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Introduction of screw pump

Screw pump has a structure same like a screw. I mean the whole construction of the
spindle is like a archimedes screw and this spindle is responsible for the pumping
action of the pump. It has been observed over the years that this pump requires least
maintenances and therefore, is a potential device for increasing the pressure. As
other pumps, screw pump too takes the mechanical or you can say the rotational
energy from external means like a motor or any type of arrangements which provides
the rotary motion. Sulzer and kirlosker pumps are very famous. So lets discuss about
this pump little more detail.
Construction of screw pump
Construction of screw pump is coherent and very straight forward in its making. See
the diagram for construction details. Screw pump is having three screw spindles, one
of which is driver and other two are driven. There is a fine clearance between these
screws and this fine clearance is responsible for the pumping action of the fluid.
Drive to the main screw is given through the motor which is coupled to this by proper
coupling.

Pumps have a casing which has a proper inlet and outlet. Inlet is always preferred at
the bottom and the outlet is preferred at the upper part of the pump. This is all we
have in the construction of this pump. One more thing which I forget to tell is that
this pump is having a relief valve fitted at the end of the outlet.

Working of screw pump (1)


Screw pump is having the simplest working on the entire pumps. Lets start with
fluid coming at inlet at the bottom most part of this pump. Now since driver screw is
rotating and other two drive screws are also rotating but in different directions, they
tend to build up the suction pressure at the bottom part. This suction pressure makes
the fluid to move upward. Fluid passes through the small clearance between these
screws and also the centrifugal force is experienced by this fluid. Both of these factors
contribute towards providing the force which in turn results in the development of
pressure in the fluid. This pumped oil get out of the pump, with pressure but before
going out of the pump, it has to pass through the monitoring of the relief valve. A
relief valve is a mechanical device or mounting which guarantees that fluid is given
by the pump in the limited pressure range. If the pressure of the fluid increases, then
automatic relief valve will direct the excess pressure oil into the inlet side or we can
say the suction side.
Working Of Screw Pump(2)
Screw pumps also falls in the category of rotary pumps and have the
same mechanism and principle. Screw pumps are the only type of pumps which are
different from other rotary displacement pumps because of the axial flow of the fluid
through their pumping elements.The fluid in screw pumps moves between the screw
threads and is displaced axially as the screws rotate and mesh.
Due to the axial flow pattern and low internal velocities,the screw pumps have
certain advantages in applicationswhere churning and agitation of fluid is highly
objectionable or not allowed.The inter-meshing of the screw threads on the rotors
and the very fine clearances of the surrounding housing creates a seal between the
pumps inlet and outlet.
Due to the rotation of the screws and the movement of fine clearances, pockets are
formed in the helices of the screw.As the screw moves the pockets also move axially
and act similar to a piston moving in one direction, while the fluid is moved axially
from inlet to outlet.

Problem and maintenance required on screw pump


Generally we have very less problems associated with this pump but yes some
problems occur. To make things simpler, lets discuss the problems which may occur
on this pump.
1. The clearances between the screws increases, which results in a decrease in
pressure.
2. Bearings may wear out.
3. The relief valve does not function properly.
So these were some of the problems which we face in screw pumps.Lets discuss the
maintenances which are done with this pump.
1. Checking the clearance between the screws and rectifying it.
2. Bearings lubrication and oiling.
3. Checking and testing the relief valve.
Material of screw pump
Followings parts are made with the metals described below:
Casing: Generally made of cast iron.
Screw shafts: Made of high grade carbon steel.
Bearings: High speed steels.
Application of screw pump
Normal the screw is used for pumping the high viscous fluids. They are also used for
draining out the tanks having high vapor pressure liquids. They are used to take the
water from the stern tube area, if there leakage there. So these are some of the uses of
the screw pump