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AC AND DC MOTORS

The electric motor is the workhorse of the modern industry. Its functions are almost unlimited.
To control the motors that drive machinery and equipment we must have electrical supply
circuits that perform certain functions. They must provide electrical current to cause the motor to
operate in the manner needed to make it perform its intended function. They must also provide
protection for the motor from adverse mechanical and electrical conditions. These functions are
frequently combined within the electrical equipment that we classify as motor control centers.
A thorough understanding of the function of the various components of a motor control center is
desirable from both a maintenance and a troubleshooting standpoint. Properly maintained motor
control centers ensure a minimum of downtime for unscheduled repairs, increase productivity,
and contribute to a safer working environment.
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1 Terms and Definitions
2 Motor Fundamentals
2.1 Motor Enclosures
2.1.1 Open
2.1.2 Totally Enclosed
2.2 Nameplate Data
2.2.1 Rated Voltage
2.2.1.1 Nominal Rated Voltage
2.2.1.2 Minimum Starting Voltage
2.2.2 Rated Amperage
2.2.3 Rated Speed
2.2.4 Rated Horsepower
2.2.5 Rated Current
2.2.6 Full-load Amperes
2.2.7 Frame Sizes
2.2.8 Duty
2.2.9 NEMA Design Letter
2.2.10 Insulation Class
2.2.11 Service Factor
2.2.12 KVA Code Letter
2.2.13 Power Factor
2.2.14 Temperature Rise
2.2.15 Frequency
2.2.16 Bearings
2.2.17 Locked-Rotor Current
3 Motor Protection
3.1 Short-Circuit Protection of Stator Windings
3.1.1 Motors Other than Essential-Service
3.1.2 Essential-Service Motors
3.2 Stator-Overheating Protection
3.2.1 Motors Other than Essential Service
3.2.2 Essential-Service Motors

3.3 Rotor-Overheating Protection


3.3.1 Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors
3.3.2 Wound-Rotor Induction Motors
3.3.3 Synchronous Motors
3.4 Loss-of-Synchronism Protection
3.5 Undervoltage Protection
3.6 Loss-of-Excitation Protection
3.7 Branch Considerations
3.8 Thermal Protectors
4 Alternating Current Motors
4.1 AC Motor Theory
4.1.1 Rotating Fields
4.1.2 Rotor Behavior in a Rotating Field
4.1.3 Induction
4.2 Induction Motors
4.2.1 Construction
4.2.1.1 Stator
4.2.1.2 Rotor
4.2.2 Torque
4.2.3 Starting Current
4.2.4 Power Factor
4.2.5 Speed Control
4.2.6 Reversing Rotation
4.3 Synchronous Motors
4.3.1 Construction
4.3.2 Synchronous Motor Operating Principles
4.3.2.1 Rotor Field Excitation
4.3.2.2 Synchronous Motor Pullout
4.3.2.3 Synchronous Motor Torque Angle
4.4 Wound Rotor Motors
4.4.1 Wound Rotor Speed Control
5 Direct Current Motors
5.1 Operating Principles
5.1.1 Armature Construction
5.1.2 DC Motor Ratings
5.1.3 Types of DC Motors
5.1.4 Torque
5.1.5 Starting Current and Counter EMF
5.1.6 Starting Resistance
5.1.7 Armature Reaction
5.1.8 Interpoles
5.1.9 Direction of Rotation of DC Motors
5.2 DC Shunt Motors
5.2.1 Torque
5.2.2 Speed Regulation
5.3 DC Series Motors

5.3.1 Torque
5.3.2 Speed Control and Speed Regulation
5.3.3 Motor Ratings
5.4 DC Compound Motors
5.4.1 Torque
5.4.2 Speed
5.4.3 Speed Regulation
5.4.4 Industrial Applications
6 Connections and Terminal Markings for AC Motors
6.1 Rotation
6.2 Double-Voltage Motors
6.2.1 Three-Phase Star Connection
6.2.2 Three-Phase Delta Connection
6.2.3 Two-Phase Double-Voltage Connection
6.3 Two-Speed Consequent-Pole Motors
6.3.1 Star Connection
6.3.2 Delta Connection
6.3.3 Delta Connection for Constant-Horsepower
6.3.4 Open-Delta Connection Constant-Torque
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Terms and Definitions


Before studying the aspects of electric motor control, it is necessary to first study motors.
Understanding the basic principles of operation, terms, definitions, and nameplate information is
the cornerstone of motor control fundamentals.
Ampacity: The current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions
of use without exceeding its temperature rating.
Branch Circuit: The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the
circuit and the outlet(s).
Circuit Breaker: A device designed to open and close a circuit by non-automatic means, and to
open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself when
properly applied within it rating.
Controller: A device or group of devices that serves to govern, in some predetermined manner,
the electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.
Duty: Motor operational rating in terms of time.
Continuous Duty: Operation at a substantially constant load for an indefinite period of time.
Intermittent Duty: Operation for alternate intervals of (1) load and no-load; or (2) load and rest;
or (3) load, no-load, and rest.
Periodic Duty: Intermittent operation in which the load conditions are regularly recurrent.
Short-time Duty: Operation at a substantially constant load for a short and definite, specified
time.
Varying Duty: Operation at loads and for intervals of time which both may be subject to wide
variation.

Equipment: A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, luminaires


(fixtures), apparatus, and the like, used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical
installation.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter: A device intended for the protection of personnel that
functions to de-energize a circuit or portion of a circuit within an established period of time when
a current to ground exceeds the values established for a Class A device.
Ground Fault Protection of Equipment: A system intended to provide protection of equipment
from damaging line to ground fault currents by operating to cause a disconnecting means to open
all ungrounded conductors of the faulted circuit. This protection is provided at current levels less
than those required to protect conductors from damage through the operation of supply circuit
overcurrent devices.
Interrupting Rating: The highest current at rated voltage that a device is intended to interrupt
under standard test conditions.
Motor Circuit Switch: A switch, rated in horsepower, capable of interrupting the maximum
operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated
voltage.
Non-automatic: Action requiring personal intervention for its control. When applied to an
electric controller, non-automatic control does not imply a manual controller, but only that
personal intervention is necessary.
Overcurrent: Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a
conductor. It may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault.
Overload: Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full load rating, or of a conductor in
excess of rated ampacity that, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, will cause damage
or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload.
Remote Control Circuit: Any electric circuit that controls any other circuit through a relay or an
equivalent device.
Thermal Cutout: An overcurrent protective device that contains a heater element that operates a
renewable fusible member to open a circuit. It is not designed to interrupt short circuit currents.
Thermal Protector: (As applied to motors.) A protective device for assembly as an integral part
of a motor or motor compressor that, when properly applied, protects the motor against
dangerous overheating due to overload and failure to start.
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Motor Fundamentals
To inspect motors, it is important to know certain motor fundamentals such as nameplate data,
construction, motor theory, and the contributing factors to motor failures as studied and compiled
by industry experts.
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Motor Enclosures
Motors are usually designed with covers over the moving parts. These covers, called enclosures,
are classified by NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) according to the degree
of environmental protection provided and the method of cooling. If the cover has openings, the

motor is classified as an open motor; if the enclosure is complete, the motor is classified as
an enclosedmotor. Each of these types of motors has many modifications. Table 1 lists the
various types possible for both open and totally enclosed motors.

The different standard types as explained and defined by NEMA are described below.
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Open
The most common type of motor is the open motor. It has ventilating openings that permit the
passage of external cooling air over and around its windings. If these are limited in size and
shape, the motor is called a protected motor, since it is protected from any large pieces of
material that may somehow enter the motor, thus damaging its internal parts. A protected motor
also prevents a person from touching the rotating or electrically energized parts of the motor.
Drip proof and splash proof motors are constructed such that drops of liquid cannot enter the
motor. The motors described below are all open motor types:
General purpose: Ventilating openings permit the passage of external cooling air over and
around the windings of the machine.
Drip-proof: Ventilating openings are constrcuted so that successful operation is not interfered
with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike, or enter, the enclosure at any angle from 0 to
15 downward from the vertical.
Splash-proof: Ventilating openings are constructed so that successful operation is not interfered
with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike, or enter, the enclosure at any angle not greater
than 100 downward from the vertical.

Guarded: Openings giving direct access to live or rotating parts (except smooth surfaces) are
limited in size by the structural parts or by screens, baffles, grills, expanded metal, or other
means, to prevent accidental contact with hazardous parts.
Semiguarded: Some of the ventilating openings, usually in the top half, are guarded as in the
case of a guarded machine, but the others are left open.
Drip-proof guarded: This type of drip-proof machine has ventilating openings as in a guarded
machine.
Externally ventilated: Designates a machine that is ventilated by a separate motor driven
blower mounted on the machine enclosure. Mechanical protection may be as defined above. This
machine is sometimes known as a blower ventilated or force ventilated machine.
Pipe ventilated: Openings for the admission of ventilating air are arranged so that inlet ducts or
pipes can be connected to them.
Weather protected:
Type I: Ventilation passages are designed to minimize the entrance of rain, snow, and airborne
particles to the electrical parts.
Type II: In addition to the enclosure described for a Type I machine, ventilating passages at both
intake and discharge are arranged so that high velocity air and airborne particles blown into the
machine by storms or high winds can be discharged without entering the internal ventilating
passages leading directly to the electric parts.
Encapsulated windings: An AC squirrel cage machine having random windings filled with an
insulating resin, which also forms a protective coating.
Sealed windings: An AC squirrel cage machine making use of form wound coils and an
insulation system which, using materials, processes, or a combination of materials and processes,
seals the windings and connections against contaminants.
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Totally Enclosed
A totally enclosed motor is designed to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and
outside of the actual motor housing. It is used where hostile environmental conditions and the
motor application require maximum protection of the internal parts of the motor.
The motors described below are all open motor types:
Non ventilated: Not equipped for cooling by means external to the enclosing parts.
Fan cooled: Equipped for exterior cooling by means of a fan or fans, integral with the machine
but external to the enclosing parts.
Fan cooled guarded: All openings giving direct access to the fan are limited in size by design of
the structural parts or by screens, grills, expanded metal, etc., to prevent accidental contact with
the fan.
Explosion-proof: Designed and constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas or
vapor which may occur within it and to prevent the ignition of the specified gas or vapor
surrounding the machine by sparks, flashes, or explosions of the specified gas or vapor which
may occur within the machine casing.
Dust ignition proof: Designed and constructed in a manner that will exclude ignitable amounts
of dust or amounts which might affect performance or rating, and which will not permit arcs,
sparks, or heat otherwise generated or liberated inside the enclosure to cause ignition of exterior

accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specific dust on, or in the vicinity of, the
enclosure.
Pipe ventilated: Openings arranged so that when inlet and outlet ducts or pipes are connected to
them, there is no free exchange of the internal air and the air outside the case.
Water cooled: Cooled by circulating water, the water, or water conductors, comes in direct
contact with the machine parts.
Water air cooled: Cooled by circulating air which, in turn, is cooled by circulating water.
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Nameplate Data
The National Electrical Code (NEC) in Section 430.7 has specified information that must be on a
motor nameplate based on its type (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). Requirements can also be found
in NEMA standards MG 1 and MG 2.

Figure 1: Motor Nameplate Information

Figure 2: Nameplate Data


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Rated Voltage
The rated or nameplate voltage is the voltage at which the motor operates most effectively. The
nameplate rated voltage is usually lower than the system voltage. For example, in a 480-volt
system, the motor nameplates associated with that system would likely indicate the rated voltage
as being 460 volts. The manufacturers make an assumption that there will be a voltage drop of 20
volts from the transformer output to the motor input terminals. When the actual voltage differs
from the nameplate, performance and motor life may be reduced. This is not necessarily true in
all cases. It depends on the design of the motor and, specifically, whether the motor was designed
as an energy efficient motor.
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Nominal Rated Voltage


Nominal rated voltage is defined as "the voltage rating of the insulation to which the motor is
designed to operate."
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Minimum Starting Voltage

Minimum starting voltage may be defined as "the lowest voltage at which a motor will start
without drawing an excessive/trip current."
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Rated Amperage
Rated amperage may be defined as "the full load current that is required to produce full rated
horsepower at the motors rated voltage and frequency."
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Rated Speed
The rated speed of a motor is the speed at which the shaft will turn at rated horsepower if the
motor is also running at rated voltage and frequency. This value is given in revolutions per
minute (RPM). This value is not the synchronous speed of the machine, unless of course, the
motor is a synchronous motor.
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Rated Horsepower
An induction motor is really a torque generator. It delivers a needed torque to a driven machine
at a certain speed. Thus:

For induction motors built to NEMA® standards, the ratings range from 1/2 to 400 hp - 24 in
all. If horsepower requirements fall between any two ratings, the larger motor size should be
selected.
Remember, an induction motor will try to deliver any amount of horsepower the load requires. If
properly sized, most motors operate at something less than the motor nameplate horsepower.
Standard motors are designed to operate at nameplate values from sea level up to an altitude of
3,300 feet if the ambient temperature does not exceed 104F (40C). Above this altitude, the
nameplate horsepower no longer applies.
NEMA standards provide a method for determining the proper temperature rise, or the new
maximum ambient temperature, at higher elevations. However, the standards do not provide a
direct method for deriving the horsepower. Several methods are available to estimate true motor
horsepower output.
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Rated Current
This is the full-load current of a motor that operates under rated frequency and voltage
conditions at rated load (HP).

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Full-load Amperes
Full-load amps (FLA) on the nameplate indicate the current the motor will draw at full rated
load. This value should be valid if the motor is running at rated horsepower, voltage, and
frequency. The full-load amps given on the nameplate is the information used to determine
overload selection.
When the voltage or frequency is not what is indicated on the motor nameplate, the full-load
current will change. It is possible to damage a motor when it is operated below its rated voltage
or frequency, since motor current increases in both cases.

At 110% of rated voltage, the motor shows a 7% decrease in FLA.

At 90% of rated voltage, the motor shows an 11% increase in FLA.

At 105% of rated frequency, the motor shows a 5-6% decrease in FLA.

At 95% of rated frequency, the motor shows a 5-6% increase in FLA.

Voltage and frequency change the full-load amps drawn by the motor due to its inherently
inductive characteristics.
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Frame Sizes
Frame sizes were developed by NEMA to ensure interchangeability of motors among
manufacturers, and appear on motor nameplates to give information about the machines physical
dimensions. Key dimensions are:

Distance from motor feet to shaft centerline.

Bolt hole center-to-center distance between front and back feet.

Exposed shaft distance from shaft end to shaft shoulder.

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Duty
This block on the nameplate defines the length of time during which the motor can carry its
nameplate rating safely. Most often, this is continuous ("Cont"). Some applications have only
intermittent use and do not need motor full-load continuously. Examples are crane, hoist, and
valve actuator applications. The duty on such motors is usually expressed in minutes.

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NEMA Design Letter


The NEMA design letter identifies the starting torque characteristics of an induction motor. Do
not neglect this information when replacing motors, because ignoring the letter may lead to
misapplication and overload coordination problems. Fans and centrifugal pumps have starting
torque requirements that increase and vary with the square of the change in speed. However,
mixers and conveyors have starting torque requirements that change little with changes in speed.
NEMA letters A, B, C, D, and F account for difference in starting torque requirements among
motors. In practicality, these differences are manifested in the design and construction of the
rotor. Most industrial motors are NEMA Design B motors because they drive conventional loads
such as fans, blowers, and pumps. Most electricians estimate starting current drawn by a motor
as being approximately six times the normal full-load current.
Table 2 shows an example of how starting current can vary significantly from the 6X value, and
could conceivably cause unacceptable voltage drops or brown outs if the motor is large enough.

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Insulation Class
Often abbreviated "INSUL CLASS" on nameplates, it is an industry standard classification of the
thermal tolerance of the motor winding. Insulation class is a letter designation such as A, B, or F,
depending on the windings ability to survive a given operating temperature for a given life.
Insulations of a letter higher into the alphabet perform better. For example, class F insulation has
a longer nominal life at a given operating temperature than class A, or for a given life, it can
survive higher temperatures.
Operating temperature is a result of ambient conditions plus the energy lost in the form of heat
(causing the temperature rise) as the motor converts electrical to mechanical energy.
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Service Factor
Service factor is a measure of the extra horsepower a motor can deliver if it is operating under
rated conditions and is located in an acceptable ambient environment. A common service factor
is 1.15. This means that a motor could deliver 115% of the horsepower indicated on the
nameplate.
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KVA Code Letter


When a motor is started, it draws higher current than it delivers under full-load. This starting
current is referred to as inrush current. It is also called locked-rotor current. While most
electricians estimate inrush current as being six times full-load current, this is not always the
case. The amount of current drawn by a particular motor is determined from the KVA code letter
on the motor nameplate.Table 3 shows KVA code letters and the corresponding KVA required
per horsepower.

This letter may become important when a 20 HP motor must be replaced. If the motor being
replaced had a KVA code letter of D, and was being replaced by a 20 HP motor found in a
storage area with a KVA code letter of R, the replacement motor would pull much higher starting
current than the motor being replaced. This situation may cause electricians to think the
replacement motor has bearing problems or other problems that would cause such a high inrush
current. Overloads may trip, and anxieties and confusion may result.
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Power Factor
A motors power factor is the ratio of kilowatt input to the kilovolt-ampere input. The number is
expressed as a percentage. The electric motor manufacturers compute the power factor of a
number of motors that are loaded at a rated load and a rated voltage. The power factors of all
these motors are then averaged.

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Temperature Rise
This is the heat produced by the motor itself. It is the temperature rise above the ambient
temperature in which the motor is physically located. For example, a motor rated at 40C rise
operating in a 20C environment should not indicate over 60C when a direct contact temperature
indicating device, or thermal probe, is used. As an electrician, you may use thermal devices to
determine motor temperatures and you should know the conditions under which a motor
develops temperature in excess of its temperature rise. You should know that the majority of
motor losses are caused by a breakdown of the insulation system, whether rapid or progressive.
Heat-related breakdowns are common, and must be monitored and corrected by the actions of
inspectors. There will be more information on temperature rise and the variables that affect it
later in this article.
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Frequency
Frequency is given for AC motors in hertz. Standard frequencies for AC motors are 50 and 60 Hz
(cycles per second). Alternating current in the US has a standard frequency of 60 Hertz per
second.
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Bearings
Polyphase induction motors require either anti-friction or sleeve bearings. Anti-friction bearings
are standard in medium (integral) horsepower motor sizes through 125 hp/1800 RPM. They are
optional in 150 to 600 hp/1800 RPM sizes. Sleeve bearings are standard in 500 hp/3600 RPM
and larger sizes.
Since radial loads are higher at the drive end of the motor, the drive-end bearing has a higher
load rating than the bearing at the opposite end. A typical nameplate might depict both bearing
duties as:

Drive shaft brg: 6309 (medium duty)

Opp dr shaft brg: 6207 (light duty)

Bearing internal clearances are C1, C2 (smaller than normal clearance), standard clearance
(normal), C3, C4, and C5 (larger than normal clearance). Electric motors usually require a C3
internal clearance. Some bearing manufacturers have a different designation for motor bearings
that have a larger-than-normal internal clearance.
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Locked-Rotor Current

Locked-rotor current is the steady state current of a motor with the rotor locked and with rated
voltage applied at rated frequency. NEMA has designated a set of code letters to define lockedrotor kilovolt-amperes-per-horsepower (see Table 4). This code letter appears on the nameplate
of all AC squirrel cage induction motors. KVA (thousands of volts multiplied by amperes) is an
indication of the current drawn and, indirectly, the impedance of the locked-rotor.

These nameplate code ratings give a good indication of the starting current the motor will draw if
the motor cannot turn. These code letters are sequenced so that a letter at the beginning of the
alphabet indicates a relatively low locked-rotor current, and a letter at the end of the alphabet
indicates a high current per horsepower rating of the motor.
Computation of the starting current can be accomplished using the formula:

Example:
What is the approximate starting current of a 7 hp, 220-volt motor with a nameplate code letter
of G?
Solution:
The kVA/hp for a code letter of G is 5.6 to 6.3. Taking a number approximately halfway in
between and substituting in the formula, we get:

Therefore, the locked-rotor current is approximately 118 amperes. This locked-rotor current
characteristic is important when purchasing a motor because the buyer must know what currentcarrying capacity and overload protection to provide. The buyer must install branch circuit lines
large enough to carry the required currents and put in fuses or circuit breakers of the proper size.
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Motor Protection
This section deals with the protection of attended synchronous motors, induction motors,
synchronous condensers, and the motors of frequency converters. Motors in unattended stations
must be protected against all harmful abnormal conditions. The protection of very small motors
is not specifically described, although the same basic principles apply; this subject is treated in
detail in the National Electrical Code. The practices described here for large motors are at least
equal to those covered by the Code, and are generally more comprehensive. However, it is
recommended that the Code be consulted whenever it applies.
The starting energy requirements of AC motors are spread over seconds rather than milliseconds,
and vary considerably with the type of load and with the inertia of the load. However, the peak
amplitude of the starting current is generally within reasonable values.
The table below provides some typical figures as observed on motors selected at random. Note
that single-phase induction motors are the worst, usually having a starting winding that can draw
7 or 8 times the running current for the better part of a second. A 750-millisecond surge duration
was observed on several of the various horsepower ratings.
Most magnetic breakers exhibit a reasonably flat frequency response - trip point versus
frequency - in applications between 20 and 200Hz. For any response beyond 200Hz, up to
440Hz, special design considerations are required. Beyond 440Hz, the breaker supplier must be
consulted.
A thermal device imbedded inside the motor usually protects induction motors. Most protectors
that will handle the starting surge will not trip out soon enough on lesser overloads to prevent
damage to the motor. Here, you are protecting the power wiring rather than the device. Magnetic
protectors are available which offer a better compromise. Figure 3 shows three delays for several
different motors. The marginal position of single-phase induction motors is obvious.

Figure 3: Time Position of Various Motors on Start


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Short-Circuit Protection of Stator Windings


Overcurrent protection is the basic type that is used for short-circuit protection of stator
windings. The equipment for this type of protection ranges, from fuses for motor voltages of
600-volts and lower, through direct-acting overcurrent tripping elements on circuit breakers, to
separate overcurrent relays and circuit breakers for voltages of 2200-volts and higher.
Protection should be provided against a fault in any ungrounded conductor between the
interrupting device and the motor, including its stator windings. Where fuses or direct-acting
tripping devices are used, there must be one protective element in each ungrounded conductor.
Where relays and current transformers are used with so-called "AC tripping" from the output of
the current transformers, a CT and relay are required for each ungrounded conductor. However,
if battery or capacitor tripping is provided, three current transformers with two-phase relays and
one ground relay will suffice for a three-phase circuit whether or not the source neutral is
grounded.
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Motors Other than Essential-Service

For all except "essential-service" motors, it is the practice to provide both inverse-time and
instantaneous phase and ground overcurrent relays for automatic tripping. The inverse-time
phase relays are generally adjusted to pick up at less than about 4 times rated motor current, but
to have enough time delay so as not to operate during the motor-starting period. The
instantaneous phase relays are adjusted to pick up a little above the locked-rotor current. The
inverse-time ground relays are adjusted to pick up at no more than about 20% of rated current or
about 10% of the maximum available ground-fault current, whichever is smaller. The
instantaneous ground-relay pickup should be from about 2.5 to 10 times rated current; this relay
may be omitted if the maximum available ground-fault current is less than about 4 times rated
current, or if the pickup has to be more than about 10 times rated current to avoid undesired
tripping during motor starting or external faults. If a CT, like a bushing CT, is used with all threephase conductors of the motor circuit going through the opening in the core, a very sensitive
instantaneous overcurrent relay can be used that will operate for ground faults within about 10%
of the winding from the neutral end.
Percentage-differential relaying is provided for large motors. It is the practice of manufacturers
to recommend such protection for motors of the following ratings:

2200- to 4999-volts, inclusive, 1500 hp and higher

5000-volts and higher, 501 hp and higher

The advantage of percentage-differential relaying is that it will provide faster and more sensitive
protection than overcurrent relaying, but at the same time, it will not operate on starting or other
transient overcurrents.
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Essential-Service Motors
For essential-service motors, the inverse-time phase overcurrent relays are usually omitted,
leaving the instantaneous phase relays and the inverse-time and instantaneous ground relays, or
the differential relays if applicable. The reason for the omission is to trip the motor breaker
automatically only for short circuits and not to trip for any other reason. This is because the
tripping of such a motor may force a partial or complete shutdown of a generator or other service
with which the motor is associated. Any unnecessary tripping must be avoided. As will be seen
when we consider stator overheating protection, supplementary protection against phase
overcurrents less than locked-rotor values is provided.
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Stator-Overheating Protection
All motors need protection against overheating resulting from an overload, a stalled rotor, or
unbalanced stator currents. For complete protection, three-phase motors should have an overload
element in each phase; this is because an open circuit in the supply to the power transformer
feeding a motor will cause twice as much current to flow in one phase of the motor as in either of
the other two phases, as shown in Figure 4. Consequently, to be sure that there will be an

overload element in the most heavily loaded phase no matter which power-transformer phase is
open-circuited, one should provide overload elements in all three phases. In spite of the
desirability of overload elements in all three phases, motors rated about 1500 hp and below are
generally provided with elements in only two phases on the assumption that the open-phase
condition will be detected and corrected before any motor can overheat.

Figure 4: Illustrating the Need for Overcurrent Protection in Each Phase


Single-phase motors require an overload element in only one of the two conductors.
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Motors Other than Essential Service


Except for some essential-service motors, whose protection will be discussed later, it is the
practice for motors rated less than about 1500 hp to provide either replica-type thermal-overload
relays or long-time inverse-time overcurrent relays or direct-acting tripping devices to disconnect
a motor from its source of supply in the event of overload. Which type of relay to use is largely a
matter of personal preference.
Other things being equal, the replica type will generally provide the best protection because, as
shown in Figure 5, its time-current characteristic more nearly matches the heating characteristic

of a motor over the full range of overcurrent. In addition, it may take into account the heating
effect of the load on the motor before the overload condition occurred.

Figure 5: Typical Motor-Heating and Protective-Relay Characteristics (A) Motor; (B)


Replica Relay; (C) Inverse-Time Relay
The inverse-time overcurrent relay will tend to "overprotect" at low currents and to "under
protect" at high currents, as shown inFigure 5. However, the overcurrent relay is very easy to
adjust and test, and it is self-reset.

For continuous-rated motors without service factor or short-time overload ratings, the
protective relays or devices should be adjusted to trip at not more than about 115% of
rated motor current.

For motors with 115% service factors, tripping should occur at not more than about 125%
of rated motor current.

For motors with special short-time overload ratings, or with other service factors, the
motor characteristic will determine the required tripping characteristic, but the tripping
current should not exceed about 140% of rated motor current.

Obtain the manufacturers recommendations in each case.


The overload relays will also provide protection in the event of phase-to-phase short circuits, and
in practice, one set of such relays serves both purposes wherever possible.
A survey of the practice of a number of power companies (45) showed that a single set of longtime inverse-time overcurrent relays, adjusted to pick up at 125 to 150% of rated motor current,
is used for combined short-circuit and overload protection of non-essential auxiliary motors; they
are supplemented by instantaneous overcurrent relays adjusted as already described. Such
inverse-time overload relays must withstand short-circuit currents without damage for as long as
it takes to trip the breaker. In addition, the minimum requirements as to the number of relays or
devices for either function must be fulfilled.
Motors rated higher than about 1500 hp are generally provided with resistance temperature
detectors embedded in the stator slots between the windings. If such temperature detectors are
provided, a single relay operating from these detectors is used instead of the replica-type or
inverse-time overcurrent relays. In addition, current-balance relays capable of operating on about
25% or less unbalance between the phase currents should be supplied. If the motor does not have
resistance temperature detectors, but is provided with current-balance relays, a single replicatype thermal overload relay may be substituted for the resistance-temperature-detector relay.
Specially cooled or ventilated motors may require other types of protective equipment than those
recommended here. For such motors, the manufacturers recommendations should be obtained.
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Essential-Service Motors
The protection recommended for some essential-service motors is based on minimizing the
possibility of unnecessarily tripping the motor, even though such practice may sometimes
endanger the motor. In other words, long-time inverse-time overcurrent-relays are provided for
all motor ratings, but they merely control an alarm and leave tripping in the control of an
operator. Then, for motors that can suffer locked rotor, supplementary instantaneous overcurrent
relays adjusted to pick up at about 200 to 300% of rated motor current are used, and their
contacts are connected in series with the contacts of the inverse-time-overcurrent relays to trip
the motor breaker automatically. The instantaneous relays should be of the high-reset type to be
sure that they reset when the current returns to normal after the starting inrush has subsided. The
protection provided by this type of equipment is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Protection Characteristic for Essential-Service Motors (A) Motor; (B) InverseTime Relay; (C) Instantaneous Relay
For essential-service motors for which automatic tripping is desired in addition to the alarm for
overloads between about 115% of rated current and the pickup of the instantaneous overcurrent
relays, thermal relays of either the replica type or the resistance-temperature detector type should
be used, depending on the size of the motor. Such relays permit operation for overloads as far as
possible beyond the point where the alarm will be sounded, but without damaging the motor to
the extent that it must be repaired before it can be used again.
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Rotor-Overheating Protection
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Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors

The replica-type or the inverse-time overcurrent relays, recommended for protection against
stator overheating, will generally protect the rotor except where high-inertia load is involved;
such applications should be referred to the manufacturer for recommendations. Where resistancetemperature detector relaying is used, a single replica-type or inverse-time overcurrent relay
should be added for rotor protection during starting.
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Wound-Rotor Induction Motors


General recommendations for this type of motor cannot be given except that the statoroverheating protective equipment that has been described may not protect the rotor. Each
application should be referred to the manufacturer for recommendations.
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Synchronous Motors
Amortisseur-overheating protection during starting or loss of synchronism should be provided
for all "loaded-start" motors. (A loaded-start motor is a motor other than a synchronous
condenser or a motor driving a generator; it includes any motor driving a mechanical load even
though automatic unloading means may be employed.) Such protection is best provided by a
time-delay thermal overload relay connected in the field-discharge circuit.
Amortisseur-overheating protection is not required for "unloaded-start" motors (synchronous
condensers or motors driving generators). An unloaded-start motor is not likely to fail to start on
the application of normal starting voltage. In addition, loss-of-synchronism protection that is
provided either directly or indirectly will provide the necessary protection. An exception to this
is a condenser or a motor that has an oil-lift pump for starting.
Where stator-overheating protection is provided by current-balance relaying equipment, the
amortisseur is also indirectly protected against unbalanced phase currents.
Protection against field winding overheating because of prolonged over-excitation should be
provided for synchronous motors or condensers with automatic voltage regulators without
automatic field current-limiting features. A thermal overload relay with time delay or a relay that
responds to an increase in the field-winding resistance with increasing temperature may be used.
In an attended station, the relay would merely control an alarm.
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Loss-of-Synchronism Protection
All loaded-start synchronous motors should have protection against loss of synchronism
generally arranged to remove the load and the excitation temporarily and to reapply them when
permissible. Otherwise, the motor is disconnected from its source.
For unloaded-start motors, except the synchronous motor of a frequency converter, the
combination of undervoltage protection, loss-of-excitation protection, and the DC generator
overcurrent protection that is generally furnished will provide satisfactory loss-of-synchronism
protection. Should additional protection be required, it can be provided by an inverse-time

overcurrent relay energized by the current in the running connection and arranged to trip the
main breaker. Usually, automatic resynchronizing is not required. All frequency converters
interconnecting two systems should have loss-of-synchronism protection on the synchronous
machine side. With synchronous-synchronous sets, protection may be required on both sides. The
protective relaying equipment should be arranged to trip the main breaker on its side.
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Undervoltage Protection
All AC motors, except essential-service motors, should have protection against undervoltage on
at least one phase during both starting and running. For polyphase motors larger than about 1,500
hp, polyphase undervoltage protection is generally provided. Wherever possible, the protective
equipment should have inverse-time delay characteristics.
"Undervoltage release", which provides only temporary shutdown on voltage failure and which
permits automatic restart when voltage is re-established, should not be used with such equipment
as machine tools, etc., where automatic restart might be hazardous to personnel or detrimental to
process or equipment.
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Loss-of-Excitation Protection
All unloaded-start synchronous motors that do not have loss-of-synchronism protection, as
described elsewhere, and that do not have automatic voltage regulators, should have loss-ofexcitation protection in the form of a low-set, time-delay-reset undercurrent relay whose coil is
in series with the field winding.
If a motor has loss-of-synchronism protection, amortisseur-overheating protection, and statoroverheating protection, this equipment indirectly provides loss-of-excitation protection.
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Branch Considerations
When a single motor is supplied from a branch circuit, the ampacity of the branch circuit must be
125 percent of motor full-load current. Overcurrent protection must include up to a 20-second
time delay forinduction motors. If a multi-speed motor is used, the ampacity shall be based on
the largest sized motor. Where motors have unusual duty cycle requirements, use the
requirements as listed in Table 5.

Note: Any motor application shall be considered as continuous duty unless the nature of the
apparatus it drives is such that the motor will not operate continuously with load under any
condition of use.
If there are several motors on one circuit, the ampacity shall be equivalent to the sum of the
individual motor ampacity plus 25 percent of the full-load current rating of the largest motor.
Several motors or loads are permitted to be provided for on one branch circuit if:

System voltage is 600 volts.

The branch protective device protects the smallest installed motor.

All motors are 1HP, 20A (15A) on 120V (600V) circuits where each motor draws
6A, overloads are installed on the motor, and short circuit current and ground fault
current do not exceed the branch circuit rating.

It is part of a factory-listed assembly.

In instances where taps are used, short circuit current and ground fault current protection may not
be required for the taps used. This is true if the tap used has the same ampacity as the branch
circuit it is connected to. Additionally, the tap cannot be longer than 25 feet and it must be
physically protected from damage.
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Thermal Protectors

Thermal protectors are used to protect the motor from overloads and starting failures. All motors
with a voltage rating greater than 600V must have a thermal protector, and their overload must
not have an automatic reset feature. They shall be set as follows:

Motor full-load current not exceeding 9 amperes 170 percent

Motor full-load current 9.1 to and including 20 amperes 156 percent

Motor full-load current greater than 20 amperes 140 percent

This requirement is based on the maximum full-load motor current as listed in tables
provided in Section 430 of the NEC.

Motors that are rated 1500 HP include an RTD in their design which is set to deenergize the motor once the actual temperature rise of the motor equals the rated
temperature rise of the motors insulation.

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Alternating Current Motors


Alternating current (AC) motors can be divided into two major types: single-phase and
polyphase motors. A single-phase motor is normally limited to fractional horsepower ratings up
to five horsepower. They are commonly used to power such things as fans, small pumps,
appliances, and other devices not requiring a great amount of power. Single-phase motors are not
likely to be connected to complicated motor control circuitry, and will not be discussed in this
text.
Polyphase motors comprise the majority of motors needed to drive large machinery such as
pumps, large fans, and compressors found in industrial facilities. These motors have several
advantages over single-phase motors in that they do not require a separate winding or other
device to start the motor; they have relatively high starting torque and good speed regulation for
most applications.
There are two classes of polyphase motors: induction and synchronous. The rotor of a
synchronous motor revolves at synchronous speed, or the speed of the revolving magnetic field
in the stator. The rotor of an induction motor revolves at a speed somewhat less than synchronous
speed. The differences in rotor speed are due to differences in construction and operation. Both
are discussed in depth after a review of motor theory.
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AC Motor Theory
AC motors consist of two parts: the stator, or stationary part, and the rotor, or revolving part. The
stator is connected to the incoming three-phase AC power. The rotor in an induction motor is not
connected to the power supply, whereas the rotor of a synchronous motors is connected to

external power. Both induction and synchronous motors operate on the principle of a rotating
magnetic field.
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Rotating Fields
This section shows how the stator windings can be connected to a three-phase AC input to create
a magnetic field that rotates. Another magnetic field in the rotor can be made to chase it by being
attracted and repelled by the stator field. Because the rotor is free to turn, it follows the rotating
magnetic field in the stator.
Polyphase AC is brought into the stator and connected to windings that are physically displaced
120 degrees apart. These windings are connected to form north and south magnetic poles, as
shown in Figure 7. An analysis of the electromagnetic polarity of the poles at points 1 through 7
in Figure 7 shows how the three phase AC creates magnetic fields that rotate.

Figure 7: AC Generation
At point 1, the magnetic field in phase 1 is at maximum. Negative voltages are shown in phases 2
and 3. The negative voltages in these windings create smaller magnetic fields, which will tend to
aid the field set-up in coil 1-1A.
At point 2, phase 3 creates a maximum negative flux in coil 3-3A. This strong negative field is
aided by the weaker magnetic fields developed by phases 1 and 2.
The three-phase AC input rises and falls with each cycle. Analyzing each point on the voltage
graph shows that the resultant magnetic field rotates clockwise. When the three-phase input
completes a full cycle at point 7, the magnetic field has completed an entire revolution of 360
degrees.
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Rotor Behavior in a Rotating Field

An oversimplification of rotor behavior shows how the magnetic field of the stator influences the
rotor. First, assume that a simple bar magnet were placed in the center of the stator diagrams
shown in Figure 7. Also, assume that the bar magnet is free to rotate. It has been aligned so that
at point 1, its south pole is opposite the large North of the stator field.
Unlike poles attract and like poles repel. As the AC completes a cycle, going from point 1 to
point 7, the stator field rotates and pulls the bar magnet with it because of the attraction of unlike
poles and the repulsion of like poles. The bar magnet would be rotating at the same speed of the
revolving flux of the stator. This speed is known as synchronous speed. Synchronous speed of a
motor is given by the equation:

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Induction
Current flowing through a conductor sets up a magnetic field around the length of the conductor.
Conversely, a conductor in a magnetic field will produce a current when the magnetic lines of
flux cut across the conductor. This action is called inductionbecause there is no physical
connection between the magnetic field and the conductor. Current is induced in the conductor.
In motors, the rotating magnetic field of the stator induces a magnetic field in the rotor. This is
simply because it first induces a voltage in the rotor, and since the rotor is made up of
conductors, a current is induced. The induced current in the rotor sets up its own magnetic field.
The voltage induced by the action of the rotating magnetic field of the stator cutting across the
rotor bars is also known aselectromotive force or EMF.
In order for an EMF to be induced, three conditions must be present:

A magnetic field

A current-carrying conductor

Relative motion between the two

This does not mean that the conductor must be carrying current. It simply means that the
conductor must consist of a closed path capable of carrying current.
An equation for EMF is:

This EMF, or induced voltage, and the resultant current flow sets up its own magnetic field. The
interaction of the magnetic field of the stator and the magnetic field of the rotor causes motor
rotation and delivers torque. Torque is produced by the interaction of the stator and rotor fluxes.
Torque in an induction motor is discussed in detail later in this article.
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Induction Motors
Three-phase squirrel cage induction motors are perhaps the most commonly used motors in
industrial applications. They are relatively small for a given horsepower and have good speed
regulation under varying load conditions. They are simple in construction and rugged; they cost
little to manufacture. The induction motor has a rotor that is not connected to any external
sources of power. It derives its name from the fact that the AC voltages are induced in the rotor
due to the rotating magnetic field of the stator.
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Construction
Three-phase squirrel cage induction motors consist of a stator, a rotor, and two end shields,
which house the bearings that support the rotor shaft. The frame is usually made of cast steel.
The stator core is pressed into the frame. The bearings can be either sleeve or ball
bearings. Figure 8 shows the main components of an induction motor.

Figure 8: Components of Induction Motors


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Stator
The stator contains a three-phase winding mounted in the slots of a laminated steel core. The
winding consists of formed coils of wire that are spaced so that they are 120 electrical degrees
apart. These three windings can be connected wye or delta. To facilitate this, nine leads are
usually brought out of the motor into the motor terminal box. Many motors have two windings
per phase, which allows the motor to be connected to either low-voltage (phase windings in
parallel) or high-voltage (phase windings in series).
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Rotor
An induction rotor is composed of a laminated cylinder with slots in its surface. The windings in
these slots are one of two types, as shown in Figure 9. The most common is the squirrel cage
rotor. This entire winding is composed of heavy copper bars imbedded near the outer surface of
the rotor. These copper bars are brazed or welded to two copper (or brass) end rings at the end of
the rotor drum. No insulation is required between the core and the rotor bars because of the very
low voltages generated in the rotor bars. The copper bars and the end rings resemble a squirrel
cage, thus the name.

Figure 9: Induction Motor Rotor


The rotor may also have fan blades to circulate cooling air through the motor frame, and the shaft
of the rotor contains the necessary keyway or splines to connect pulleys, gears, or other devices
to transmit the motor torque to its load.
Regardless of which type of rotor is used, the principle of operation is essentially the same. The
AC applied to the stator creates a revolving magnetic field, which induces an EMF and current in
the copper bars of the rotor. This, in turn, creates its own magnetic field. These two fields then
interact to produce rotation and torque. The air gap between the rotor and stator is small, in order
to produce a maximum interaction between these two fields.
Lenz's law states, "An induced EMF tries to oppose the changing field that induces it." In an
induction motor, the changing field is the motion of the resultant stator field. A force is exerted
on the rotor by the induced EMF and the resultant magnetic field. This force tends to cancel the
relative motion between the rotor and stator fields. The result is that the rotor moves in the same
direction as the rotating stator field.
It is impossible for the rotor in an induction motor to rotate at synchronous speed (the speed of
the revolving field of the stator). If the speeds were the same, there would be no relative motion
between the two and an EMF would not be developed. This is because the rotating magnetic field
of the stator must cut the rotor bars to cause an EMF and create the rotor field.
In order for relative motion to remain between the two, the rotor will always revolve at a speed
slightly less than synchronous speed. The difference between the speed of the rotor and the
synchronous speed is called slip.
If a three phase induction motors rotor speed is subtracted from the motors synchronous speed,
the difference is the slip. Percent slip is then the ratio of slip to synchronous speed and is
expressed by the formula:

The range of percent slip for induction motors is between 2 and 6 percent. As load is applied to a
motor, slip increases almost linearly up to the breakdown torque of the motor, at which time the
slip increases non-linearly with increases in torque beyond that point. If the motor is loaded
beyond this point, there will be a corresponding decrease in torque until the point is reached
where the motor stalls.
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Torque
As previously stated, torque in an induction motor is caused by the interaction of the rotor and
stator fields. In order that an EMF and corresponding currents are induced in the rotor, it rotates
at a slip. At no-load, the rotor will lag behind the stator flux by a small amount necessary to
produce the minimum torque required to overcome the rotor weight and motor losses. As load is
added, the rotor speed will naturally increase. This decrease in speed (increase in slip) allows the
stator field to rotate past the rotor bars at a faster rate, inducing larger rotor currents and a larger
rotor field. The result is a larger torque at a slower speed.
Since the rotor impedance is low, a small decrease in rotor speed results in a large increase in
rotor current and a large increase in the strength of the rotor field. As the load increases, the
larger rotor currents are in such a direction as to decrease the stator flux. This results in a
temporary decrease in counter EMF in the stator windings. This, in turn, allows more current to
flow into the stator and increases the power input to the motor.
The strength of the rotor and stator fields, as well as the phase relationships between them,
governs torque.
The power factor of the rotor is dependent on the phase relationship, since power factor is the
cosine of the phase angle.
During normal operations, K, , and pf are nearly constant. The torque will increase
directly with the rotor current. The rotor current increases almost directly with slip. Increases in
slip cause an increase in rotor frequency and rotor reactance.
To understand this, consider a two-pole induction motor. Synchronous speed is calculated at
3,600 rpm. If this motor operates at a 5 percent slip, then the slip in rpm is:

3,600 x .05 = 180 rpm

Physically, this means that a pair of stator poles will pass a certain rotor conductor 180 times a
minute, or three times a second. Each time a pair of poles moves across a certain conductor, one
cycle of EMF will be induced, resulting in a frequency of three cycles per second. If the slip
were to increase to ten percent, or 360 rpm, the frequency of the rotor voltage and current is
increased to six cycles per second. If the slip were to increase to 100 percent, the rotor frequency
would be 60 Hz.
From this, you can see how rotor frequency is dependent on slip.
The frequency of the rotor is important insofar as its affect on rotor reactance. Rotor reactance
will be almost directly proportional to rotor impedance, thus:

From this, we see how increases in slip cause an increase in rotor frequency and rotor reactance.
The rotor resistance will be constant, so an increase in rotor reactance means a decrease in rotor
power factor since:

During normal operations, the change in slip is very small as load is added from an unloaded to a
fully loaded condition. This means that changes in rotor impedance and reactance are tactically
negligible. However, as the load is increased beyond rated and full-load values, the slip increases
appreciably. This increase will lower the rate that rotor current increases in such a manner as to
result in a torque that does not increase directly with slip.
The decreasing power factor and the lowered rate of current increase will result in torque
increases that become less rapid and will finally reach a maximum value. This is usually about
20 percent slip in squirrel cage induction motors. This maximum value of torque is known
as pullout torque. If the load increases even further, the rotor power factor will decrease faster
than the rotor current increases, resulting in a decreasing torque and stalling the motor. Figure
10 shows the relationship between torque and slip.

Figure 10: Torque vs. Slip


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Starting Current
At the moment a three-phase induction motor is started, the current supplied to the motor stator
terminals may be as high as six times the motor full-load current. This is because at starting, the

rotor is at rest; therefore, the rotating magnetic field of the stator cuts the squirrel cage rotor at
the maximum rate, inducing large amounts of EMF in the rotor. This results in proportionally
high currents at the input terminals of the motor, as previously discussed. Because of this high
inrush, current starting protection as high as 300 percent of full-load current must be provided to
allow the motor to start and come up to speed.
Since there exists 100 percent slip at the instant the motor is energized, the rotor current lags the
rotor EMF by a large angle. This means that the maximum current flow occurs in a rotor
conductor at a time after the maximum amount of stator flux has passed by. This results in a high
starting current at a low power factor, which results in a low value of starting torque.
As the rotor speeds up, the rotor frequency and rotor reactance decrease, causing the torque to
increase up to its maximum value, then decrease to the value needed to carry its load.
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Power Factor
The power factor of a squirrel cage induction motor is poor at no-load and low load conditions.
At no-load, the power factor can be as low as 15 percent lagging. However, as load is increased,
the power factor increases. At high rated load, the power factor may be as high as 85 to 90
percent lagging.
The power factor at no-load is low because the magnetizing component of input current is a large
part of the total input current of the motor. When the load on the motor is increased, the in-phase
current supplied to the motor increases, but the magnetizing component of current remains
practically the same. This means that the resultant line current is more nearly in-phase with the
voltage and the power factor is improved when the motor is loaded, compared with an unloaded
motor, which mainly draws magnetizing current.
Figure 11 shows the increase in power factor from a no-load condition to full-load. In the noload diagram, the in-phase current (IENERGY) is small when compared to the magnetizing
current (IM); thus, the power factor is poor at no-load. In the full-load diagram, the in-phase
current has increased while the magnetizing current remains the same. As a result, the angle of
lag of the line current decreases and the power factor increases.

Figure 11: PF vs. Load for an Induction Motor


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Speed Control
The speed of a three-phase squirrel cage induction motor depends on the synchronous speed of
the applied voltage and the number of poles in the motor, therefore this type of motor has
virtually no speed control. As a result, these motors are used in applications where speed remains
constant and where it can be controlled by other means such as variable speed drives.
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Reversing Rotation
The direction of rotation of a three-phase induction motor can be readily reversed. The motor
will rotate in the opposite direction if any two of the three incoming leads are reversed, as shown
in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Three-Phase Induction Motor Rotational Direction Change


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Synchronous Motors
The synchronous motor is a three-phase motor that operates at synchronous speed from no-load
to full-load.
This type of motor has a revolving field that is energized from a separate source than the stator
winding. The rotor is excited by a direct current source. The magnetic field set up by the direct
current on the rotor then locks in with the rotating magnetic field of the stator and causes the
rotor to revolve at synchronous speed. By changing the magnitude of DC excitation, the power
factor of the motor can be changed and can, in fact, be changed over a wide variety of power
factors from leading to lagging. Because of the unique ability to change power factors,
synchronous motors are often used as power factor correctors. They are most often used in
applications that require precise speed regulation from no-load to full-load.
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Construction

The construction of synchronous motors is essentially the same as the construction of threephase generators. It has three stator windings that are 120 electrical degrees apart and a wound
rotor that is connected to slip rings where the rotor excitation current is applied.
When three-phase AC is applied to the stator, a revolving magnetic field is created just as it is in
induction motors. The rotor is energized with DC, which creates a magnetic field around the
rotor. The strong rotating magnetic field of the stator attracts the rotor field. This results in a
strong turning force on the rotor shaft.
This is how the synchronous motor works once it is started. However, one of the disadvantages
of this type of motor is that applying only DC to the stator cannot start it. When AC is applied to
the stator, the high-speed rotating magnetic field rushes past the rotor poles so quickly that the
rotor does not have a chance to get started. The rotor is locked; it is repelled in one direction and
then in another direction. In its purest form, the synchronous motor has no starting torque.
This is easier to understand using Figure 13. When the stator and rotor fields are energized, the
poles of the rotating field approach the poles of the rotor poles of opposite polarity. The
attracting force will tend to turn the rotor in a direction opposite that of the rotating field. As the
rotor starts to move in that direction, the rotating field moves past the rotor poles and tends to
pull the rotor in the same direction as the rotating field. The result is no starting torque.

Figure 13: Three-Phase Induction Motor Rotational Direction Change


To allow this type of motor to start, a squirrel cage winding is added to the rotor to cause it to
start like an induction motor. This winding is called an amortisseur winding. The rotor windings
are constructed such that definite north and south poles are created so that these poles, when
excited by DC, will lock in with the revolving field. The rotor windings are wound about the
salient field poles, which are connected in series for opposite polarity. The number of field poles
must equal the number of stator poles. The rotor field windings are brought out to slip rings that
are mounted on the rotor shaft. The field current is supplied through carbon brushes to the field
windings.
Figure 14 shows a simplification of a synchronous motor. Figure 15 shows the construction of
the rotor pole assembly.

Figure 14: Simplification of a Synchronous Motor

Figure 15: Pole Assembly


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Synchronous Motor Operating Principles


When a synchronous motor is started, current is first applied to the stator windings. Current is
induced in the amortisseur winding and the motor starts as an induction motor. The motor then
comes up to near synchronous speed to about 5-10 percent slip. At that point, the field is excited
and the motor, turning at high speed, pulls into synchronism. When this occurs, the rotor is
turning at synchronous speed and the squirrel cage winding will not be generating any current
and, therefore, not affecting the synchronous motors operation. The amortisseur windings serve
an additional purpose. When the load changes frequently, the motors speed is not as steady, as
the torque angle (discussed later) oscillates (or hunts) back and forth, trying to settle at its
required value. This momentary change in speed creates a current due to induction, and there will
be torque in the amortisseur winding. This momentary torque serves to dampen or stabilize the

oscillating torque angle. That is why amortisseur windings are sometimes referred to as damper
windings.
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Rotor Field Excitation


The rotor must be excited from an external DC source. Figure 16 shows a simplified
synchronous motor excitation circuit. Notice that the rheostat can vary the DC field current.
However this does not change the speed of the motor. It only changes the power factor of the
motor stator circuit. If full resistance is applied to the rotor field circuit, then the field strength of
the rotor is at minimum and the power factor is extremely lagging. As the DC field strength is
increased, the power factor improves and, if current is increased sufficiently, the power factor
can be increased to near unity or 100 percent. This value of field current is referred to as normal
excitation. By increasing the rotor field strength further, the power factor decreases but in a
leading direction; that is, the stator circuit becomes capacitive and the motor is said to be
overexcited. The synchronous motor can be used to counteract the lagging power factor in
circuits by adding capacitive reactance to the circuit, thereby bringing the overall power factor
closer to unity.

Figure 16: Simplified Synchronous Motor Excitation Circuit


If the rotor DC field windings of a synchronous motor are open when the stator is energized, a
high AC voltage will be induced in it because the rotating field sweeps through the large number
of turns at synchronous speed.
It is therefore necessary to connect a resistor of low resistance across the rotor DC field winding
during the starting period. During the starting period, the DC field winding is disconnected from
the source and the resistor is connected across the field terminals. This permits alternating
current to flow in the DC field winding. Because the impedance of the winding is high compared
with the inserted external resistance, the internal voltage drop limits the terminal voltage to a safe
value.
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Synchronous Motor Pullout


When a synchronous motor loses synchronism with the system to which it is connected, it is said
to be out-of-step. This occurs when the following takes place singly or in combination:

Excessive load is applied to the shaft.

The supply voltage is reduced excessively.

The motor excitation is lost or too low.

Torque pulsations applied to the shaft of a synchronous motor are also a possible cause of loss of
synchronism if the pulsations occur at an unfavorable period relative to the natural frequency of
the rotor with respect to the power system.
A prevalent cause of loss of synchronism is a fault occurring on the supply system.
Underexcitation of the rotor is also a distinct possibility.
Synchronous motor pullout is significant in that the squirrel cage or amortisseur winding is
designed for starting only. It is not as hardy as those found in induction motors. The amortisseur
winding will not overheat if the motor starts, accelerates, and reaches synchronous speed within
a time interval determined to be normal for the motor. The motor must continue to operate at
synchronous speed. If the motor were to operate at a speed less than synchronous, the
amortisseur winding may overheat and suffer damage.
Protection against a synchronous motor losing synchronism can be provided by polarized field
frequency relays and out of step relays as well as various digital methods. These will be
discussed in the motor control center section.
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Synchronous Motor Torque Angle


Once the rotor speed is close to synchronous speed at about 90-95 percent of maximum running
speed, it will lock on to the rotating magnetic field. Under these conditions, a running torque will
be developed. The rotor will rotate at synchronous speed in a direction and at a speed determined
by synchronous speed.
While the motor is running, the two rotating fields may not line up perfectly. The rotor pole will
always lag behind the stator pole by some angle. This angle is called the torque angle and is
shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17: Torque Angle


As the load on the shaft increases, the torque angle increases even though the rotor continues to
turn at synchronous speed. This behavior continues until the torque angle is approximately 90
degrees. At that point, the motor is developing a maximum torque. Any further increase in load
will cause either of the following to occur:
If the increase in load is momentary or very little, the rotor will slip a pole. In other words, the
stator field will lose hold of the rotor and grab onto it again the next time around.
If the increase in load is large enough and not momentary, the motor will lose synchronism and
will either stall or cause the rotor to suffer thermal damage.
In both cases, a noticeable straining sound will be heard.
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Wound Rotor Motors


The rotor of a wound rotor motor is wound with insulated windings similar to the stator
windings. This three-phase winding is wye-connected, with the ends of each phase winding
being connected to three slip rings. Connected to the rotor circuit through the slip rings is a wyeconnected variable resistance. Figure 18 shows the circuits of a wound rotor motor.

Figure 18: Wound Rotor Motor Circuits


The stator windings of a wound rotor motor are three sets of windings connected 120 electrical
degrees apart. These may be connected either wye or delta. The rotor is a laminated steel cylinder
that is slotted to contain the rotor field windings. There are three-phase windings on the rotor
which are also 120 electrical degrees apart and can be connected either wye or delta. The ends of
the phase windings terminate at three slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft. These slip rings are
connected through carbon brushes to speed control equipment external to the rotor. These
brushes are held in brush holders that are rigidly attached to the motor end bell assembly, or end
cover.
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Wound Rotor Speed Control


The insertion of resistance in the rotor circuit not only limits the starting surge of current, but
also produces a high starting torque and provides a means of adjusting the speed. If the full
resistance of the speed controller is cut into the rotor circuit when the motor is running, the rotor
current decreases, and the motor slows down. As the rotor speed decreases, more voltage is
induced in the rotor windings and an increase in rotor current is developed to create the
necessary torque at the reduced rotor speed.
If all the resistance is removed from the rotor circuit, the current and the motor speed will
increase. However, the rotor speed will always be less than the synchronous speed of the field
developed by the stator windings. Recall that this fact is also true of the squirrel cage induction
motor. The speed of a wound rotor motor can be controlled manually or automatically with
timing relays, contactors, and pushbutton speed selection. Figure 19 shows a cutaway view of a
wound rotor induction motor.

Figure 19: Cutaway View of Wound Rotor Induction Motor


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Direct Current Motors


The operation of DC motors is based on the same principles as AC motors. A current-carrying
conductor placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the lines of flux will tend to move in a
direction perpendicular to the magnetic lines of flux.
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Operating Principles
Stated simply, DC motors rotate because of the two magnetic fields interacting with each other.
The DC motor armature acts like an electromagnet when current flows through its coils. Since
the armature (rotor) is located within the magnetic field of the field poles (stator poles), these
two fluxes will interact. Like poles will repel each other and unlike poles will attract one another.
The armature of a DC motor has windings on it that are connected to commutator
segments. Figure 20 shows a DC motor field structure and armature assembly.

Figure 20: DC Motor Field Structure and Armature Assembly


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Armature Construction
The armature is a cylindrical iron structure mounted directly on the motor shaft. The armature
windings are imbedded in slots in the surface of the armature, and the ends of the conductors that
make up the windings terminate on copper segments on one end of the armature shaft. Current is
applied to these windings through carbon brushes that press against the commutator segments.
The commutator segments change the direction of current in the armature windings as they pass
across the poles of opposite polarity. This results in continuous torque in one direction, which
causes the armature to rotate.
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DC Motor Ratings
DC motors are rated according to their voltage, current, speed, and horsepower output.
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Types of DC Motors

There are three types of standard DC motors: series, shunt, and compound. Figure 21 shows the
schematic diagrams of these types. The selection of the proper type of motor is based on the type
of load that the motor is intended to operate. Note that a series motor has the field winding in
series with the armature, and a shunt motor has the field winding in parallel with the armature. A
compound motor has both a series and a shunt connected field winding.

Figure 21: Standard DC Motor Schematic Diagrams


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Torque
Torque of the motor is the twisting force applied to the shaft of the motor by the magnetic field
interaction between the field and the armature. The magnitude of torque depends on the magnetic
strengths of those two fields, which is then dependent on the current flowing through them.
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Starting Current and Counter EMF


When a DC motor is in operation, it acts much like a DC generator. The stator produces a
magnetic field (field poles), and a loop of wire in the rotor (armature) turns and cuts this
magnetic field. To understand counter EMF, first disregard the fact that external current is being
applied to the rotor via the carbon brushes on the commutator segments. As the rotor wires rotate
and cut the magnetic field of the field poles, a voltage is induced in them similar to that
discussed in induction motors. This induced voltage (EMF) causes a current to flow in them, and
a resulting magnetic field is created.

Before analyzing the relative direction between the current induced in the armature windings and
the current that caused it in the field poles, first remember the left-hand rule. Using your left
hand, hold it so that your index finger points in the direction of the magnetic field (north to
south) and your thumb points in the direction of rotational force on a given conductor. Your
middle finger will now point in the direction of current flow for that conductor. This current
would be in opposition to the current that is flowing from the battery. Since this induced voltage
and induced current is opposite to that of the battery, it is called counter EMF. The two currents
are flowing in opposite directions. This would mean that the battery voltage and the counter
EMF are opposite in polarity.
When first discussing counter EMF, we began by disregarding the fact that external DC was
being applied to the armature via the brushes. The induced voltage and resulting current flow
was then shown to flow opposite to the externally applied current. This was an
oversimplification, because only one current flows at a time. Since the counter EMF can never
become as large as the external applied voltage, and since they are opposite in polarity, the
counter EMF works to cancel only a part of the applied voltage. The single current that flows is
smaller due to the counter EMF.
Since counter EMF of a motor is generated by the action of the armature windings cutting the
lines of force set up by the field poles, the value of it will depend on the field strength and the
armature speed.
The effective voltage acting in the armature is the applied voltage minus the counter EMF. Ohms
law gives the value of a current by:

Example: Find the value of counter EMF of a DC motor when it is known that the terminal
voltage is 240 V and the armature current is 60-amps. The armature resistance has been
measured at .08 ohms.

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Starting Resistance
Large DC motors require that starting resistance be inserted in series with the motor armature. As
seen by the previous equation, the current drawn by the motor reactance was high as was the case
in AC induction motors. This means that the starting current will be abnormally high unless
limited by external starting resistance.
Figure 22 shows a shunt coil that is connected directly across a 250-volt line. The armature
resistance is known to be 0.5 ohms. The full-load current of the motor is known to be 25 amps,

and the shunt field current is 1 amp. The resulting armature current under full-load conditions
would, therefore, be 24-amps.

Figure 22: Shunt Motor


If starting resistance is not used, the value of armature current can be found using the following
equation:

This amount of starting current is too high and may result in excessive torque and heat, which
may cause damage to the motor. When starting resistance is added in series with the armature,
the starting current can be limited to 1.5 times the full-load current value. After starting, this
external resistance can be removed from service.
If we desire to limit starting current to 1.5 times the full-load value, we can solve for the size of
resistance that would be required using the previous equations.
Rstarting = (Vterminal - VCEMF) - IARA

At the moment of motor start, when the rotor is at standstill and the CEMF is zero, the series
resistance will be:

To find the wattage required in the starting resistance watts loss is calculated by the I2R method:
[(362) (6.44 ) = 8,346].
Example: Find the power developed in both watts and horsepower in a DC motor that has a
terminal voltage of 240 volts and an armature current of 60 amps. The armature resistance is
known to be 0.08 ohms.
Answer:

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Armature Reaction
When there is no current flowing through the armature of a DC motor, the magnetic line of flux
created by the field poles is undistorted, as shown in Figure 23. The lines of flux run parallel
from north to south.

Figure 23: Magnetic Flux


In this case, if a line were drawn in the center of the armature perpendicularly, this line would
represent the neutral plane, or position where the lines of force would have the least effect.
Figure 24 shows current flowing in the armature, but no current flowing in the main field
windings. The resulting armature windings lines-of-flux surround the armature windings in a
manner according to Flemings right hand rule.

Figure 24: Armature Reaction


When current flows in both the armature and in the main field windings, as shown in Figure 25,
it is clear that the two fields interact. This interaction is called armature reaction. It tends to
weaken the main field produced by the main field windings, distort the main field, and result in
shifting the position of the neutral axis.

Figure 25: Neutral Plane Shift


Armature reaction has a significant effect on the operation of DC motors as well as DC
generators. The brushes on the commutator must be so mounted that they contact the commutator
at the neutral plane under load. This is known as the running neutral plane. It is at this point that
sparkless commutation can be best obtained, because at this position, the armature coil is
undergoing commutation at a minimum flux.
In DC motors, armature reaction may cause instability of speed with load variations and sparking
at the brushes if they are not in the proper position. Compensating windings and interpoles are
often used to counteract armature reaction.
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Interpoles
Interpoles provide a commutating flux that generates an EMF necessary to neutralize the EMF of
self-induction in the armature coils undergoing commutation. Since the field flux in the DC
motor is distorted by the armature flux, the interpoles are of a polarity opposite that of the
following main pole in the direction of armature rotation.
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Direction of Rotation of DC Motors


The direction of rotation of a DC motor is dependent on the relative direction of current flow
between the armature windings and the field windings. Reversing the direction of either of these
windings will then change the direction of rotation of the motor. Simply reversing the input leads

to a DC motor will not change the direction of rotation since the input is common to both the
armature and the main field windings.
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DC Shunt Motors
A shunt motor is a constant speed motor. If load is increased on a shunt motor, the motor speed
will tend to decrease, causing a decrease in counter EMF, which will then result in an increase in
armature current. This continues until the increase in current is enough to meet the increased
torque requirements for the new load condition. The result is that the motor tends to stay in a
state of constant equilibrium.
Figure 26(A) shows a basic diagram of a shunt motor. Note that Figure 26(B) shows a winding
in series with the armature. This winding has only a few turns in series with the armature and is
there to counteract armature reaction.

Figure 26: Shunt Motor Configurations


It is important to note that the shunt field circuit of a DC motor should never be opened when the
motor is operating, especially when unloaded. This is because an open field may cause the motor
to rotate at dangerously high speeds. Large DC shunt motors have a field rheostat with a no-field
release feature which disconnects the motor from the power source if the field circuit opens.
DC motors have excellent speed control. To operate the motor above rated speed, a field rheostat
is used to reduce the field current and field flux. To operate below rated speed, resistors are used
to reduce the armature voltage.
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Torque
A DC shunt motor has high torque at any rated speed. At startup, a DC shunt motor can develop
up to 150 percent of its normal running torque as long as the resistors in the starting circuit can
withstand the heating effect of the current.
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Speed Regulation
The speed regulation of a shunt motor drops from 5 to 10 percent from no-load to full-load. As a
result, a shunt motor is superior to the series DC motor.
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DC Series Motors
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Torque
A DC series motor develops 500 percent of its full-load torque at starting. Therefore, this type of
motor is used in applications where large amounts of starting torque are needed such as in cranes,
railway applications, and other high starting torque demands. With a series motor, any increase in
load causes an increase in both the armature current and the field current. Since torque depends
on the interaction of these two flux fields, the torque increases as the square of the value of the
current increases. Therefore, series motors produce greater torque than shunt motors for the same
increase in current. The series motor shows a greater reduction in speed for an equal change in
load.
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Speed Control and Speed Regulation


The speed control of a series motor is poorer than that of a shunt motor because if the load is
reduced, a simultaneous reduction of current occurs in both the armature and field windings, and
therefore there is a greater increase in speed than would be in a shunt wound motor.
If the mechanical load were to be disconnected completely from a series motor, the motor would
continue to accelerate until the motor armature self-destructed. For this reason, series wound
motors are always permanently connected to their loads.
Varying the applied voltage controls the speed of a series DC motor. A series motor controller
usually is designed to start, stop, reverse, and regulate speed. By reversing either the armature or
the field winding current flow, you change the direction of rotation of a series motor.
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Motor Ratings
Series DC motors are rated for voltage, current, horsepower, and maximum speed.
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DC Compound Motors

Compound DC motors are used whenever it is necessary to obtain speed regulation


characteristics not obtainable with either the shunt of series wound motor. Since many
applications require high starting torque and constant speed under load, a compound motor is
used. Some industrial applications include drives for elevators, stamping presses, rolling mills,
and metal shears.
The compound motor has a normal shunt winding and a series winding on each field pole. They
may be connected long shunt (Figure 27A) or short shunt (Figure 27B). When the series
winding is connected to aid the shunt winding, the machine is a cumulative compound motor.
When the series field opposes the shunt field, the machine is a differential compound motor.
Based on practical experience, all compound DC motors are cumulatively compounded.

Figure 27: Long and Short Shunt Connections


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Torque
The operating characteristics of a cumulative compound wound motor are a combination of the
series motor and the shunt motor. A cumulative compound wound motor develops high torque
for sudden increases in load.
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Speed
Unlike the series motor, a cumulative compound wound motor has definite no-load speeds. It
will not build up self-destructive speeds if the load is removed. Inserting resistors in the armature
circuit to reduce the applied voltage can control speed control of a cumulative compound wound
motor.
When the motor is reversed frequently, such as for installations in elevators, hoists, and railways,
the controller should have voltage dropping resistors and switching arrangements to reverse the
motor direction.

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Speed Regulation
The speed regulation of a cumulative compound wound motor is inferior to that of a shunt motor
and superior to a series motor.
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Industrial Applications
Synchronous motors rated at 20 hp or more are used for constant speed applications. They are
used to drive large air and gas compressors that must be operated at fixed speeds to maintain a
constant output at the maximum efficiency. Synchronous motors are used to drive DC generators,
fans, blowers, and large pumps in water pumping stations.
Some industrial applications use three-phase synchronous motors to drive mechanical loads and
correct power factor values.Figure 28 shows a typical industrial feeder. The feeder has a lagging
power factor condition due to two induction motors. A synchronous motor is connected to this
same feeder and is operated with an overexcited field. The synchronous motor supplies leading
reactive kilovars to compensate for the lagging kilovars due to the induction motors or other
inductive load on the same three-phase distribution system. The DC field of the synchronous
motor can be over-excited enough to supply a value of leading kilovars equal to the lagging
kilovars. As a result, the power factor of the distribution system is corrected to unity.

Figure 28: Synchronous Motor used to Correct Power Factor


The synchronous motor may be used only to correct the power factor and not for driving any
mechanical load. It then has the same function as a bank of capacitors. When used to correct the
power factor only, the synchronous motor is called a synchronous capacitor or a synchronous
condenser.

The following example shows how a synchronous motor is used to overcome the lagging
kilovars due to induction motors on a three-phase distribution system.
Example: A three-phase, 220-volt feeder supplies two motors. One motor is a three-phase, wound
rotor induction motor. It takes 40 amperes at 81 percent lag power factor. The other motor is a
three-phase, synchronous motor that takes 30 amperes at 65 percent lead power factor.
Determine the:
# Watts, volt-amperes, and lagging vars of the wound-rotor induction motor.
# Watts, volt-amperes, and leading vars of the synchronous motor.
# Total load, in kilowatts, supplied to the two motors.
# Power factor of the three-phase feeder circuit.
Solution:
#The apparent power in volt amperes taken by the wound rotor induction motor is:

*The input in watts to the induction motor is:

*The vars taken by the motor is:

2. The apparent power, in volt amperes, taken by the synchronous motor is:

*The input in watts to the synchronous motor is:

*The vars for the synchronous motor is:

3. The total true power, in kilowatts, taken by the two motors in the arithmetic sum of the
individual power values for the two motors:

4. The reactive power for the entire three-phase feeder is the difference between the lagging and
leading vars:

Thus, 254 vars of lagging quadrature power are not overcome by the synchronous motor. This
value of lagging vars, combined with the total power in watts, gives the apparent power in voltamperes:

The power factor of the entire system is the ratio of the total true power, in kilowatts, to the total
apparent power, in kilovolt-amperes:

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Connections and Terminal Markings for AC Motors


The markings on the external leads of an induction motor are sometimes removed or defaced.
Proper identification must be made before the motor can be connected to the line. This
identification requires only a lighting or ringing circuit, a voltmeter with a range covering the
motor operating voltage, and a means of measuring approximate resistance.

Take care to prevent short-circuits between leads of the same group, as these leads are all
live. Failure to heed this warning can cause severe personal injury or death, and damage to
property!
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Rotation
A three-phase motor with three leads brought out can be connected to the line in any convenient
way, and then if it rotates in the wrong direction, any two leads can be interchanged to correct the
rotation. If the motor is connected to a gearbox or other mechanical load that might be damaged
by improper rotation, the correct lead sequences should be determined by use of a phase rotation
meter.
A two-phase motor with four leads may be lighted out to determine which leads belong to one
phase. These two leads are then connected to one phase of the line and the other two leads to the
other phase. If the motor rotates in the wrong direction, the two leads of either phase can be
interchanged. The real problem comes with double-voltage and consequent-pole motors, which
have more leads and circuits.
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Double-Voltage Motors
Double-voltage motors can be either three-phase or two-phase and can be connected either wye
or delta, depending on the manufacturer.
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Three-Phase Star Connection


This type of motor has nine leads and four separate circuits, as shown in Figure 29. Three
circuits have two leads each, and the fourth has three leads. The circuits should be tested out with
a lamp or buzzer, and the three leads on a common circuit forming the internal star should be
permanently tagged T7, T8, T9, in any order. The other leads should be temporarily tagged T1,
T4 for one circuit; T2, T5 on the second circuit; and T3, T6 on the third circuit. It will be
assumed here that in all cases of double voltage the motor is wound to operate on 220-440 volts,
as this is the most common voltage range. For any other voltages, all of the following test
voltages should be changed in proportion to the motor rating.

Figure 29: Dual-Voltage Three-Phase Star Connection


The motor may be started on 220 volts, with leads T7, T8, and T9 connected to the source of
power and all other leads disconnected. If the motor is too large to be started by connecting it
directly to the line, the starting voltage should be reduced as in the regular operation of the
motor. With the motor running light, the voltage across each of the three open circuits should be
measured. This voltage should be slightly under 127 volts and should be the same on all three
circuits. With the motor still running, connect T7 to T4 and measure the voltage across leads T1
and T8, and also across leads T1 and T9. If these voltages are both the same value and equal
about 335 volts, tags T1 and T4 should be marked permanently.
If the two voltages are of the same value and equal about 127 volts, interchange T1 and T4. If the
voltage indications between terminals T1, T8 and T1, T9 are unequal, then disconnect T4 from
T7 and connect T4 to T8, measuring the voltages between T1, T7 and T1, T9.
Changes and measurements should be made in this way until a position is found at which both
voltages are equal and of a value of about 335 volts. With the motor still running light, and with
leads T7, T8, T9 used as terminals, leads T4, T5, and T6 may be connected together and the
voltage read between leads T1, T2, and T3. The voltage read should equal approximately 220
volts. For a further check, the motor should be shut down and reconnected, using leads T1, T2,
and T3 as terminals, with T4, T5, and T6 connected together and leads T7, T8, and T9
disconnected. Care should be taken to connect the line that was on T7 to T1, the one that was on
T8 to T2, and the one that was on T9 to T3. The direction of rotation should be the same as with
the previous connection. The motor is now ready to operate on 220 volts by connecting T4, T5,
and T6 together and using T1, T7 as one lead; T2, T8 as another; and T3, T9 as a third. By
connecting T4 to T7, T5 to T8, and T6 to T9, and using T1, T2, and T3 as leads, the motor should
operate on 440 volts.
The connection plate mounted on the motor may disagree with the lead markings as determined
herein and shown on Figure 29, indicating that markings T4 and T7 are interchanged, as well as
T5 and T8, and T6 and T9. Lead markings as shown in Figure 29A is the present NEMA
standard, whereas Figure 29B illustrates the lead marking as formerly used on some dual-

voltage star connected motors. When remarking motor leads, it is recommended that the present
standard marking be adhered to in every case, and, where necessary, the connection plate be
revised or replaced.
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Three-Phase Delta Connection


This motor will also have nine leads but only three separate circuits; three leads are connected to
each circuit. In this case, it is also necessary to have an instrument for measuring resistance in
addition to other equipment. Only comparative values, not actual values, are required. Such
values can be obtained with a Wheatstone Bridge, or comparative results can be obtained by
taking the voltage drop over the various parts of the circuit with a millivolt meter. There should
be a constant value of direct current in the windings, which should not exceed the current rating
of the motor.
It is necessary to find leads T1, T2, and T3, as shown in Figure 29. They can be found by an
approximate measurement of resistance, since the resistance from T4 to T9 is twice that from T4
to T1. T2, and T3 are similarly located by corresponding measurements in the other circuits.
These leads should then be permanently marked. The remaining leads in the circuit containing
T1 should be temporarily marked T4 and T9; those in the same circuit with T2 should be marked
T5 and T7; and those in the same circuit with T3 should be marked T8 and T6 in any order.

Figure 30: Dual-Voltage Three-Phase Delta Connection


After leads T1, T2, and T3 have been located, the motor should be started and run on 220 volts,
using T1, T4, and T9 as leads and leaving all other terminals disconnected. T4, T7 should then be
connected together and the voltage read between T1 and T2. If this voltage equals approximately
440 volts, the marking is correct. If this voltage is approximately 380 volts, interchange T5 and
T7 or T4 and T9 and measure the voltage again. If it is approximately 220 volts, interchange T5,
T7, and T4, T9. When this voltage equals approximately 440 volts, mark T4, T9, T7, and T5
permanently, taking care that leads are marked T4 and T7 which, when connected together, gives
440 volts between T1 and T2. A similar procedure should then be followed, connecting T6 to T9
and measuring the voltage between T1 and T3. When the markings are all correct, the voltages
between T1, T2, and T3 should equal approximately 440 volts.
As a check, the motor should be shut down and reconnected, using T2, T5, and T7 as leads. Care
should be taken that T7 is attached to the line previously connected to T9, T2 attached to the line
previously connected to T1, and T5 to the line previously connected to T4. When the motor is

again started, the direction of rotation should be in the same direction as with the previous
connection. If the direction of rotation is correct, the motor should again be reconnected using
T3, T6, and T8 as leads and connecting the line from T5 to T6, the line from T2 to T3 and the
line from T7 to T8.
When the motor is again started, the direction of rotation should be in the same direction as with
the previous connections. When the above tests have been completed, the motor is ready to be
connected permanently. If it is desired to run the motor on 220 volts, connect T6, T1, and T7
together and use them as one lead; T4, T2, and T8 as a second lead; and T3, T9, and T5 as a third
lead. If it is desired to run the motor on 440 volts, connect T4 to T7, T5 to T8, and T6 to T9 using
T1, T2, and T3 as leads. Permanent markings should be made on all leads.
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Two-Phase Double-Voltage Connection


The two-phase, double-voltage motor can always be distinguished by its eight leads (see Figure
31). There are four separate circuits with two leads to a circuit. Trace out the circuits by a lamp
or buzzer as in the previous case. Temporarily tag the leads on the first circuit T1, T5; those on
the second circuit T2, T6; those on the third circuit T3, T7; and those on the fourth circuit T4, T8.
Start the motor and run it single phase on 220 volts, using any pair of leads from a single circuit.
To do so it will be necessary to bring the motor up to speed by externally applied power. The
preferred method is by belting it to another motor. However, any available means of giving the
motor a slight start is satisfactory, as it will come up to speed single phase if given a sufficient
start. Connect T7 to T5 and measure the voltage from T1 to T3. If the voltage equals 440 volts,
mark T1, T5, T3, and T7 permanently. If this voltage is zero, interchange either pair of leads.

Figure 31: Two-Phase Double-Voltage Motor Connection


If the voltage measured equals approximately 310, disconnect T7 and try leads from another
circuit until one is found that will give 440 volts from T1 to the lead on the other end of the
circuit. When such a circuit is found, mark the leads permanently T1, T5, and T7, T3, being
careful that leads marked T6 and T7 are those which, when connected, give 440 volts between
T1 and T8. This procedure should then be followed with the other four leads, making final
markings as shown in Figure 22.
When all the leads have been permanently marked, the motor may be connected for 440-volt
operation by connecting T5 to T7, T6 to T8 and using T1, T3 as leads for one phase and T2, T4
as leads for the second phase. For operation on 220 volts, connect T1 to T7, T2 to T8, T3 to T5,

and T4 to T6. Use T2, T8, and T4, T6 as leads on one phase and likewise for T3, T5, and T1, T7
as leads on the second phase.
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Two-Speed Consequent-Pole Motors


An induction motor using the consequent-pole principle to obtain two speeds with a single
winding requires that six leads be brought out. In this case, all leads are interconnected, so that it
is not necessary to test for separate circuits. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that
the motor is wound to run on 220-volts. If it is wound for any other voltage, the test voltages
given should be changed in proportion to the change in rating.
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Star Connection
The star-connected motor shown in Figure 32 is used for variable torque ratings having a highspeed horsepower rating four times the low-speed horsepower rating. If this fact is not apparent
from the nameplate reading, the motor can be identified as star-connected by measuring the
resistance between the various leads.

Figure 32: Two-Speed Variable-Torque Star-Connected Motor


Referring to Figure 32A, it can be seen that regardless of between which two leads the resistance
is measured, a relative value of either 1, 2, 3, or 4 must be obtained. For example, if the
resistance between T1 and T4 is 1, then between T4 and T6, the resistance will be 2; between T1
and T6, it will be 3, and between T1 and T2, it will be 4. Hence, the three leads having the
highest resistance (relative value of 4) between them should be located and permanently marked
T1, T2, and T3. Then, the resistance between T1 and each of the remaining three unmarked leads
should be measured, and the lead that gives lowest resistance (relative value of 1) should be
marked T4. Similarly, the resistance between lead T2 and each of the two remaining unmarked
leads should be measured, and the lead that gives a relative resistance of 1 should be marked T6.
The final remaining lead should be marked T5.

With the lead marking determined, it should then be checked by running the motor at normal
voltage, with T1, T2, and T3 connected to the line and leads T4, T5, and T6 left open. The motor
should run at its normal slow speed, this being the series star connection shown in Figure 32A.
The direction of rotation should be noted.
Finally, leads T1, T2, and T3 should be connected together and leads T4, T5, and T6 connected
to the line, with T4 to the same line lead previously used for T1, T5, the line lead previously used
for T2, and T6 to the lead used for T3. The motor should run at its normal high speed and have
the same direction of rotation as before, this being the parallel-star connection shown in Figure
32B.
Talk Page

Delta Connection
The delta-connected motor shown in Figure 33 for constant torque ratings has a high speed
horsepower rating twice the low-speed horsepower rating. It can be distinguished from the starconnected motor by measuring the resistances. Referring to Figure 33A, it can be seen that
regardless of between which two leads the resistance is measured, a relative value of either 1,
1.6, or 1.8 must be obtained. For example, if the resistance between T1 and T6 is 1, then between
T1 and T5 it must be 1.8. The lowest value of resistance obtainable (relative value of 1) between
any two leads should be found, and if the motor is delta-connected, it will be possible to go
through all the leads measuring the lowest value of resistance from lead to lead, and ending up at
the lead at which the start was made.

Figure 33: Two-Speed Constant-Torque Delta-Connected Motor


Start with the first pair of leads that give the lowest resistance (relative value of 1) between
terminals, mark them temporarily T1 and T6. The lead should then be found which will give a
resistance to T6 equal to that between T6 and T1. When this lead is found, it should be marked
T2. The lead should then be found which will give the same resistance to T2 as that between T2
and T6, and this lead should be marked T5. This procedure should be followed until all the leads
have been used. They should be marked from the beginning and in the order in which they are
found T1, T6, T2, T5, T3, and T4. When all leads have been marked as described, the motor
should be started and run single phase, applying 110 volts across T1 and T6. The voltage should
then be measured between T1 and T2, between T2 and T3, and between T3 and T1. If each of

these readings is 220 volts, then the leads are correctly marked and the markings should be
permanently affixed. If these readings are 110 volts, then permanently re-mark all leads,
changing T6 to T1, T2 to T6, T5 to T2, T3 to T5, T4 to T3, and T1 to T4. Start up again and with
110 volts single-phase impressed on T1 and T6, check the voltage from T1 to T2, from T2 to T3,
and from T3 to T1, each of which should equal 220 volts.
To operate the motor at slow speed, use T1, T2, and T3 as line leads with leads T4, T5, and T6
disconnected, giving a series delta connection as shown in Figure 33A. Note the direction of
rotation.
To operate at high speed, connect leads T1, T2, and T3 together and connect T4, T5, and T6 to
the line, using the same line lead for T4 as previously used for T1, similarly for T5 and T2 and
for T6 and T3. This should give the same direction of rotation as on previous slow speed
operation and is the parallel star connection shown in Figure 33B.
Talk Page

Delta Connection for Constant-Horsepower


The delta-connected motor for constant horsepower has the same relative resistances between
leads as its constant-torque counterpart; hence, it can be distinguished from the latter only by
observing the nameplate rating. The determination of proper lead marking for the two types of
connections is essentially the same.
Referring to Figure 34, first locate any pair of leads that give the lowest resistance between
terminals and temporarily mark them T4 and T1. The lead should then be found which gives a
resistance to T1 equal to that between T4 and T1, and this lead should be marked T6. The lead
should then be found that gives a resistance to T6 equal to that between T6 and T1, this lead
being marked T2. This procedure should be followed until all the leads are used, and they should
be temporarily marked from the beginning and in the order in which they are found as T4, T1,
T6, T2, T5, and T3.

Figure 34: Delta-Connected Motor for Constant-Horsepower


When all leads have been marked as described, the motor should be started and run single phase
with 110 volts impressed across T4 and T1. The voltage should then be measured between T4
and T6, between T6 and T5, and between T5 and T4. If each of these readings is 220 volts, then
the leads are correctly marked and the markers should be permanently affixed. If these readings
are 110 volts, then permanently re mark all leads, changing T1 to T4, T6 to T1, T2 to T6, T5 to
T2, T3 to T5, and T4 to T3. Start up again, and with 110 volts single phase applied across leads

T4 and T1, check the voltage between T4 and T6, between T6 and T5, and between T5 and T4.
Each reading should now be 220 volts.
To operate the motor at high speeds, connect leads T4, T5, and T6 to the line with leads T1, T2,
and T3 disconnected, giving the series-delta connection shown in Figure 34A. Note the direction
of rotation.
To operate the motor at slow speed, connect leads T4, T5, and T6 together and T1, T2, and T3 to
the line, using the same line lead for T1 as previously used to T4, and similarly for T2 and T5
and for T3 and T6. This should give the same direction of rotation as obtained in previous highspeed operation and is the parallel-star connection shown in Figure 34B.
Talk Page

Open-Delta Connection Constant-Torque


The open-delta connection is frequently used for consequent-pole motors, particularly for four-speed,
two-winding motors to avoid the possibility of harmful circulating currents being induced in the idle
winding while the other is energized. The connections are identical to the previously discussed
closed-delta connections, except that one corner of the delta is opened and an extra lead, T7, is
provided.
Figure 35 shows the lead markings for the open-delta constant-torque connection. There are six
relative values of resistance between leads, these being 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, depending upon which
pair of leads is used. First, locate the pair of leads that give the highest resistance (value of 6) and
mark these leads T3 and T7. Then, the lead should be located that gives the lowest resistance
(relative value of 1) to T3, and this lead should be marked T4. Then the unmarked lead should be
located that gives the lowest resistance (relative value of 1) to T4, and this lead should be marked
T1. This procedure should be followed until all leads are used, and they should be marked from the
beginning and in the order in which they are found as T3, T4, T1, T6, T2, T5, and ending with T7.
The connections for a two-speed motor are shown in Figure 35.

Figure 35: Open-Delta Constant-Torque Connection