched

Control Cable

Control Cable

Cable Rigging

Cable DesignaAon

Number of strands
! Number of wires per strand
! e.g. 7 X 19 7 strands, each strand has 19 wires

7 X 19 is the only acceptable type for primary

Most exible
! Minimum size is 1/8 diameter for primary controls

7 X 7 used for things like engine controls and


Cable Rigging

Cable TerminaAons

Woven splice
75% of cable strength
Not used any more

100% of cable strength
Use go/ no go gauge for tesAng

Swage type
AN & MS type terminaAons
100% of cable strength
Use go/ no go gauge for tesAng

Test the cable by proof-loading it to 60 percent

of its rated breaking strength




Swag Type TerminaAons

Swag Type Gauge

Cable Splices

Cable Splices

Used to x broken cable

Used in free lengths of cable which do not pass
over pulleys or through fair-leads
Locate splices so that no porAon of the splice
comes closer than 2 to any fair-lead or pulley
Locate connecAons at points where jamming
cannot occur

Cable InspecAon/Replacement

Look for corrosion with carbon steel cables

Passing a cloth over an area to snag on broken

Dont use your hand

Look for hairline crack

May need magnifying glass
! Remove and bend cable to show cracks

Look for cracks in nylon jacket

Look for outer wires wear of 40 to 50 percent
Most breakage occurs at ends, pulleys and
through fairleads

Cable InspecAon

Cable InspecAon


Cable Tension


Cable Tension

A1er maintenance or a repair, check and adjust

the tension of the cables
Use a Tensiometer
Rigging charts are calibrated with temperature
As the temperature lowers, the aircra1 shrinks
faster than the cables
Cable loosen with colder temperatures
! Large aircra1 use tension regulators to retain the
correct tension as temperature changes

Excessive tension causes the control to feel sA

or heavy



No more than three threads can be exposed

On iniAal installaAon, the turnbuckle terminals
should not be screwed inside the turnbuckle
barrel more than four threads
Witness holes are used to insure terminal is
screwed in far enough

Look for thread in hole

A piece of wire should not pass through hole

Safety wire or clip turnbuckle


Safety wire requires a minimum of 4 turns around

the terminal end shanks

Turnbuckle Safety Wire

Turnbuckle Safety Wire

Clip Type Turnbuckle

MS Clip-type locking device for turnbuckles.

Pulley Wear

Check bearing wear also

Push Pull Rod

Rod A_achment End

Cessna Type Wing Adjustment

The angle of incidence of some canAlever airplanes is adjusted by rotaAng

eccentric bushings in the rear wing spar bng.

Wing Measurement

Measurement taken on the front spare

The dihedral angle is checked with a dihedral board and a spirit level.

Rigging Wing

Dihedral - The posiAve angle formed between

the lateral axis of an airplane and a line that
passes through the center of the wing or
horizontal stabilizer
Wash IN - A twist in an airplane wing that
INcreases its angle of incidence near the Ap

Increase wash in wing li1 is INcreased and drag is


Wash out - A twist in an airplane wing that

decreases its angle of incidence near the Ap

Increase wash out wing li1 is decreased and drag is


Rigging Wing

Wing heavy - An out-of-trim ight condiAon in

which an airplane ies hands o, with one wing
The low wing is the heavy wing
! Correct by:

Increase the angle of incidence (add wash in) to the low

wing, or
Decrease the angle of incidence (add wash out) to the high
wing, or

Rigging Wing

The manufacturer will give you instrucAon on

how to create a dihedral board; and xtures to
measure incidence and twist

The boards and xtures are then measured with a

Also called a bubble level or spirit level

Dihedral board is usually placed on the front spar

Propeller Protractor

Propeller Protractor

Used to measure the deect of control surfaces

such as the ailerons, elevators, and aps
Protractor is zero with the control surface in
the neutral posiAon
Measurements are made in degrees