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I r~ , .,. Republic ot the Philippines · LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION A Manual

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LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

A Manual

of Operation and Maintenance

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Procedures

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Republic of the Philippines

r [ Republic of the Philippines LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL SECTION 8:

LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 8: TREATMENT FACILITIES

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PREFACE

The problems of supplying adequate and safe water for public use do not end with the design and construction of supply facilities. They must be properly operated and main- tained to obtain the maximum efficiency built into their various parts, and full benefits from the money invested.

This manual has been developed by the Local Water Utilities Administration to serve as a guide to proper operation and maintenance of water systems supplying water for domes- tic use throughout the Philippines.

It brings together a body of information for the benefit of all water district officers and the personnel directly responsible for operations and maintenance of the system and its ability to deliver potable water to the consumers.

It is a generalized text in that it does not relate to any specific water supply district or to any specific make or manu.facture of equipment""or material. It is intended to amplify and complement an operation and maintenance manual prepared for a specific district, and does not eliminate the need for such a manual.

To facilitate its convenience and use, the manual is divided into fourteen sections, each one covering a major aspect of a public water supply system. These sections are iden- tified in a table of contents at the front of the manual. A table of contents, or index, is placed at the beginning of each major section. Thus, the manual could be separated into its sections for use in those departments of the district which are most pertinent, yet be avail- able to all.

No operation and maintenance manual should ever be consider.ed~mplete. As new ideas, methods, materials or equipment are developed, the manual should be modified to reflect these changes.

As new ideas, methods, materials or equipment are developed, the manual should be modified to reflect

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Republic of the Philippines

LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

TABLEOF

CONTENTS

1.

OVERVIEWOF WATER SUPPLY

2.

WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

3.

BASIC HYDRAULICS

4.

WELLS

5.

PUMPING FACILITIES

6.

STORAGE FACILITIES

7.

DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES

8.

TREATMENT FACILITIES

9.

MISCELLANEOUS MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

."-- 10.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

11.

WATER METERS AND SERVICE CONNECTIONS

12.

CORROSION CONTROL

13.

WORK SAFETY

14.

MATHE.MATICS FOR WATER WORKS OPERATt>'ftS

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OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 1: OVERVIEW OF WATER SUPPLY

SUBSECTION

NO.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

SUBJECT

PAGE

1.1 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE WATER UTILITY

1-1

1.2 POPULATION AND WATER NEEDS

1-2

1.3 WATER SOURCES

1-7

1.4 THE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

1-10

1.5 METERING OF WATER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION ·

1-13

1.6 RECORD KEEPING

1-16

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Republic of the Philippines

LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 1: OVERVIEW OF WATER SUPPLY

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1.1

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE WATER UTILITY

The water utility has an awesome responsibility in its job of furnishing potable water to a trusting public. It has the power to prevent - or cause -sickness and death from water borne disease or poisonous pollutants.

1.1.1

Purity

Most people are unaware of, or unconcerned about the degree to which their well-being is in the hands of the employees of the water utility. Unfor- tunately, this is sometimes true of individuals within the utility organization

as well. It should not be forgotten, for even a moment, that the first respon- sibility of every employee of the water utility is to do his part to insur~ that only SAFE POTABLE WATER will be provided to the public.

1.1 .2

Reliability

The second responsibility of the water utility is to insure that the water supply is RELIABLE. Every problem that threatens interruption of supply

should be treated ·as an emergency of the same fire.

There are many reasons for the importance of reliability of supply - mostly concerned with public relations -but the main one is related to water safety. When water service is interrupted, continued withdrawal of water from water mains in low areas results in creation of a vacuum in other areas, which can suck pollutants into the pipelines through loose joints and minor leaks.

seriousness as a house on

1.1.3 Water Costs

Most people expect water to be cheap; probably because it is so plentiful

m

nature. For that reason, the public will not usually tolerate high water rates. In general, consumers consider the water as a natural, God-given pro- duct, when in reality, the cost is based on service performed by the water utility wherein the water is collected, treated as necessary to guarantee potability, and delivered to the consumer's premises. An informative public relations program can ease the pain of a rate increase. In any case, it is the responsibility of the utility to fumisb water at the lowest cost possible without relaxing its standards of potability and reliability. Many costs are beyond the control of the water utilities; for example, office expenses and costs of equip- ment, chemicals and electric power, to name a few. The main controls that the utility has over the cost of water are proper design of facilities, efficiency

of operation, and proper maintenance to ensure that costly repairs or replace-

ment of equipment are not required any sooner, than absolutely necessary.

.

,

1-1

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1.1.4 Planning for the Future

The utility that does not plan long in advance finds sooner or later, that it cannot provide safety, reliability nor economy of water supply.

The utility management must anticipate population growth and changing water consumption habits, and make provisions for orderly expansion of its facilities in advance of critical needs. The long-range plan must be flexible enough to provide for unexpected development, yet as accurate as possible so that financing can be arranged in advance of need.

1.2 POPULATION AND WATER NEEDS

All long-range plans for water supply expansion are based on estimates of future water needs. These, in turn, are dependent on estimates of future population growth. Also, the locations of planned future pipelines, reservoirs and pumping stations are based on expected land use, or how the cities will spread out as population grows.

1.2.1 •.

Population Growth

There are few areas of the world where population is constant or decreasing. It may reasonably be expected that all population centers in the Philippines will see growing numbers of people each year far beyond the forseeable future. Population does not grow at a steady rate from year to year, but has alternating periods of rapid and slow growth. For that reason it is not possible to predict exactly what the population will be at a given time in the future. In estimating future population, no one pre- tends to know how many people will live in a giwn area in a given year. Nonetheless, estimates of future population are essential to overall planning, and. the uncertainty does not make them any less useful. If it is estimated the population of an area will double in 20 years, and facilities are planned to serve that population, the plan will not be affected if population actually doubles in 15 or 25 years, except that planned facilities will have to be constructed earlier or later than expected.

The usual approach m estimating future population is to plot a curve of past population figures; then extend the curve into the future.

1-2

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1.2.2 Land Use

In long-range water supply planning, it is necessary not only to estimate future populations, but to try to forsee how the land will be used. This will determine the location of future pipelines, reservoirs and pump stations. As in the case of population estimates, it is not possible to know for certain how land will be used in the future (except in the rare cases where the city enacts zoning laws that specify how land may be used). It is possible, however, to predict fairly closely the number of hectares of various kinds of residential, commercial and government areas that will be required to meet the needs of a given population. For example, if the population of a city is presently 10,000 people and the total land area occupied by commercial establishments is 10 hectares, one hectare of commercial land is needed to serve each 1,000 people. Therefore, if the population at some future date is 20,000, twenty hectares will be devoted to commercial use. There are a great number of similar rules used in predicting future land use, though not all are as simple as the one just mentioned.

There are also predictable relationships between the locations of commer- cial, industrial, residential and governmental areas. For example, industrial development usually takes place along main highways and, to some extent, along railway tracks. Then, low cost housing usually surrounds the industrial areas.

The usual approach to projecting land use begins with a map showing present land use patterns. The total number of hectares of each type of land use are calculated on the basis of population estimates; then outlined on a land use map on the basis of the previously mentioned relationships.

by their nature, extremely flc::~g~l~J.'his is

true mainly because water can t1ow in any combination of directions and velo- cities in the pipelines, depending on reservoir levels and water demands. This allows actual future land use to vary considerably from the projections without the necessity of altering the planned distribution facilities. The thoughtful planner, recognizing the limitations of predictions of population and land use will avoid the inclusion of inflexible elements in the overall plan.

Water distribution systems

are,

1.2.3 Water Demands

plan. Water distribution systems are, 1.2.3 Water Demands The amount of water required each year by

The amount of water required each year by a person, a commercial estab- lishment, a government office, or an industrial concern is fairly easy to esti- mate, given. sufficient information on types of housing, daily habits of people (i.e., hours cutomarily devoted to work, sleep, washing, sh~pping, etc.) and types of industries. Also, watc;r lost through leakage, waste, evaporation, illegal connections and the like (Unaccounted-for-Water) can be closely esti-

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1-4

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mated, given the condition of the existing water system and the extent of planned improvements. The total of all water requirements for one year is known as Gross Annual Demand, or sometimes simply Gross Demand.

1-

(a)

Demand Fluctuations

 

Unfortunately, Gross Demand is not evenly spread out during the year. Water use fluctuates from day-to-day and hour-to-hour, depending on weather conditions, degree of industrialization, seasonal changes, water- use habits, and other factors peculiar to the area and the system under consideration. In the Philippines, the maximum amount of water required in a single day (Maximum Day Demand) is about 125% of the average daily demand, while the most required in a single hour (Peak Hour Demand) is about 200% of the average . Typically, the day of maximum demand will be the hottest day of the year. The hour of maximum demand will usually be early evening (when people are bathing, cooking, watering yards, etc.) on the hottest day of the year.

(b)

Unaccounted-for-Water

 

Every

water

distribution

system

supplies a quantity of water that

cannot be accounted for through meter records or otherwise. This in- cludes water lost through leakage, evaporation from reservoir surfaces, fire fighting, illegal connections, and the like. Of these, however, leakage at pipe joints, valve packing and leaky house connections account for a major part of the water loss.

 

A distribution system that IS m good condition, with no excessive operational waste (such as overflowing of reservoirs, open hydrants and the like) or so-called "administrative losses" (illegal connections, account- ing errors, etc.), will experience unaccounted-foe-water demand amount- ing to no more tJtan perhaps 10 percent of total water production. Poorly managed water systems often experience losses of up to 50 percent of production.

(c)

Fire

Flows

 

Excess capacity is often provided in pumps, reservoirs and pipelines to allow for fire fighting. In addition, fire hydrants are installed at inter- vals on the distribution network.

The spacing of hydrants and excess delivery capacity are determined partly by the value of buildings in the area. Also, the nature of demand fluctuations is an important factor. Reservoir. storage generally includes excess capacity fo allow for fire flow demand to be met for a fixed period

of time.

1-5

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1.3

WATER SOURCES

1.3 WATER SOURCES The total amount of water in and around the earth is constant. Water

The total amount of water in and around the earth is constant. Water is neither manufactured nor destroyed, but is constantly recycled by nature. The cycle that it endlessly goes through is called the hydrologic cycle.

Water vapor is continually added to the atmosphere by evaporation from the seas, lakes, and other water surfaces. Vegetation draws water from the group, extracts nutrients from it, converts it to vapor and releases it to the atmosphere from leaf surfaces (this is called transpiration). As water vapor moves upward to cooler levels in the atmosphere, it condenses to form clouds. Sooner or later, particles of dust in the atmosphere attract water vapor until they become too heavy to remain suspended in the air, and fall to earth as rain, snow, hail or sleet. As the rain falls through lower levels of the atmosphere, a small amount evaporates before hitting the ground. Rain

which falls on the earth does one of three things: (1) soaks into the earth (percolation),

(2) runs off into rivers, lakes or seas (runoff)

1.3.1 Ground Water

or ( 3) evaporates from the earth's surface.

The term ground water refers to water that is stored (or is moving) beneath the earth's surface. Many people are under the mistaken impression that water is captured in large underground rivers and lakes. While there are, of course, bodies of water stored in limestone caverns in a few locations around the world, they are so rare as to be of little or no interest to persons concerned with water supply. Most ground water is stored in underground layers of sand and gravel, or in the crack's and crevices of certain types of rocks (for example, limestone and sandstone). When an underground layer of sand or fractured rock contains water, the layer is called an aquifer.

Ground water may be free or confined. Free ground water refers to the condition where a layer of waterbearing sand, or aquife~, downward from just below the top soil. Confined ground water occurs when water bearing sand lies below an impervious layer of clay, shale or rock. ln most cases, con- fmed ground water will be under artesian pressure because it flows from a higher elevation and, being trapped by the impervious layer above, carmot rise upward through the ground.

extends

When a well is drilled into a confined aquifer, the water level inside the well will be higher than the top of the aquifer, and may even flow over the top of the well casing (i.e., a flowing well). It should be noted that the term artesian well refers to any well where the water rises inside the casing by artesian pressure, whether it flows over the top or not. Since ground water generally travels great distances through sand from the point rwhere it falls on the ground as rain, until it is intercepted by a well, it is naturally filtered. In general, by the time water P.ercolates downward for ten or fifteen meters below the ground surface, mos~ microbes (bacteria, virus, etc.) are filtered out. For that

1-7

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reason, deep wells are usually constructed with the upper 15 meters sealed off to exclude shallow water and surface water.

As rain falls through the atmosphere, it collects gases from the air. Then, as it travels over and through the earth's surface, it dissolves and collects minerals, gases and certain kinds of organic compounds. These are not filtered out by percolation. If any of these gases or minerals are accumulated in e:l$.ces- sive amounts, they must be partially removed before well water is pumped into the water system.

The term water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological makeup of the water. Water quality is good if there are no unpleasant tastes or odors, bacteriological contamination, toxic materials, or quantities of mine· rals that pose problems to the public health or convenience. (For example, ex- cessive iron is not hazardous to health but causes problems or stained clothing, porcelain, etc.)

1.3.2 Surface Water

Approximately 3/4 of the world's population relies on surface water sources such as rivers, lakes and man-made impounding reservoirs to meet their water needs. In all too many cases the water is untreated, with the result that large numbers of people are afflicted with such water-home diseases as chloera, typhoid, dysentery, and polio, to name a few. In many cases, people are encouraged to use untreated surface water by the mistaken belief that flow ing water purifies itself. It should be understood that the "self purification" process of a surface water depend primarily on aeration, and is accelerated by turbulent flow. A slow moving stream will require many more kilometers of travel and hours of time to accomplish the same degree of aeration and "self purification" than a stream which tumbles over rocks and ledges inti- mately exposing the water to the air and to sunlight and its ultraviolet rays. The idea, often expressed by l~ymen, that a stream will "self purify" itself in 7 miles of flow is not necessarily true. It is true that bad tastes, odors and certain minerals and gases are removed from flowing water by contact with the air; but there is no removal of toxic materials or other harmful subs- tances, and probably only partial kill of disease causing microbes.

-

The most common sources of surface water pollution are human and industrial wastes which are discharged into rivers and lakes. A less frequent, but no less dangerous source of pollution is drainage into rivers from agricul- tural lands where the water carries chemical fertilizers anrl pesticides.

Surface water quality tends to change from day to day, season to season, and year to year. Moreover , a factory, or farm ,located upstream of a treat· ment plant may suddenly begin~discharging harmful wastes. Therefore, surface

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water sources must be frequently, if not constantly, watched for changes in water quality that will not be automatically corrected by the treatment process (Section 2 of this manual discusses water quality control in detail). Since surface water sources rely almost entirely on rainfall for replenishment, the amount of water available is sometimes at a minimum during hot, dry months, when public demand for water is greatest. (This is not generally true of ground water sources for the reason that ground water travels slowly, and usually for great distances, through underground aquifers). For that reason, collection, treatment, storage and distribution facilities must be designed on the basis of dry weather conditions.

1.3.3 Other Sources

One source of water that may become valuable in the future is de-salted sea water (de-salinization). This source is being used to a limited extent in some areas where no other alternatives exist. Obtaining water by this method is extremely expensive (perhaps 50 times the cost of treating surface water) . It is not likely that desalinization will ever be much less costly than at pres- ent, but as costs of producing water from other sources become greater in the future, it may become more practical, especially to meet "peaking" demands.

The other potential source of water is reclamation of waste water. Although it is now possible to treat sewage to the extent that it would be entirely safe and undistinguishable in taste from other treated water, this is not generally acceptable to the public. Nonetheless, reclaimed water is presently supplement- ing water supplies in many areas of the world in an indirect way. If reclaimed water is used in manufacturing and agriculture, the potable water that would otherwise be used for these purposes is "released" for domestic use.

1.4 THE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Confusion sometimes results from the use of the terms "Water Distribution System" and "Water Distribution Network". The term water distribution system refers to all facilities required to get water from the source to the customer, including reser- voirs, pipelines and booster pumps. The term distribution network, on the other hand, refers to the pipelines which distribute water throughout the system. Moreover, a distinction is made between distribution mains and transmission mains. The former are used to distribute water to the customer, while the latter are used to transport water from a remote treatment plant to the distribution system.

1.4.1

Reservoirs

Reservoirs

may

be

classed,

according

to

their

I

fut;1ction

as regulating

reservoirs, storage reservoirs 9r regulating/storage reservoirs.

1-10

Typically, a storage reservoir would be the clearwell of a treatment plant where water i~ stored until it is released, or pumped, into the distribution

system. Another would be where water is impounded behind a dam and released to the treatment plant or distribution system by gravity flow.

A regulating reservoir is connected to the distribution network, with its level allowed to rise and fall in response to demand (often referred to as float· ing on the system). Typically, distribution system booster pumps operate continuously as long as regulating reservoirs are not full. When demand is greater than the capacity of the pumps, water flows out of the reservoir to satisfy the deficit. When demand falls below pump capacity, the excess pump discharge flows into the reservoir. When the reservoir is full, the pumps are shut off, either manually by the operator or by automatic control devices.

Frequently, a reservoir function includes both storage and regulation; for example, when a well discharges through a transmission main into the reservoir while outflow from the reservoir is in response to demand.

1.4.2 Distribution Network

-

The two principal types of distribution networks are the reticulated or looped network and the herringbone or feeder-and-lateral network.

The looped network is the most flexible type. All mains are laid in a grid of interconnected loops, allowing water to flow to any point in the network from two or more directions. Since water is free to flow in either direction in every pipe, heavy demands in one area of the system will automatically cause flows to converge from all directions to the point of high demand and low pressure.

The herringbone network consists of large ··diameter mains, or feeders, which deliver water to general areas. Smaller mains, or laterals, branch from the feeders to deliver water in individual streets. The herringbone network not only lacks of the flexibility of the looped network but also has many deadends where silt and stagnant water may accumulate unless frequently flushed out.

As may be expected, the network that is entirely looped or entirely herringbone is rare. More commonly, densely populated areas of a city will have a looped system, with feeders extending out to the suburbs.

1.4.3 Pumping Equipment

The operation of pumps is a complex subject, discussed in detail in other sections of this l\l~nual. Most pumps used in waterworks, including both well pumps and booste.rs, are of the centrifugal turbine or volute type. The main

1-11

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1-12

DEMAND

characteristic of these types of pumps is that discharge always depends on the pressure they operate against. Therefore, pump discharge varies continuously

as system pressures fluctuate. When water demands are high and pressures drop, pump discharge tends to increase.

Pumps may be operated manually by the operator or they may be started and stopped by automatic control devices that respond to low and high system pressures, flow rates, or levels in reservoirs.

1.5 METERING OF WATER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

A water utility is a business like any other. As such, it cannot lose money

and still remian in business. Usually, the water utility has only one source of funds:

the revenues it collects from its customers as payment for water consumed. These revenues must be sufficient to pay all the utility's expenses, including:

*Annual payments on loans previously taken out to finance new construction. *Costs of replacing worn out or damaged equipment. *Costs of materials, tools and services required for operation and maintenance of the water system, such as electric power, fuels, spare parts, lubricant, etc. *Administrative costs such as employee's salaries, rent, office supplies, outside services, and the like.

If the utility is to remain solvent financially, it must maintain accurate records of operating costs, water production and customer consumption, in order to ensure that water rates are always adequate to meet all costs.

determine water production and

cor.sumption.

meters installed on the discharge piping of each well, spring, .!r_:_at_!?_j;nt plant, or pump- ing station. Consumption is determined by adding up water used by all the utility's customers, from records of monthly seruice meter readings.

metering through main-line

Water meters enable the utility

to

precisely

Water production is monitored by

bulk

l\.1etering of production and consumption serves important functions in the following paragraphs.

as described

1.5.1 Control of Revenues

The use of service meters allows the utility to charge its customers fairly for water consumed. That is, those who use more water pay a proportionate- ly higher share of the cost of supplying it.

1-13

1.5.2

Control of Waste:

It is a nearly universal fact that customers who pay for every liter of water used, on the basis of monthly meter readings, waste less water than those who pay a fixed monthly cost (flat rate) or who pay for water se~ice through general taxes.

Whenever

a

utility

changes

unmetered to metered service,

drops sharply, sometimes by as much as half.

over from

water

consumption

usually

1.5.3 Determination of Water Losses:

The total amount of water billed for each month can be compared with production for the month, to determine the amount of unaccounted-for- water.

1.5.4 Detection of Leaks:

If pressure drops in a localized area of the distribution system with no noticeable increase in metered consumption, it is an indication that a pipe- line leak may have developed (or possibly a large, newly installed, illegal connection). However, it may also indicate a closed valve or deterioration of pipe.

1.5.5 Determination of Unit Production Costs:

Metering permits relating all operating costs to a unit of production such as one million gallons, or 1,000 cubic meters, for evaluation of performance and efficiencies. Also knowing the rate of flow is necessary for proper feed of

treatment chemicals.

-

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1.5.6 Anticipation of Need for New Facilities:

Observation of increases in metered consumption from month-to-month m specific areas of the syste1~ pem1it the utility to anticipate and budget funds for additional pipeline and/or storage capacity long in advance of needs.

1-14

RETICULAR SYSTEM
RETICULAR SYSTEM
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1-15

1.6

RECORD KEEPING

1.6.1

General

1.6.1.1

Importance of Good Records

 

It

is impossible for a water utility to operate efficiently without

a

systematic program of accurate up-to-date record keeping. With

a good system of records, a water utility can:

* Anticipate replacement of facilities long m advance, allowing ample time for planning and budgeting.

* Ensure uniformity of service, operation, <>.nd maintena~ce.

* Control unaccounted-for-water.

Closely predict future needs of spare parts, fuels, lubricants, chemicals and the like, so that they can be budgeted in advance.

*

*

Evaluate performance of equipment of various manufacturers

or

designs when undertaking purchase of replacements.

Adjust operation and maintenance procedures and schedules based on observed realistic needs.

*

*

Set water rates that are neither too high nor too low, based on trends in administrative, operational, and maintenance costs.

*

Provide, on short notice, any statistical information required by its governing board.

 

1.6.1.2

Record Numbering System

A record keeping system is worthless if information cannot be

quickly retrieved when needed. The simplest way of ensuring easy access to past infonnation is to adopt a coded master record numbe- ring system that may be applied to every item of business of the utility.

.•

-

Jib.

If such a numbering system is properly designed, it will be possible, using the number stamped on a piece of equipment, to im- mediately find a file containing the complete history of that item; or to open an accounting ledger to the right page, without hesita.tion, and find all costs that have ever been incurred in connection with it.

Details of record numbering systems may be found in the Local Water Utilities Administration's "Commercial Practices Manual".

1-16

1.6.2 Accounting Records

Accounting records should contain all information on revenues and costs, broken down in such detail that any operation of the utility can be quickly analyzed economically.

It is important from the standpoint of operation and maintenance that costs be quickly availableon such items as:

* 0 & M manpower costs

*Electric power, chemicals, and fuel costs

* Spare parts and equipment replacements

* Purchases of tools and support equipment

* Costs of paints, solvents, and lubricants.

1.6.3 Water Consumption and Production Records

1.6.3.1 Water Production Records

Production logs, including da.iiy water production quantities, electric power used, fuel used, chemical quantities used, in-plant water used, if any, and water quantities delivered to distribution system, etc. are maintained by the operators.

The operators also record comments concerning any out-of- ordinary operating conditions and the performance of periodically scheduled functions such as pump tests, measuring drawdown of wells, cleaning of basins and storage facilities, accidents, etc.

A daily, monthly, semi-annual, and annual-summary taken from the opera~or's log is submitted by the Production Supervisor or Chief Operator and is flled as a part of the permanent records in the utility office.

1.6.3.2 Water Consumption Records

Each month, total consumption is compiled from meter reader books, and shown on the Monthly Consumption Summary which is filed in its own folder in the utility office. This form also shows estimated amounts of water used by the utility for flushing of mains, hydrostatic testing, hydrant flow tests, and the like.

,

1.6.4

Operation and Maintenance Records

1.6.4.1 Check Lists

Each section of the Operation and Maintenance Manual contains check lists of scheduled preventive maintenance measures. The operator should check off each item as it is performed on a given item of equipment. When completed, it should be placed in the utility's files where it will become part of the permanent 0 & M history of the equipment in question.

1.6.4.2 Maintenance Record Cards

Where

preventive

maintenance

requires

measurements to

be ~---­

made or parts to be routinely replaced, Maintenance Record Cards are filled out in addition ·to the Maintenance Check Lists. These show a running history of the performance of each item of equip- ment, enabling the operator to observe gradual deterioration and to estimate when replacement or major repairs will be necessary. This will allow the utility to budget the necessary funds well in advance.

1.6.4.3 Equipment Performance Records

From

time to

time, performance

tests of equipment will be

carried out to determine power consumption, operating efficiency and other data. Appropriate reports are prepared and filed as part of the maintenance history of the equipment.

1.6.4.4 System Mapping

It is essential that the utility keep up-to date .~naps--9fwwing the locations and size~ of all distribution facilities. Ideally, some indications of the condition of facilities - for example, locations of leaks located and repaired -are shown on the maps.

1.6.5 Water Quality Records

A utility must set up a program of systematically monitoring the chemical and biological quality of water served to other public. Reports should be

prepared on each

water sample analyzed, and these filed in their own file.

1-18

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 2: WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

SUBSECTION

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

SUBJECT

PAGE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2-1

2.2 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY

2-1

2.3 POLLUTION AND CONTAMINATION

2-3

2.4 CROSS CONNECTION CONTROL

2-5

2.5 WATER

PURITY SAFEGUARDS

2-8

2.6 WATER QUALITY SAMPLING

2-8

2.7 MONTHLY CHECK LIST

2-15

_,

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Republic of the Philippines

LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 2: WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

\~\

_

.,.

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2.1

INTRODUCTION

The first and foremost responsibility of the water utility is to provide its customers with safe potable water. This means that the water must not contain anything that is hannful to the health of the public and must be free of any 1.mpleasant taste, odor or color. Although much discussion of public health centers around prevention of water bornes disease, other factors affect public health indirectly to the extent that they influence hygiene (for example if the public water supply provides water that is entirely safe but has an unpleasant taste, people will be encouraged to obtain more palatable drinking water from other, unsafe sources).

Water is considered the "universal solvent" because, given enough time, it will dissolve anything. As rain falls, it collects and dissolves gas from the air. Then, as it travels over and through the soil, it collects minerals, organic compounds and micro- organisms. By the time the water fmally arrives at the point where it is to be collected and used by people, it has ·acquired its own unique combination of ingredients. The extent to which a given water contains objectionable or hannful ingredients is known as water quality. For convenience, water quality is broken down into three categories:

*Chemical quality (minerals, gases, acidity) *Physical quality (taste, odor, color, temperature)

* Biological quality (usually called Bacteriological quality even though it covers not only bacteria, but all types of micro-organisms.)

From a quality standpoint, water falls into the following classifications:

* Pure - This ic; not normally found in nature. Due to the absence of normal dissolved material this water would not be satisfying to drink. * Wholesome - This is ,the most desirable quality level.

* Potable - This would be suitable for drinking even if there may be one or more aspects of the water that is undesirable.

* Polluted - This water has received substances in sufficient quantities to render it objectionable for use, such as a taste or odor, or color, but it would not necessarily constitute a health hazard. * Contaminated - This water has been adulterated by the introduction of toxic substances, bacteria, or other harmful agents that make it hazardous and unfit for human consumption.

2.2 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY

2.2.1

General

I

Water may contain minerals that are poisonous to humans even when present in minute q~antities, such as arsenic, lead; and chromium. Fortunately these toxic minerals are rarely found in water in quantities great enough to

2-1

be hazardous, except in the event of an industrial accident whereby large quantities of a toxic substance is "spilled" into a stream or lake which is used as a water supply. When larger than minute amounts are found, the source should be discovered and eliminated.

Other minerals such as fluoride, copper, zinc and nitrate may be harmful if present in larger than minute quantities. With the ~xception of fluorides, these minerals also are rarely found in significant, naturally present amounts.

Other objectionable quality characteristics include the following:

sometimes found in water

* Excessive iron and/or

ment, etc. and imparts a musty, metallic taste to the water.) * Hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg taste and odor). * Alkalinity (scale deposits in piping and cooking utensils).

* Acidity (corrosive to metal).

* Hardness (excessive soap needed for washing and scale deposits in piping, and cooking utentils.)

(stains clothing, porcelain, equip-

manganese

* Chlorides(salty taste).
* Magnesium (laxative effect).

* Nitrates (laxative effect).

Some chemicals occasionally found in water are not dangerous in them- selves, (unless the concentrations are above the acceptable health standards) but their presence may indicate that industrial or domestic wastes are fmding their way into the water. These include nitrities, nitrates, and carbon dioxide.

Finally, surface waters Ul)ually contain suspended particals and colloids o r organ ic material. T he r esulting murk y appearan ce is kn own as tu roi.dity . When turbid water evaporates, a silty residue is left behind. Obviously turbid water is not desirable for drinking "'r washing fabrics . In addition, turbidity particles may include or harbor bacteria, resulting in lowered bacterial quality and disinfection efficiency.

If a given water supply cannot be protected or treated to maintain accep- table dissolved mineral concentrations as delineated by public health standards, it should be abandoned.

2.2.2

Measurement of Chemical and Physical Quality

Various

ways of measuring chemical and physical characteristics have

become widely used.

2-2

2.2.2.1

Minerals and Gases. Where the constituents of water can be extract- ted and weighed, they are measured in milligrams per liter of water (mg/1} or, parts per million parts of water by weight (ppm). These units are the same (i.e., 1 mg/1 - 1 ppm}; however the metric unit, mg/1, is becoming more and more widely used.

.>

2.2.2.2

Turbidity. Turbidity is measured by the degree to which the water scatters or difuses light. The units of turbidity are based on the standard candle turbidimeter, called Jackson Turbidity Units QTU). Other more precise and repeatable methods of measuring turbidity have been developed, but are all as nearly as possible, related by calibration to the Jackson Candle Turbidimeter techniques.

2.2.2.3

Color. Color in water may result from the presence of natural metallic ions (iron and/or manganese, humus, and peat materials, plaukton, weeds and industrial wastes.) Color is determined by visual comparisons of the sample with known concentration of colored solutions or standard color glass discs, which have been calibrated against a platinum-cobalt standard solution. Since the color value of water invariably increases as the pH is increased, it is necessary to specify the pH of the water at which the color is determined.

2 .2.2.4

Odor. Odor of water is measured in Threshold Odor Untts. This is the number of times that a sample of water is repeatedly diluted with an equal amount of odor-free water before odor is no longer detectable.

2.2.2.5

Acidity and Alkalinity. Water is classed as acid, neutral or alkaline depending on its pH number on a scale of 0-14. (This is related to the concentration of hydrogen ions in the water.) If the pH is about 7.0 the water is neutral; if below 7.0, it -is-acid-, and if above 7.0 , it is alkal~. In addition, alkalinity is sometimes expressed as an equivalent concentration of calcium carbonate in mg/1.

2.3 POLLUTION AND CONTAMINATION

2.3.1

General

The term pollution, is used when any undesirable substance - not neces- sarily harmful - are added to water. Contamination is the introduction of harm- ful chemicals or micro-organisms. Therefore, pollution of water can take place without contaminating it (though, in fact, that is almost never true.)

·-

2-3

I

2.3.2

Micro-Organisms and Water Borne Disease

2.3.2.1 General. There are many types of small organisms in water. Most of them are harmless and of no interest to the water utility operator, while other types indicate that WCJ.ter is polluted but are, in them- selves, harmless; and some, a very few types, cause disease. Still others, while harmless, create operational problems or impart tastes, odors or color to water.

In general, water borne disease-causing organisms are found in the intestines of humans and warm-blooded animals. They have found their way into water supplies when water is polluted by even the smallest amounts of sewage. It should be emphasized that disease- causing organisms may exist in the intestines of apparently healthy people with the result that a disease can appear where no known cases existed before.

2.3.2.2 Types of Water-Borne Disease. The following types of microbes are known, or st~ongly believed, to spread disease through conta- minated water supplies:

(a)

Viruses

*

Poliomyelitis

{b)

Infectious Hepatitis Bacteria

*

*

Typhoid Fever

{c)

Bacillary Dysentery *Gastroenteritis *Cholera Protozoa

*

.

* Amoebic Dysentery

* Schistosomiasis .

·

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;

&.

2.3.2.3 Other Small Organisms. The following types of organisms are not known to cause disease but are a nuisance to the water utility:

* Algae {Tastes and Odors)

* Fungi (Tastes .and Odors)

* Actinomycetes (Taste and Odors)

* Water worms (Harmless but cause customer complaints)

* Leptothix and Crenothrix (Oxidize iron, manganese or aluminum; causing color, taste, odor and sometimes, clo~ging problems.

I

,

2-4

'

(Oxidize iron, manganese or aluminum; causing color, taste, odor and sometimes, clo~ging problems. I , 2-4

2.3.3 Detecting Micro-organisms in Water

It is impossible to determine whether a given disease-causing organism exists in water because they are so few in number. However, it is possible to detect the presence of harmless bacteria (E. Coli) known to live in the intestine of human and animals. Therefore, if these are present in water, it must be assumed that disease-causing organisms are also present.

If samples of water are collected and sent to a sanitary laboratory, it is possible to not only detect the presence of intestinal bacteria but also to e~ti­ mate their numbers.

Obviously, the greater the number of intestinal bacteria in water, the greater the chance that they will include disease-causing organisms.

2.4 CROSS CONNECTION CONTROL

2.4.1 General

The term cross connection describes a situation where pollutants may accidentally flow into a piped water system. This is a serious and persistent problem in water supply that should be of great, continuing concern to every water utility.

The most dramatic · but fortunately rare · type of cross connection is the accidental connection of a water main to a pipeline carrying some other liquid such as sewage, cooking gas or petroleum. Such an obvious cross c onnec- tion seldom goes unnoticed.' Unfortunately, many other cross connection inject fairly small amounts of pollutants into the water supply at irregular intervals; but are all the more dangerous because they are not detected.

-

2.4.2 How Cros·s Connectioru; Work

Aside from the interconnection of water mains with other types of pipe- lines as previously mentioned, the typical cross connection consists of an unbroken link between the water supply system and a body of polluted water outside the system. Most cross connections only function when the water main pressure is low. For example, if a water main is undersized and any large draft occurs (say, an open fire hydrant, a major pipeline break or high water demand) , pressure in the main drops enough to create a vacuum at or above ground level. Then, wherever a cross connection exists, polluted water will be sucked into the water main.

2-5

or above ground level. Then, wherever a cross connection exists, polluted water will be sucked into

2.4.3

Why Cross Connection Exist

2.4.3.1 Faulty Distribution System Records. Typically, the type of cross connection where a water main is connected to a pipeline carrying

some other fluid results when distribution system maps fail to show other pipelines in the vicinity of water mains. For example, if the distribution map shows only a 100 mm water main with no other pipelines nearby, and a field crew locates a different 100 mm pipe, they may reasonably assume that it is the water main. The problem

is compounded if distribution maps are known to sometimes show

inaccurate pipe sizes and locations of water mains. In that case, a

field crew looking for a 100 mm pipe might, for example, find and connect to a 150 mm pipeline.

2.4.3.2 Inadequate

Pipeline

Leakage

Repair_ Program.

Le~king p_ipeli~e

joints are cross connections if pollutants are present around them; for example, where soils d~. not drain well and waste water accu-

mulates around the pipe. This is probably the most common type of cross connection.

2.4.3.3 Faulty Installation of Cu~omer Plumbing. Plumbing is frequently installed by persol].s who ate unaware of the dangers of cross connec- tions, or ignorant of how they work.

2.4.3.4 Lack of Backflow Preventers. Where a water supply customer has concentrations of pollutants of toxic materials on his property,

a backflow prevention device should be installed on the service

connection. Such devices usually consist of two check valves in series, with a vacuum breaker between them. A simple check valve tends to float at low flows and should not, therefore, be considered a satisfactory backflow

.-

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~

The types of installations where backflow preventers are required include the following:

* Property with lawn or crop irrigation systems.

* Industries which use water in the manufacturing process.

* Dairies, produce markets, fish markets, slaughter houses.

* Chemical plants and tanneries.

* Any industries which use toxic or radiological chemicals in the manufacturing process.

2-6

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II ~ II \
II
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. ' • ~ • I ,. - . ; II ~ II \ - --
- --
- --

TYPICAL CROSS- CONNECTIONS

2-7

2.5

WATER PURITY SAFEGUARDS

2.5.1 Continuous Positive Pressure in Pipelines

Maintaining continuous positive pressure is necessary to prevent back- siphonage and resultant contamination. This depends on an adequate supply of water, proper pipeline sizes, control of leaks and proper operation.

2.5.2 Maintaining Chlorine Residuals in the System

Chlorine residuals should be maintained throughout the system to ensure that any micro-organisms entering the system through cross connections will automatically be killed. Chlorine residuals are checked using a chlorine compa- rator.

Cross Connection Control

~2.5.3

The operator should be on the alert to spot any obvious cross connections, correcting them immediately, it possible, or reporting them to the utility office if he cannot correct them on the spot. Cross connection control includes a good leak location and repair program. This is discusssed in detail in Section 7, "Distribution Facilities".

2.6 WATER QUALITY SAMPLING

2.6.1 General

A water sample must be truly representative of the water to be tested.

Therefore, the frequency and location of sampling is very important. Also, the operator must be very careful to avoid adding any bacteria or chemicals tc

may

water while, or after, collecting samples. Sample collec_!ipg

vary, depending on the kind of test to be made. A carelessly collected sample can make the highest quality water, or the best of treatment processes appear

bad.

te&hniques

2.6.2 Sampling Locations

In general,

samples

for analysis of chemical and physical quality are

collected at the water source and immediately following any treatment facilities.

Samples for bacteriological testing are taken at widespread, scattered points in the distribution network and at reservoirs. It is also a good idea to collect samples at surface water sources 'in order to detect any massive new contamination upstream.

I

2-8

2.6.3 Frequency of Sampling

Drinking Water include certain

minimum standards for water quality, and frequency of water sampling of potable water supplies.

The

Philippine National Standards

for

Under these standards, bacteriological samples should be collected and analyzed as shown in Table 2-1. Bottles for bacteriological samples must be washed, then receive 0.1 ml of a 10% solution of sodium thiosulfate to neutra- lize the residual chlorine in the sample water. The sample bottle is then loosely capped and sterilized in either moist or dry heat (20 min. at 250°F). The sample bottles are not opened until the moment of collecting the sample then immediately tightly capped and taken to the laboratory for bacteriological examination. The sample bottles are only 3/4 filled with sample water so they can be thoroughly shaken before being opened and used in the laboratory.

If a routine sample shows an excessive number of microorganisms, another sample ("recheck sample") should be taken from the same location, after determining and correcting the cause if possible.

In

addition

to

Samples").

LWUA,

the

to

the

routine

and

recheck samples, which are reported

("Information

utility may collect samples for its own use

Sample bottle labels should clearly indicate the reason the sample is taken: "Routine", "Recheck" or 'Informational." Process control samples should be collected and analyzed daily or more frequently if water is subject to rapid quality changes. Specific analysis to be made depend on treatment process being used.

TABLE 2-1 MINIMUM WATER SAMPLING FOR BACTERIAL EXAMINATION

Population Served By Utility

~

·

-

Maximum Interval* Between Successive Samplings

,.

Minimum Number* of Samples

20- 20,000

One Month

One per 5,000

20,000 - 50,000

Two Weeks

-do-

50,000 - 100,000

Four Days

-do-

Over 100,000

One Day

One per 10,000 population per month.

* Sampling must mc;et both requirements.

2-9

2.

I. FILL
I. FILL

BOTH CELLS

WITH

WATER TO BE CHECKED

ADD 4

ORTHOTOLIDINE TO

ONE

DROPS

OF

OF THE

CELLS

3.

INSERT

CELLS

IN COMPARATOR

AND

TURN

COLORS

WHEEL

MATCH

UNTIL

,

-

.

CHECKING

CHLORINE RESIDUAL

2-10

- .

It is suggested that informational samples for Chemical and Physical Quality testing be taken every three months at all surface water sources and immediately downstream of treatment facilities. Where no treatment is pro- vided, as in the case of well supplies, samples should be collected annually at the pump discharge or spring collection works.

2.6.4 Sampling Techniques

2.6.4.1 Chemical and Physical Quality Sampling

(a)

General

Rinsing sample bottles in the field should not be necessary. The bottles should have been cleaned in the laboratory with appropriate cleaning solutions and rinsed with distilled water. Only when .a clean bottle is not available should rinsing in the field be necessary.

The sample bottle should be completely filled when it is being collected for chemical and physical analysis.

(b)

Sampling Technique

(1) When sampling water from a water surface, lower the bottle as far below the surface as possible, holding the cap over the opening. Then remove the cap, allow the bottle to fill and replace the cap under water. (Water on the surface may not be representative because of dust particles or the effect of sunlight and air on certain chemi- cals.)

(2)

When sampling from a pump dischar.ge, faucet, fire hydrant

(3)

.etc., let it run for at least a minute then hold the bottle opening under it, being careful not to touch the opening against the tap. Immediately check the temperature of the water and of

(4)

the air with a centigrade thermometer. Check the chlorine residual.

(5)

Tightly cap the bottle with a non-metallic lid or cork.

(6)

Put a lable on the sample bottle showing the following:

t

*Type of sample (i.e. "Chemical and Physical Sample") *Date and time of day * Location (be exact; e.g., "Discharge of Well Pump

No.1")

*Name of person taking sample * Air and water temperature

2-11

* Chlorine residual

Send sample to laboratory within 24 hours.

(7)

(8) Schedule sample collecting so that samples can be deli-

vered to laboratory before

assure that the analysis can be done before the weekend shut-down of the laboratory.

noon on Friday s. This is to

2.6.4.2 Bacteriological Quality Sampling

(a)

General

Water samples for bacterial analysis should be collected only in the special sterilized bottles prepared and provided by the laboratory. Extreme care must be exercised to avoid conta- minating the sample by any bacteria on the hands, clothing or tap.

(b)

Sampling Technique

(1) If sample is taken from the surface of a body of water, use the technique previously given for chemical and physical quality sampling.

(2)

Open tap and let water run for a length of time required

(3)

to change the water in the service pipe. Shut off water. Expose faucet to flame of portable burner for a minute;

especially the inner edges. A small, portable liquid pro- pane or butane torch is ideal, but a cigarette lighter may be used. (4) Tum on faucet and let water run with a stream about the diameter of a pencil, for a long enough time to displace water in the service piping.

(5) Remove stopper from sample bottle without re~.~~i~ paper foil liner from cap and fill bottle from faucet by holding at an angle tG expose as little opening as possible to air. When bottle is + 3/4 full, take away bottle witheut touching faucet with bottle opening. Replace stopper tightly.

(6)

Check air temperature with thermometer then hold under

(7)

faucet to check water temperature. Check chlorine residual.

(8) Put lable on bottle showing the following information:

* Type of sample (i.e

* Date and time of day

* Exact location of sampling point * Reason for sample ("Routine", "Recheck" or "!nfo")

*Name of person taking sample

"Bacteriological Sample")

I

2-12

Representative

water samples

ore

token regularly

samples

throughout

as

the

entired

system.

Field personnel assist the laboratory by taking

required .

Collecting Water Samples for Bacteriological Analysis

In order to ovoid occidental contamination of the sample, the procedure for taking sam-

contamination of the sample, the procedure for taking sam- · 3 ples In the sterile plastic
·
·

3

ples In the sterile plastic (polypropylene) bottles is herein depicted for strict compliance by all per-

sonnel.

is herein depicted for strict compliance by all per- sonnel. Allow water to run at least

Allow water to run at least five minutes to flush line; longer, if necessary to draw a fresh sample through the delivery line.

After line has been f Iushed, determine water temperature and record on sample sticker.

Flame the mouth of sample top of faucet with Butane torch.

Flame the mouth of sample top of faucet with Butane torch. Determine residual chlorine. This data

Determine residual chlorine. This data will indicate when o fresh representative sample is flowing through the line.

5

o fresh representative sample is flowing through the line. 5 Place cop on bottle with core
o fresh representative sample is flowing through the line. 5 Place cop on bottle with core

Place cop on bottle with core to ovoid contaminating the

woter'and~rew cop on tightly .

Place identification tog on each bottle, showing location. dote, time, temperature, residual chlorine, initio Is of sampler, etc. Keep all sample bottles In a vertical position while transporting them to the laboratory, Samples should be stored at a temperature of 40°-50° F. and delivered to laboratory as soon as possible, preferably the some day.

Remove cop from sample bottle. Avoid touching lip of bottle or inside of cop when removing or replacing. Fill bottle to biock'mork. Never fill bottle completely.

NOTE:

The screw caps on the plastic bottles are not screwed down tightly when the bottles are sterilized. If the cap should become separated

from the bottles in the field, please return empty bottles and cap to

have

not been sterilized, and they are to be use only for taking plankton

laboratory for re-sterilization. Plastic bottles marked ''PL"

samples.

BACTERIOLOGICAL

SAMPLING

2-13

*Air and water temperatures * Chlorine residual (9) Take sample to laboratory within 2 hours, if possible. In no case should a sample be more than 4 hours old when reaching the laboratory. If travel distance to the laboratory will not permit sample to be delivered in less than 4 hours, keep packed in ice until delivered to laboratory.

Sample should be in laboratory within 24 hours under any

or more,

sample should be delivered to laboratory on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday; unless laboratory technicians check bacterio- logical samples on Saturdays and Sundays.

circumstances.

Also,

since

test requires

two

days

2-14

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MONTHLY CHECK LIST

WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

MONTH OF

LOCATION

19

NAME OF OPERATOR ----------------DATE

I

Subsection

 

Check

One:

Work Item

Yes

No

2.6.1 Positive pressures maintained throughout the distribution system at all times?

2.6.2 Chlorine residuals maintained throughout the distribution system at all times?

2.6.3 Chemical and physical quality samples collected before and after treatment?

2.6.4 Bacteriological samples collected at widely scattered parts of distribution system?

2.6.5 Number of routine bacteriological samples

collected at least as shown in Table

2-1?

(a)

Water allowed to run to waste for ftlling?

(b)

Water allowed to run to waste for a length of time necessary to displace all the water in the service pipe?

(c)

Bottles properly labelled?

(d)

Every sample sent to laboratory within 24 hours?

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2-1 5

MONTHLY CHECK LIST WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH (Cont'd.) Subsection W o r k I

MONTHLY CHECK LIST

WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

(Cont'd.)

Subsection

Work Item

2.6.6 Bacteriological Quality Sampling:

(a)

Samples collected in sterilized bottles?

(b)

Water always allowed to run change water in service pipes?

to

(c)

Sterilized faucet with flame?

(d)

Water allowed to tun before filling sample bottle?

(e)

Checked chlorine residual and tern- perature of air and water?

(f)

Bottles properly labelled?

g)

Every sample sent to laboratory within 24 hours?

Check One:

Yes

No

0

D

0

0

0

D

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

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-:

REMARKS=-----------------------------------------------------

2-16

Republic of the Philippines

LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 3: BASIC HYDRAULICS

of the Philippines LOCAL WATER UTILITIES ADMINISTRATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL SECTION 3: BASIC HYDRAULICS ·-

·-

.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

SECTION 3: BASIC HYDRAULICS

SUBSECTION

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

SUBJECT

PAGE

3.1

INTRODUCTION

3-1

3.2

WATER PRESSURE

3-2

3.3

FLOW AND VELOCITY

3-5

3,4

FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE

3-5

3.5

HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE

3-8

3.6

MEASURING FLOWS

3-9

 

.

a;

3.7

WATER HAMMER

3-19

.

3.8

CAVITATION

3-21

------------------------------------------

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Hydraulics - the study of liquid in motion and/or under pressure - is a complex subject requiring years of study to master completely. However, if the utility operator understands some of the basic principles of hydraulics of water, he will be better equipped to understand the operation and maintenance of water supply facilities.

3.1.1 Units of

No doubt, the operator is acquainted with the metric

system of measurement. However, since some units are used so often in water supply, the operator should know them so well that he can recall them instant-

ly.

Some imported equipment may have nameplate data or instruction book- lets presented in the English system of units. Table 14-3 at the back of this manual gives conversion factors for units commonly used in water supply.

3.1.1.1

Units of Length

MM

CM

M

KM

1.0

=

0.1

10.

=

1.0

=

0 .01

1000.

=

100.

=

1.0

= 0.001

1000.

3.1.1.2

Units of Area

MM2

CM2

1.0

0.01

100.

=

1.0

=

1,000,000.

=

10,000.

=

3.1.1 .3

Units of Volume

=

1.0

M2

Hectare

0.0001

1.0

=

0.0001

---

10,000.0

=

1.0

 

cc

1 (liters)

M3

1.0

0.001

0.0000001

1,000.

1.0

0.001

1,000,000.

1,000.

1.0

3.1. 1.4

Weight of Water

1.0

cc

weighs

1.0 gm

1.0

Iiter

,

weighs

1000

gm or 1.0·kg.

1.0

M3

· weighs

1000

kg.

3-1

3.1.1.5

Units of Flow

1/s

1/Hr

M3/Hr

M3/Day

1.0

3600.

3.6

86.4

1.0

0.001

.· 0.024

0.278

1000.

1.0

24.0

0.0116

41.67

0.417

1.0

3.2 WATER PRESSURE

3.2.1 Definition

Pressure is the force exerted on each square centimeter of a surface by the weight of water lying above it; the greater the depth of water, the greater

the pressure. Example: If a tank 1.0 M square is filled 1.0 M deep with water, it contains 1.0 M 3 or 1000}W'Of water. Since the area at the bottom of the tank

or 10,000 CM2, the weight of water on each square centimeter

(i.e ., the pressure) is 1000

of water column will exert a pressure at the bottom of the column of 1 kg/cm2,

which is a unit of pressure in the metric system.

is

1.0 M2

kg+ 10,000 cm2, or 0.10 kg/cm2. Hence 10 meters

3.2.2 Characteristics of Pressure

(a)

Water exerts pressure equally in all directions. In the previous example, the pressure against the sides of the tank at the side bottom is the same as on the bottom. Moreover, the pressure against the sides half way up the tank is one half the pressure at the bottom. In fact, the pressure at any point, in kg/cm2, is 1/10 of the height of the water level above it in meters. For example the pressure 5 m below the surface of a reservoir is 1/10 x 5 or 0.5 kg/cm2.

(b)

Water pressure depends only on the vertical height of water. The static water pressure at any point in a hydraulic system depends on and is equal to the vertical difference between that point and the highest level open to atmospheric pressure such as in an elevated tank, or the piezometric level induced by a pump.

In a supply system however, conditions are seldom if ever static, hence the actual or dynamic pressure, or head, is the static pressure minus losses due to velocity of flow and friction, between the location of the highest pressure in the system and any other point being checked.

3-2

P= 8.75 -===·:;J-::=_- --
P= 8.75
-===·:;J-::=_-
--

-=--

~

V = 5

M/ SEC.

P= 8.75 -===·:;J-::=_- -- -=-- ~ V = 5 M/ SEC. --- 10M P=8.75 P=IOM P=

---

P= 8.75 -===·:;J-::=_- -- -=-- ~ V = 5 M/ SEC. --- 10M P=8.75 P=IOM P=

10M

P=8.75

P=IOM

P= 10M

=- - =
=- -
=
-=-- ~ V = 5 M/ SEC. --- 10M P=8.75 P=IOM P= 10M =- - =

-

~

PRESSURE HEAD CONVERTING TO VELOCITY HEAD AND BACK- TO

PRESSURE

HEAD AGAIN.

3-3

l 1 0 <( w I lJ 0 (f) (f) 0 _j MAIN SECTION (
l
1
0
<(
w
I
lJ
0
(f)
(f)
0
_j
MAIN
SECTION
( d2) THROAT
DIAMETER
THROAT
SECTION
--
MAIN SECTION ( d2) THROAT DIAMETER THROAT SECTION -- PROPELLER VENTURI ,---- . ~ ""'""'

PROPELLER

VENTURI

,---- . ~ ""'""' h=HEAD _ . DIFFERENTIAL LOSS HEAD ( d 1 ) =Throat
,---- .
~
""'""'
h=HEAD
_
.
DIFFERENTIAL
LOSS
HEAD
( d 1 ) =Throat
Diameter
-

3-4

ORIFICE

OF

3.2.3 "Head" vs "Pressure"

The terms "head" and "pressure mean basically the same thing.

How-

ever, head is generally expressed in terms of an equivalent height of a water

column, in meters, while pressure is expressed in kg/cm

2

.

Suppose a pump produces a pressure of 5.0 kg/cm2 in a pipeline. The same pressure could be by connecting the pipeline to a tank with its water surface 50 M above the pipeline (i.e., I/10 x 50= 5.0 kg/cm2). Therefore, the pump is said to provide 50 M of head. ln fact, pumps are usually rated in terms of meters of head, rather than in pressure units.

3.2.4 Measuring Pressure

Pressure is usually measured with a pressure gauge, calibrated in kg/cm2 or meters.

Small pressures are often measured with a piezometer, or clear plastic tube graduated in centimeters or millimeters. When connected to a pipeline, pressure in the pipe. causes water to rise in the tube. Obviously, piezometers are only used where pressure is less than about 0.2 or 0.3 kg/cm2 (2-3-meters). When using a manometer, a liquid with a specific gravity greater than that of water such as mercury which weighs 13.6 times an equal volume of water can be used. Thus a head of 50 meters water column would be equal to a column of mercury only 3.67 meters high.

3.3 FLOW AND VELOCITY

Water is pushed through a pipe by pressure. The higher the pressure, the greater

the

velocity and volume

o~ water passing a point

in a unit of times.

Velocity is usually expressed in meters per second. To atbuntlie velocity some of

the pressure is converted to velecity head which is expressed in meters of water column. The amount of pressure converted to velocity head is about 1/20 of the velocity (meters/second) multiplied by itself, (V2).

20

Pressure converted to velocity is not lost but is converted back to static pressure as the water slows or stops.

3.4 FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE

When water flows through a pipe, part of the pressure or head which causes the water to move is lost due to friction between wall of the ~ipe and the water moving past it. The longer the pipe, the greater the total pressure los.t, hence the friction poten- tial of a pipe line is usually ~efined as meters of head loss per kilometer of pipe line length.

3-5

Friction in a pipeline actually depends on three primary factors:

1. Velocity, or rate of flow, defined as meters per second (m/sec.).

2. Pipe size, that is, the inside diameter.

3. The roughness of the inside surface of the pipe.

The roughness depends on the pipe material, length of time it has been service, and the degree of surface deterioration due to corrosion products, and/or deposition of minerals such as calcium, or pitting, resulting from the quality of the water being transported.

The friction caused by the roughness of the inside pipe walls is denoted in hydrau- lic studies of a pipeline system as the "C" factor. "C" values are numerical evaluations of the inside pipe condition as it affects friction and its resulting carrying capacity at a given water pressure. The "C" value of a pipeline can range from 140 for new pipe with smooth interiors to as low as 70, or even less, for older pipe with very rough inside walls.

The "C" value for a given pipeline can be determined by actual flow measure- ments and pressure readings along a portion of its length, and using these values to determine velocity of flow in meters per second and head loss in meters per kilome- ter. Knowing the pipe size, the velocity or pressure, and the head loss, one can use the Tables at end of this Section to determine the "C" value for that particular pipe· line. From the table then, one can determine "C" values of pipelines which permit making reasonably accurate judgments and plans toward maintaining or improving system efficiencies. Some examples are:

1. Pressures necessary to produce a desired flow rate.

2. Whether a pipeline should be cleaned and relined.

3. Abandon a pipeline and replace it with a new one of suitable size.

4. Reinforce the system with feeder

--

,

The choice of what to do and when to do it depends on cost benefit calculations made after a survey to determine "C" values.

Sometimes during the course of making such a survey, large leaks are discovered.

A study of the table will illustrate the importance of friction considerations. One can see that at any given flow rate in a pipe with a "C" value of 70 the head loss is approximately 4 times that of pipe the same size but with a "C" value of 140. Also, following any "C" value of column downward from one flow rate to a flow rate equal to twice as much, the head loss is quadrupled. In other words, to double the flow rate through any pipe it is necessary to increase the head or pressure by approximately 4 times.

3-6

l

l HEAD LOSS IN PIPELINE A --~HEAD LOSS .ACROSS PARTIALLY l_ VALVE - - - -GRADE

HEAD

LOSS

IN

PIPELINE A

--~HEAD LOSS .ACROSS PARTIALLY l_ VALVE - - - -GRADE ~,;- - ~;AD LOSS LENGTH
--~HEAD LOSS
.ACROSS
PARTIALLY
l_ VALVE
- -
-
-GRADE ~,;- -
~;AD
LOSS
LENGTH
A •
8
8
-

A

8

CLOSED

IN

PIPELINE

LOSS lN PIPE A LOSS IN PIPE 8 c LENGTH A• B • C c
LOSS lN
PIPE A
LOSS IN
PIPE
8
c
LENGTH
A• B • C
c
A
B
180
- 200
-~

HEAD

LOSS

IN PIPE

-- - ----- t4-- HEAD LOSS IN P IPELINE A LIN£ · • . LENGTH
-- - -----
t4-- HEAD LOSS
IN
P IPELINE A
LIN£
·
.
LENGTH
A• 8
A
B
aoo
1111
IN P IPELINE A LIN£ · • . LENGTH A• 8 A B aoo 1111 -
IN P IPELINE A LIN£ · • . LENGTH A• 8 A B aoo 1111 -

-

--------- =r

HEAD

LOSS IN

PI:ELINE

FLOW

IN

PIPE

3-7

\

The following example is given to illustrate the use of the Tables.

1.

A 400 mm pipeline, 800 meters long carries a flow of 200 liters per second.

2.

Pressure gages installed at each end of the pipeline give an upstream

pressure of 3.4 kg/cm2 and a downstream pressure of 3.2 kg/cm2.

3.

The elevation of the upstream gage is 4 meters higher than the downstream gage,- equal to 0.4 kg/cm2 static pressure

4.

If the pipe was level, the downstream gage would read 3.2 kg/cm2 - 0.4 kg/cm2 = 2.8 kg/cm2.

5.

The actual head loss in the 800 meters of pipeline is 3.4 kg/cm2- 2.8

kg/cm 2 = 0.6 kg/cm 2 equal to 6

meters of water column.

6.

The table gives pressure loss in meters of water column in 1000 meters, but the length of pipeline tested in 800 meters, or 0.8 of values as present- ed.

7.

The head loss due to friction according to the table, therefore, is 6 meters, x 1000 = 7.5 meters.

800

8.

Using Table 3-2 f for 400 mm pipe and locating a flow rate of 200 liters

per second in the left hand column then looking to the right we find a head loss value of 7.79 meters per 1000 meters of pipe length in the column headed by "C" = 110.

Unlike velocity head which may be ·converted back to pressure, head loss due to friction is lost forever.

3.5 HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE

If no water is flowing in a pipeline, there is neither velocity head nor friction loss, and all pressures are said to be static pressure. If there are no differences in elevation (relative to sea level), pressures will be the same anywhere. If wateris-flo~ing, however, the gauge pressure at any point ~n the pipeline will be the pressure at the source, minus all friction losses plus velocity head between it and the point in question. The surface elevation of the water source (say, a reservoir), measured from sea level, minus friction loss is known as the hydraulic grade line. Put another way, the hydraulic grade line is an imaginary line above a pipeline; and if a high enough standpipe could be constructed at any point on the pipeline, water would rise in the standpipe up to

that line.

Any restriction, such as a partially closed valve or change in pipe size will create an abrupt change in the slope of the grade line.

3-8

3.6 MEASURING FLOWS

3.6.1

General

-

It is often necessary to measure discharge flowing out of a pipe; for example when testing pump performance. This is simple if there is a flow meter on the pump discharge piping. Often, however, there is no meter and other means must be used.

3.6.2 Weir Box Method

3.6.2.1 Material Required

(a)

A weir box constructed of concrete, wood or steel plate, with a millimeter scale. (1) The weir should be made of steel plate 1/4 inch thick. The overflow edges must be bevelled on the downstream side so that the opening has flat edges of 1/16" or less. The weir plate must be secured in the discharge end of the box so that 1) there will be no leakage around it, 2) it is perpendicular to the weir box bottom, 3) the bot- tom of the weir opening is parallel to the weir box bot- tom, and 4) weir box is placed and maintained perfectly level. (2) The stilling box or piezometer connection to the box to measure the head above the weir crest should be upstream of the weir a distance 2.5 times the vertical opening of the weir plate.

(3)

The weir box must be long enough that flow through the

 

weir opening is laminar (i.e., S11!,0oth,yithout turbulence), baffeling may be required.

(b)

Fittings on the pipe and so that flow is directed into the weir box without splashing over.

3.6.2.2

Procedure

(a)

Be certain that the weir box is placed perfectly level both length- wise and crosswise. This can be checked by using a carpenter's level.

(b)

When tlow through the weir is steady, measure the depth of water in the sight glass by means of a scale placed behind the glass tube. Zero on the scale must be level with the bottom of the weir.

(c)

Using Table 3-4, look up the flow ra~e given for the depth of flow H, under the column corresponding to the width of the weir

openm~.

3-9

.

-··- -~

. -··- -~ <{ (t: w ~ 1- z w ~ w (t: ::::> en <{

<{

(t:

w ~

1-

z

w

~

w

(t:

::::>

en

<{

w

~

~ 0

J

LL

'tl

I .

I

MET.

AL

STRIp

STAFF GAGE

-o't' ''"':

I~"11"'"' ""'

. <>;~-~~~'""''* • oli11 ' T ' •: W '; ·,• \1\J'' If ·''· •''' ~rv>:

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d·~.·· --::::-

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:-~~.

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."!:······~-

.

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{;. / :;//~/' /

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-:/: /

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· •·• ·~1 . • ~~''"'.1''\'\.,,,~E~A·· . ,.

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-RECTANGUL

~~~E~O~~~~~TI:~RWITH

6~R~UGHTHEISO~NTRACTEDAS

FROMH~HWEIRNOTC~NGSINCE TH~TPASSES

E SIDES

OF ARE

THE

SOME WEIR

ISTANCE ENDS

D

POOL.)

Table 3-4

WEIR

DISCHARGE

FOR RECTANGULAR WEIR WITH TWO

END CONTRACTIONS

DISCHARGE LIS

H

(mm)

B=300 mm

B=750 mm

B=1.2 M

 

">,

50

5.8

15.0

24.1

52

6.2

16.3

26.3

54

6.6

17.1

27.6

56

7 .0

18.1

29.1

58

7.4

19.0

30.6

60

7.6

20.0

32.1

62

8.0

20.9

33.6

64

8.5

22.0

35.4

66

8.9

23.0

37.1

68

9.3

24.0

38.6

70

9.7

25.0

40.4

72

10.2

26.1

42.1

74

10.6

27.2

43.8

76

11.0

28.4

45.8

78

11 .3

29.4

47.5

80

11 .7

30.5

49.2

82

12.2

31.7

51.2

84

12.6

32.9

53.1

86

13.1

34.0

54 8

88

13.6

35.2

56.8

90

14.0

36.4

58.7

92

14.5

37.5

60.6

94

14.9

38.7

62.6

96

15.4

40.1

64.7

98

15.7

41.2

66.6

100

16.3

42.4

68.6

DISCHARGE LIS

H

(mm)

B=300 mm

 

B=750 mm

B=1 .2M

100

16.3

42.2

68.6

102

43.7

70.7

104

44.9

72.7

106

46.2

74.8

108

47.6

67.9

110

48.9

79.1

112

50.2

81.2

114

51.4

83.1

116

52.7

85.3

118

54.2

87.8

120

55.5

90.0

122

56.9

92.1

124

58.3

94.5

126

59.6

96.6

128

61.0

98.9

130

62.4

101.3

132

.

63.9

103.6

134

- ·

-

-

»;

65.3

105.9

136

66.7

108.3

138

68.2

110.6

140

69.6

112.9

142

71 .6

115.3

144

72.4

117.6

146

74.0

120.1

148

75.4

122.5

150

76.9

125.0

3-12

A-Greater than twice H

B-Twice H

C-At least twice H

H- Maximum Head

c CIPOLLETTI WEIR I: 4 SLOPE upstream side
c
CIPOLLETTI WEIR
I: 4
SLOPE
upstream side

V NOTCH

WEIR

upstream side

.

-· ·- - Jr

----- -=-:--=- ---=--= HEAD -----=-=-~--------=--=- -- - - - - -- -
-----
-=-:--=-
---=--= HEAD
-----=-=-~--------=--=-
-- - -
-
- -- -

3-13

-3------YARDSTICK Calibrated in MM Water Level----+-1 Clear Plastic -- - Tubing, 3 MM 0 ---·H
-3------YARDSTICK
Calibrated in MM
Water Level----+-1
Clear Plastic -- -
Tubing, 3 MM 0
---·H
/1
-
'-----3 MM Top Flush w/
inside of Pipe
Standard Steel Pipe
Stondord Coupling
·-

FLOW

MEASUREMENT THROUGH AN ORIFICE

ON

END OF PIPE

3-14

Table 3-5 DISCHARGE, L!SEC, FROM CIRCULAR ORIFICE

Head

ORIFICE DIMENSIONS (MM) (PIPE 1.0. x ORIFICE 1.0.)

IIH''

(MM)

100 X 50 150 X 90 200 X 150 250 X 215

Head

"H,

ORIFICE DIMENSIONS (~M) (PIPE I.D. x ORIFICE 1.0.)

(MM)

100 X 50 150 X 90 200 X 150 250 X 115

10

0.6

1.8

210

2.6

8.2

27.7

64.0

20

0.8

2.5

8.6

220

2.6

8.4

28.4

65.5

30

1.0

3.1

10.5

24.2

230

2.7

8.5

29.0

67.0

40

1.1

3.6

12.1

27.9

240

2.7

8.7

29.6

68.4

50

1.3

4.0

13.5

31.2

250

2.8

8.9

30.2

69.8

60

1.4

4.4

14.8

34.2

260

2.9

9.1

30.8

71.2

70

1.5

4.7

16.0

36.9

270

2.9

9.3

31.4

72.6

80

1.6

5.0

17.1

39.5

280

3.0

9.4

32.0

73.9

90

1.7

5.4

18.1

41.9

290

3.0

9.6

32.6

75.2

100

1.8

5.6

19.1

44.2

300

3.1

9.8

33.1

76.5

110

1.9

5.9

20.1

46.3

310

3.1

9.9

33.7

77.7

120

1.9

6.2