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the Palestinian tatrgum
to the pentateuch

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/s

ouinn

now

nfon

*IDK

^stf)

rpioT) nnjyjD

,"

(t'"

,"Dnj

DSK,

TinD.nKo *BDK tnna ^ya


nan PKI
m j^i^a nwa
(n"p)

,,

,,

ains Quini

.mp3

/'pos N^

iJ'JS'b'i

(42

niKin Kin

aunm
ir

nnjrn^ mj?

.("i

ins (y'apn MD n"iKi) K"un

s,,

nr

PKI ,"pnisn

nn imtn
."pmem ^pn Kn

(:*i"3i)

,,

ijn
V'n '^K

Kipa

^mrr)

,M

KOI* 'OBI

'n'baK

IQK^ rar Rn'm

mxo

"nn
ov nns pi /'prnan

nman

K^

nnr

KT nT

.t"2p

.n"an msts

('j

ntaioi

*n)

'tana

nn^

II^D

T'^Tin ?

at
r\

njro

Ka^an Kanj

nam

ii^a nia'an
n^Kia) nmann

K?
1

pi

yn
ui^i r"aiin pir 'Kim

IBD^

^Rian

"pva^-inan,,

^K Kam

,Kaian n^an
a'biK

.nn

ISID mjna

lans ?
1

n'n

(137
:

.Rnn

noiaa

o"tyn

is

o'

j>"

"

^"ain

"onaa ninna,,!

ousin

KBIH

'Kin "njnat^ in,,nn nnnsn


D tyi uns ? nnounr
/y

onnisn

rum

,K^IKH)

_iaT3

mpa

"m:n,,a

(4S

^3 13 ,noin^

ouinn

.nwn
rmiyn
inn

n'p

.nnnoKS psnortf PKI

inn nmiynon

nnaon

-n-

e>n

mym nn nrw

.(T"ID /T

ejuin

nn
.Dunn

onma
,'T

'3
1

oinn n ? (n"s ,1"^ maty) pan


mini ins,, 35
np

mm

anmsn-

'JIN,,

61

nsm

."nnmen

nan

"n
-s

(22

o:n

m 'inns mine
pv .oaw niaipai

.nnjro

mjm) ^j^

onnisnu

(N"3 ,i"3)

nun

mat IPKI m n&nn


anann laainBO mrrpo naiaa 5p
n
irpan o^inrrn tr&wont? IK
Dnairr .Qjinon rma irpn^m ninan
nnipD mono ^anyi o-'toi^
n^-nnaa c^iannn i^ i^n^
nix;
rvn nr-nsp

artf

s inns

naa

TION

mpo Vna)

TIII

.D'tmso

1021

HNiJtt'

12

.Qtt> ouini rua


'^2 nnaix,, Drwo

si

'

ayita vriB>

Kin '2 pins

-mpa D

ns

nr'N?

pi

lonnw maipm
PK jman nau inns

:69 is

mu,,

in'nrr

nn

i*?

...102

(n"2 /H

onano IPK onmano


^2jn

vnpn

Dtyn Kin

/j

(n"

(T"B ,n"2

map) 02^8

ijn^p

nn

nnnisi
na.,

DWan
Wan
1

mpfoa

'nty ?

jn

ia

(B

amn^n

mp^n innism

^n

.n^an ia

nns (o

/i

jn

inn nnsM,, 66

na

,i"a in

,nan IPSII p^n tajr

i>Jj>ni

^in

nrw nxia^

tnry) Rnanwa na^pm,,

nn^^i onsD ?
1

ns

n^o

l^i

('j

/i

nni

txnanx

npjrn '^n inns

."aa nan

ainhn
nao

mnno

an 5yi ,*IDV in

Qinn

cm

pn Kin

joio

/tfj

K^ID

(44

my
ta

nx

(121

"o^ys

,n^Tii)

in,,

naoi

IT

nyn mini nai a


ua Q.nnix

ixnpDa^ ^nni "n^n


in Di^nn in^ nyt5>a iiro nN^^nn
.IT nyna on^y oa TP x^ DIPD
:ioi ,oj
ta t^on ,pinD ia DHJD
^-'i^ D^ITS d'^K^io^ ,niyi ^"^n ,D"an
fnann n^ ly^^ ^i lyn-" *tf ,5>xniy ta

'n

,IINJJ

Kin

naai

mav ma

IINJI

'xn

(44

DIIWS pso nn

n^,, nn^ni

PKI Kin 'JT

iit

nnnta "no vn^s DK

n nstuw

ni'iT m'bD nor

ipin

nnr uasya

any

nnrin
(222 ns) rwi
y/

(T

2 /n
'

inw)

xn
32

KSIJ;
('n

10

an^

^m
,y'r

a^nt^n nson

t\iy

xte

31^32,,

titw

Kam's n'2D aijnnn


,a^r)

nitron

in

'xn

any iiefo
r&p
;nnnia ITB ^in^ua iaia^ nr
,,

ax

mo

ION rsp

moxt^ naa

n^m mam

51

nB

.DuiNin

^"T

a^am

(172

wn

an

nitanm

aunnn

.n

nnao my

aniaan nana

nnya

D->iini

,(43

"^

onown

omni nan

,nrn

awnnn

"atDnn
,inii

mn

on

n)

DI^D

ns ?ya

nyn

n^n
i

*iD n

cnb?

an?

'KBH nn

ma
r

icon

PT

(43
('i

,i"ta)

3*1

31

inn

no

JDI

jrm

s%!

isa

/'minn

'tttoivn

,(45 5"

mrm DPS nan


irnaoa D^eys nnn *OID o^py minn)
/a n^ao) ,('n /a)
or ,(n /1) na^ 'o^n^ t"y
pn Kin Dt^a natJB> DIPD nra nxin OKI
: (n"^ 'a)
K"*n ^Pisa .imKD vrnn IK p^nyb
inn nn^n nno ^ai on^aK apy nn
apy
a"nKi i^y
^ipn nn n
apy^ nn ^nni ,IDK:JK> /n^nnaa t^nipn nn i^y
."nniaK apy'^y HKUJ nn m^n D^PJIK
-.^"nnn D^ anai
K"ni DVD nn5 Kn^ KDinjna,,
Dinn

IN D^PJIK Di;nn ^rtfi

11

(112

is)

.ijiaeto

DB>

<nst3i w (201 is)

mn

torn

n3n njB3

mn

(6 is)

(i"i

"yui^i i'pn

notn,, (300 iu)

nan to in^naa
13135'?

Dtr

nuinn ION

y^s
1

ijija ?

.(5 is)

nB3

mine

D'NSOJ

13311 Kity^n TO^D D'JltWfl

tyiS

iri

ntats^

nnnta

no

m^nx) TU

msvn mnpn
ay

(24 ns)

mawi inina ppvo

/'nsn to in>nnn iBniB3

by pi on Qiasitay ,na^nn D'Niian nnmn DJJ


\iiy .iB>nB3 '"tn T"JT rnne> ia:i Nipo to

nn apty
npn
;

...1*33
^N*

("tn

onrnm

11fl3

mi

nasi

(45

(: i"

112^3
,]Dn

to

pipnn n'bsn to
nto DJ nsn .("i ,3n

53

on

Vann
Dinn rvn nDKats> ,nann
.iniwa ana ^ID-P an nans?

ii;nn

rrn

am

pjfiS
,yn:n

na

nnyna

iim

IDI

n^a

:Dinna
^pRiawa. na

tiainn,,

in

n^a paiyo iin

naon ^mn

DH

onanm

-iin^y

an DiannD

fior

an

D^

an niai^n t^y)

onn

Dnp5>

n^iy ntai

.(^"^

n>Ba

na

'n

12

pa6n nnnta

nan

m i)

Ka<sn

man

Vnour
iyia

asa

noa K3fla> lor

Di^nn

'nNSDi

nan nann

nsijr nn nunnn

mip

"no e>nisi

^ nnx ns m

issn

1331?

eiii^n Kin istyij; toaatf

niD^-

DIPD

"p ,nai^n ny^a

nnBoa d^aio

n I^JD rpp'm

tior

innno

I^SNI,, (475 ns)

n^n^ Nim

mssi
xiptt?

('

,^"i

D^

inn

]ri

anna

."

("

,i"

ni^nn) tn^n^n

OBI KVH

52

t3io;nno MB

''JIKI)

m^n "isn
"
"50
Jim

nt

awinn

p->y

wmo

'by

pwaa

iinn mpoa DJ^ ,inn IIIPI


m mrirtf rmiin ODD
nipn iini (fa /a ,D'BBIBO ITOH* :24
5v

in

annoa rnpon nru


nxj

(46 *u IDD

aina 26 1*11
:35 n^ ptjn

."KB->P

/'

oinna mnE> n^a^i ."ppna ^n pnns n'rtf


nno Di^nnD ^ao^ anrnn mi
Q3 xin Dinni u-^a? D^iinin
is ,DK>D np^> ^or 11 D^ ,iiDsn DVDH

m,r.n 7r ISTI

nnm

I'w ,yn'

onm

nori nor ty mojr TN 13 ,ns

uanKi ?
1

p^n

,^a

.^a

jr

ir

.(T"BP '<D)

^ya

maij?

.am

nuin

ii

niwi omnnw

nnnn

^a

ns

n-ne>rj

ma

m^a

tya>

nn

n^m n^ijm
.na^a nma nw

,.("r

.iJiiii

nm

x?

tn

pi

"D)

]ri

p'bn DJ

iiJ.n

nnra

.lion

miaa

av win

mirin

in

(o

jn

fiwo

mm

,nr

nninKi

aa
iB3 w

H^JBI

(V'>

oa

u^

.iinr3tt>

na

icipai tsip^n nan-iBta pipan

u^ita^ta

nnD

*n

/j PT injr nnjra

(46

oo pinjm i*nn iin^


n IBID mytai
."Kpt
noina iwa louinr nj ior- w "i piyi .cno aina jKn
ana Tsp TJ (T" iniyM) mr oiari ins py^ 13
f

aina

*tf

(y^ D^nn) 122 DJir

55

(QB>

"B>I

piy)

K"TT ^PTB nBtfa

mat

.'"ins

oan

(?'"

m^

Hint?

DtoK win

niy KVDJ aft

anpi

"iai

nn

tat?

Dipna K"IT *PTBSI D^PJIK mrin

H) ru-a

nips

'3

,nrp n^ nnsnty n^ya n^wan

D^BTP nn

auini

,n-

nann5
IDTD naoin

IDS ,n^:n ^y tnn

ttmn n^D noi tij nn^ "10 "IDND


(.1) n^yn ^ins DJ^ ,n
nyn no,,

is

."tea

(D'""

'n^aj

nr

nix &"s) nan


D^PJIX

Dinn
xin

mo
>s

tia

/) tn^aoa nnx

5>y" ("i

nxnj

//

ND'

oya airnt? noi

na^ Dnino
n"D
nt

nny nnya

oai

ia
m:nn pyni w
11

PN,, (124

o^nan

t"y)

ana

aina

i^ nioipon

,m

TV ^aaTn nxvin)

54

atonn nuinn
"' w n
Dismi is nr Dism
IKD mntao rnatfo K*n
;

.mpom
.T"jnn

,,

,,

njrn

,1*71:3

nnn nx

;o ,K" 7 "i"pn ;o

,^'"7

nosra

torn

,i

25

10

24

15

,4

18

16

21
24
34
42

nun nta ta^n


D^ nnvnt^n ntyn nx nsntan
T'a) anioafnoipts naina

vno,,

ntooi

/y

inj;^a

mn

21

^IR

N?
1

n^n^tap

flva

21
ens'?

tt>^

mj?,,

onD ninn

p^njrn

('n

pi ...iinsi nfewn
nan
naRi auinn

n"i

17

V's "mnsa,,

18

RI

57

V's

Bijinn

,,

dinna

as?)

20

-ODBW

u^Etfi "Kiayoa

rcm rn:mm d'anao

K")

(n"5 /a

tji,,

10

in

noun
(79

,HDn nnano ^21 non^io

ta

,('n ,1"::

onm)

ni

"in^n

"man

in npn
ninai (o

nion
nann nnyn P^nyn yno
in piaini itPDn^n am
nnntD?
inya nini
^ns^ D^p^nyon lytoi ?IDI an DUID
Swai '""'n,, nnai nni-' nxp ID nnxi /
.5ia^ani aiaiyn
,

mm

<

'

^y py ^yn? p^yon? n ^an


pa d^omnn niot^a Taao$ D"i^
ono d^nn nina nn T>-anaa /doity n^ ^anai

nnyn ^a

."nnx na najrn inx na i&p

nnns nnso

-p naijn

,"KPT IIK D'iaan naa MIS

,Rapn BIO

13

iop,,

aty

('j

ins nia
D^nna

yw.ni) pi
rains

no,,

."B>O

56

non

sight suggest genuine variants and yet we


find the same readings suggested or embodied

first

in

one of the commentaries which could by no


said to have seen any but the Masor-*

means be
etic text

this

fact alone

is

sufficient to

over-

throw the theory of the existence of a different


text than the accepted one. On the contrary, it
proves all the stronger the validity of our text.
Take, for instance, verse 9 in the 3ist chapter
of Isaiah
Vntt> DJD inn
"and his princes shall
be dismayed at the ensign." Some scholars assume
that the original reading was inty D1JDD IDITl
because Symmachus translates the passage as it
it
read D1JDD. But Rabbi Joseph Karo who
certainly knew nothing of Symmachus and had
no other text than ours", renders the passages the
1

same

as

Symmachus.

(See Note 16).

Or, again, consider the argument that Gen.


"a high terebinth" instead of
13, 6, read tn t1$K
mi> tl^X because the Septuaginta translates it in
this sense. But I have shown (note 14) that some
obscure teacher in Galicia who probably never
heard of the Septuaginta renders the passage in
the same way. (See also notes 9, 13, 31, 36, 40).
In the introduction to my edition of the
Peshitta in Hebrew characters, which is ready
for the press, I have devoted a chapter to- the
discussion of this particular phase of the problem.

59

natenm aunnn

45

V's "^,, 14

48

23

54

ia w

27

56

inya ."unia pma la^inex,


1884 BJ^IJJB *JV nSD2 K21B
"NniD pflua onn onn piaa,

s ispn
,76 'ay

Beitraege

lea

nnaoa
DIKJDI

PKI

mjiro i3w

(T"I

TOI)

a'Jsn

nn^pan

.('

/K n'Jjrn ;'2 /n maia)

('t2

'<D)

amarn
'n

nna

nt

a inana* no aaa
o:n

nt

,aa

'to

nmn DSJ
nnna no
TBS lain
.44

.INS

y's "IN

new ojiino

p
,oten nuina maipa
na vyn 121 /:>

DI^S

yow

(fa

,2"')

nanoi* nn^ nt

121831

mpaa ^r

D^ iB>a*n

mjm

"Hptan TN,,

na

na ^"s /'Mapn
ainrw maipan ^a

iiaya x ? (y"?
1

'a)

jna '211

58

ao

man

bears upon the study of Biblical Exegesis that


I feel impelled to

We

all

emphasize strongly here.

know what an

important branch of

Biblical science the study of the Hebrew original


in the light of the ancient Versions has become

has become the fashion to search


the Versions for anything that looks like a variant
with a view of establishing different readings in

of

-late.

the

It

Many

original.

editions

of

the

Hebrew

Bible have appeared accompanied by variae


lectiones and many books and monographs on
this subject have been issued from the press
all having the outward impress of science, so to
speak. These have found a considerable following, for the name science has a charm of its own
which sometimes blinds men to the truth and
leads

them

astray.

Now, some

of

my

notes are directed against

mechanical method of Biblical research, and


point out the errors into which some scholars
not mentioned by name have fallen.

this

Some scholars, 'e. g. } assert with definite


assurance that Gen. 18, 17, "Shall I hide from
Abraham" in the versions which the authors of
the Septuaginta and the Peshitta .had before
them read:

Abraham my
word "servant" is added in

"Shall I hide from

servant" because the


these versions.

The

fact,

61

however,

is

that the

addition

is

commonly
Note 7).
* '

only a gloss due to well

known and

accepted exegetical traditions.

(See

Similarly in the verse "Take a jar" (Ex.


16, 33) some scholars read "Take a golden jar"
because Septuaginta reads so. Tey consider it

an actual variant whereas the fact is that the


Septuaginta only added the word for the sake
of clearness as can be seen from the Mekilta.
(See Note 21).

Again some

scholars, basing themselves

on

the Septuaginta, read (2 Kings 8, 26) "and his


mother's name was Athaliiah the daughter of

Ahab"

Omrd" and behad another version


before it, whereas it is only a conscious emendation of the translator in order to avoid a seeming
contradiction between this verse and verse 18
of the same chapter; the Peshitta, however,
found another way >of reconciling the contrainstead of "the daughter of

lieve that the Septuaginta

diction.

(See Note 38).

Another instance is the one I pointed out in


1 6 that the Peshitta often translates a word
beginning with 5 as if it were preceded by the

note

word K?

This principle does away with

many

so-called variants.

Above

we

all

we must

bear in mind this:

find in ancient versions readings

60

Since

which at

ALPHA PRESS

NEW YORK

1638416

PREFATORY NOTE
(Translated

from

the

Hebrew

prefatory

This essay was written while

was

note}.

Hommel

in

among the refugees, who left kith and kin, hearth


and home to escape the ravages of the war.
Under such

me

conditions

it

was impossible for

many books dealing with the


present subject. It was only during a previous
sojourn in Peterburg that I had consulted several
of its libraries and especially the library of the
to get access to

Asiatic

Museum. Since

the cessation of hostilities

and the reopening of communications, I learned


some points touched upon in this article have
neveralready been treated by other scholars

that

theless this does not affect

my

contribution.

The

careful reader will readily discern the difference


in the point of view.

For the sake of brevity many an important


point which otherwise deserves special and lengthy
treatment has been condensed into the form of
a note.
There is, however, one point which is
the direct result of some of my notes and which
62

<*><><><2><$<<><><2><$^^

A'

A
A

The University

of Chicago

Library

I
A
t,

#/

A
A
A
A
I
A
A
A
*?>

CRITICAL ESSAY

'A

ON

THE PALESTINIAN TARGUM


TO THE

PENTATEUCH

BY

DR.

CH^HELLER

Reprint from the

Hebrew Weekly

"HAIBRI"

New York

1921