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AMT

111
Advanced Composite Materials
Chapter 7

Composite Lab Safety

Eye protec=on

Protect from chemical splashes


! Protect from dust generated by cuAng or sanding
!

Respiratory Protec=on (mask)


Protect from dust generated by cuAng or sanding
! Use vacuum when using power tools
!

Skin protec=on
Use gloves and protec=ve clothing
! Wash hands aIer handling material
!

AircraI Control Surfaces


Vertical Stabilizer

Wing

Horizontal
Stabilizer

Fuselage

AircraI Axes

Lateral Axis
!

AircraI Axes

Also called the pitch axis

Longitudinal Axis
!

Also called the roll axis

Ver=cal Axis
!

Also called the yaw axis

AircraI Structures

A true monocoque structure has bulkheads and formers to give the structure its shape, but all of the ight loads are
carried in the thin sheet metal skin.

AircraI Structures

A semimonocoque structure carries the ight loads in its outer skin, but this
thin skin is backed up with stringers that extend across the formers.

AircraI Structures

The reinforced shell is the most generally used type of construc=on for modern all-metal aircraI.

Stress

Compression & Tension

Compression & Tension

Video

Diamond Construc=on

Composite Structures

Advantages:

Complex shapes
! Labor savings
! Moistures resistant
! Weight?
!

Disadvantages:
!

Complex repairs
The method of repair will vary from aircraI to aircraI

Separa=on of layers
Electric shielding layer can be an issue

Corrosion when ma=ng with metal (carbon ber)


! Sun and heat deteriora=on
!

Composite Structures

Components:
!

Fiber/reinforcing material
The real strength

Matrix (glue)

Recipe or formula:
!

Fiber
Type
Orienta=on & weave
Layering
Placement

Matrix
Curing process

Fiber Deni=ons

Fiber - reinforcing material


!

Main strength runs along the length of the ber

Roving a group of ber laments


Tape unidirec=onal (one direc=onal) mat of
bers
Fabric bidirec=onal (two direc=onal) mat of
bers
!

Warp longitudinal length wise


Usually the main direc=on of strength

Fill (also called weI) transverse across the length


! Bias - 45 to warp
!

Tape and Fabric

Warp and WeI

Unidirec=onal Tape

Bidirec=onal Fabric

Fabric Layout

Warp Clock

Fiberglass

Fiber

Thin bers drawn from molten glass


! Shiny white
! E-glass
!

Low cost
!

S-glass
High tensile strength and s=ness

Aramid ber
Kevlar
! High tensile strength and exible
! Yellow
!

Reinforcing Material

Graphite/Carbon Fiber - Video

Light and s=
! Used to add rigidity to structures
! Electrically conduc=ve
!

Caused corrosion when in contact with metals


!

Titanium or CRES fasteners

Causes issues for radio equipment

Very expensive
! Black
!

Lightning Protec=on Fibers (layer)


!

Nickel-coated graphite, metal mesh, aluminized


berglass or conduc=ve paint

Reinforcing Material

Fiber Orienta=on

Greatest strength and s=ness parallel to ber


! Random ber orienta=on or mats usually not used in
avia=on
! How a fabric is woven determines the strength of the
material
!

Also determines the direc=on of the strength


!

Fiber layers are placed in dierent direc=ons to


improve strength
A warp clock (compass) is used to determine the direc=on

FAA say the strongest in the warp direc=on

Matrix Materials

Glue
Only job is to link the bers
Minimize the amount to reduce weight
!

FAA says 60:40 ber to resin ra=o

Mix only what is needed


Pot life - The length of =me a resin will remain
workable aIer the catalyst has been added
! Too much matrix will cause thermal runaway
!

Follow direc=ons
Only way to test is to make a test piece

Polyester
!

Matrix Materials

Two part
Resin
Catalyst/ac=vator
!
!

MEKP - Methyl Ethel Ketone Peroxide


Used at ra=os of greater than 100:1

Can be thinned
! Easy to color
! Surface must be sealed before it will fully cure
!

Mold surface, wax addi=ve or PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)

Not as strong as epoxy


! Cheaper than epoxy
!

Matrix Materials

Epoxy
!

Two part
Resin
Catalyst/hardener
!

Use in ra=os closer to 1:1 or 2:1

Ra=o must be exact


! No thinning
! May require heat to cure
! Follow instruc=ons!
!

Matrix Materials

Prepreg fabric that is preimpregnated with


matrix
Speeds up manufacturing process
! Raw material is refrigerated and has very limited life
span
! Cured with heat and pressure
!

Large autoclaves are used to cure parts

Compression & Tension

Compression & Tension

Core Material

The outer skins of a structure carries most of the


load
Adding distance between the outer skins can
strengthen a structure without adding weight
The inner por=on of structure transfers load to
the outer skin
Core material is used to transfer loads to the
outer skins
Core material adds distance between outer skins
Core material is lighter than the composite
material high strength to weight ra=o

Balsawood
!

Core Material

The grain must be perpendicular to the outer skins

Foams
!

Styrofoam (polystyrene)
Cut with hot wire
Can not be used with polyester resin

Urethane
Fuel proof
Cant be cut with hot wire
Can be used with epoxy or polyester resin

Honeycomb

Core Material

Aluminum, paper, berglass, stainless steel, and


Nomex (aramid)
! Very high strength to weight ra=o
! If repairing aluminum core, prime the repair with a
corrosion inhibitor and seal from the atmosphere
! If nonsymmetrical palern, the repair must replicate
the original orienta=on
!

Honeycomb core material has strength parallel to the


ribbon direc=on
!

Line-up in ribbon direc=on when repairing

Ribbon Direc=on

Filler Material

Thickens matrix
Microspheres or micro-balloons
Tiny hollow glass balls
! Very light
!

Reduces the density of a matrix mix


Improves strength to weight ra=o
Adds some exibility
!

Reduces stress risers/concentra=on

Chopped berglass or ox (colon)


!

Adds strength

Talc
Cab-o-sil - silicon dioxide

Manufacturing Methods

Wet Lay-Up/Hand Lay-Up Process

Usual moldless
! Appling reinforcement material and matrix by hand
!

Matched Dies
!

Pairs of matched dies

Vacuum Bag
A vacuum bag is used to create a vacuum around a
component
! Atmospheric pressure forces wet structures into
mold
! Vacuum assists in removing excess matrix
!

Manufacturing Methods

Autoclave High pressure and heat chamber


!

Used to cure matrix

Filament Winding Individual bers are wound


to an exact palern to provide the ul=mate in
ber orienta=on
!

Used for helicopter and propeller blades

Matched Dies

Heated matched dies are used for making a large number of iden=cal parts.

Vacuum Bag

A vacuum bag may be used to apply the pressure to a composite lay-up to ensure that it takes the shape of the female die
and to ensure that all of the individual bers are completely encapsulated.

Filament Winding

When the maximum strength is required, the part may be lament-wound and cured in an autoclave.

Problems:

Inspec=on

Cracks
! Delamina=on Separa=on of composite layers
! Matrix void detec=on Usually aIer repairs or
manufacturing
! Trapped water
!

Indica=on of structural failure

Methods:
!

Inspec=on

Coin Tap tapping the edge of a coin on the


structure.
Listen for dull thuds, indicates a problem
Indicates there is a problem but cant measure the
magnitude

Acous=c emission Use sound to vibrate a structure


and listen for bad noises
Will not detect entrapped water

Methods:

Inspec=on

Ultrasonic inspec=on
! Radiographic (X-ray)
! Backligh=ng
!

Remove paint, shine a strong light on one side and inspect

Repair

Follow the manufacturers instruc=ons


!

General purpose berglass and matrix cant replicate


the advanced methods used by the manufactures

Non-structural repair
e.g. cracked wheel pants
! Stop drill the crack
! Apply the repair to the inside
!

Roughen up the surface by sanding


De-grease with MEK
!

Test rst

Glue on a berglass patch

Repair

If the core is damaged, remove and replace

Typical dimensions for a room-temperature repair to the face plies of a honeycomb core composite panel.

Repair

Typical lay-up for vacuum-bagging of a room-temperature cured repair.

Repair

When repairing puncture-type damage of a


metal faced laminated honeycomb panel, the
edges of the doubler should be tapered to 100
=mes the thickness of the metal
Supercial scars, scratches, surface abrasion, or
rain erosion on berglass laminates can
generally be repaired by applying one or more
coats of suitable resin (room-temperature
catalyzed) to the surface

Repair

A poled compound repair on honeycomb can


usually be made on damages less than 1 inch in
diameter
One method of reducing the amount of warpage
is to use short strips of berglass in the bonded
repair
Dont use any cuAng oil
Fiberglass laminate damage not exceeding the
rst layer or ply can be repaired by lling with a
puly consis=ng of a compa=ble resin and clean,
short glass bers

Plas=cs

General types (categorized by how they react to


heat)
!

ThermoseAng
Set by heat once, reapplica=on of heat will destroy it

Thermoplas=c
Can be soIened by heat, and when they are cooled they
will regain their original hardness and rigidity
Not damaged by repeated hea=ng and cooling, so long as
they are not overheated.

Thermoplas=cs

Can be soIen with heat and formed into a


specic shape
!

Pressure or vacuum formed

Acrylics
Modern type
! Plexiglas, Lucite and Perspex
!

Acetate
Older type
! Yellows and gets brille with age
!

Thermoplas=cs

Type test: swab with acetone

Acetate will soIen


! Acrylic turns white but doesnt soIen
!

Type test: Apply a drop of zinc chloride


No eect on acrylic
! Acetate plas=c will turn milky
!

Storage

Transparent Plas=cs

Leave paper on
! Store ver=cally at a 10 =lt
! If stored horizontally, insure not dirt is trapped
!

CuAng
Cut large and sand to size
! Dont overheat or melt
!

Drill bits
!

Transparent Plas=cs

A specially modied twist drill bit


Include angle of 150, the cuAng edge ground to a zero
rake angle
Purchase drill bit

Dont overheat or melt


! High speed with low pressure
! Drill on a piece of wood so drill will not break or chip
the edges of the hole
! Oversize hole
!

Coecient of expansion of plas=c is greater than


aluminum and steel
!

Temperature changes cause bigger changes to plas=c

Cemen=ng Soak Method

Soak method is the most common way of


cemen=ng acrylic plas=cs
Cement is a clear liquid that melts the plas=c
!

Acts more like welding than gluing

Cemen=ng Soak Method

Steps:

Mask o the parts of the plas=c that are not to be


aected by the solvent.
! Soak the edge of one of the pieces in the solvent
un=l a soI cushion forms.
! Press the pieces together so the cushion will diuse
into the other piece and form a cushion on it.
! Allow the pressure to remain un=l the solvent has
evaporated from the cushions and they become
hard. Remove the excess material and dress the
repair to conform to the original material.
!

Low heat will help cure

Cemen=ng Soak Method

Cemen=ng acrylic plas=cs by the soak method.

Cleaning
!

Transparent Plas=cs

Rinse with water rst


Get rid of the grit may scratch the surface

Wash with mild soap and water


Or approved cleaner

Apply wax to protect

Transparent Plas=cs

Installa=on

Remove old plas=c, sealant and sand enclosure to


ensure not rough edges
! Sand new piece to size
!

New pieces are sent larger than required


Must be at least 1/8 gap to allow for expansion

Apply new sealant


! Install fasteners
!

Use spacers to prevent over =ghtening


!

Required if rivets are used

If screws are used without spacers, back o one turn aIer


=ghtening

Crazing

Transparent Plas=cs

Network of hair line cracks caused by aging


! Can lead to bigger cracks
!

Delamina=on
!

Must be replaced

Patches

Repair of a hole in a piece of transparent acrylic plas=c.

Patches

Repair of a crack in a piece of transparent acrylic plas=c.

Video

Scratches