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Chapter 11: Managerial Communication and Information Technology

Managerial Communication
Communication is the transfer and understanding of meaning. This means that if no
information or ideas have been conveyed, communication hasn't taken place.
Managerial communication is of the following two types:

Interpersonal Communication - Interpersonal communication generally takes


place between two or more individuals at the workplace.

Organizational Communication - Communication taking place at all levels in


the organization refers to organizational communication.

Communication passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver. The message
is converted to symbolic form (called encoding) and passed by way of some
medium (channel) to the receiver, who retranslates the sender's message (called
decoding).
Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements
that convey meaning.
Verbal information refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that
conveys meaning.
Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more
favorable to the receiver.
Selective perception is when people selectively interpret what they see or hear on
the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Emotions is how a receiver feels when a message is received influences how he or
she interprets it.
Information overload - when the information we have to work with exceeds our
processing capacity.
Defensiveness is when people feel that they're being threatened; they tend to react
in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding.
Language: Words mean different things to different people. Age, education, and
cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the
language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words.
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication
I.

Use Feedback

II.

Simplify Language

III.

Listen Actively

IV.

Watch Nonverbal Cues

V.

Constrain Emotions

Formal versus Informal Communication


1. Formal Communication refers to communication that follows the official
chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one's job.
2.

Informal Communication is organizational communication that is not defined


by the organization's structural hierarchy.

Direction of Communication Flow


1. Any communication that flows downward from a manager to employees is
downward communication.
2. Upward communication is communication that flows upward from employees
to managers.
3. Diagonal communication is communication that cuts across both work areas
and organizational levels.
4. Communication that takes place among any employees on the same
organizational level is called lateral communication.
Understanding Information Technology
Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and
other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store,
secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.
In a networked computer system, an organization links its computers together
through compatible hardware and software, creating an organizational network.
Email is the instantaneous transmission of written messages on computers that are
linked together.
Some organizational members who find e-mail slow and cumbersome are using
instant messaging (IM).
A Voice mail system digitizes a spoken message, transmits it over the network, and
stores the message on disk for the receiver to retrieve later.
Fax machines allow the transmission of documents containing both text and
graphics over ordinary telephone lines.
Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a way for organizations to exchange standard
business transaction documents, such as invoices or purchase orders, using direct
computer-to-computer networks.
Teleconferencing allows a group of people to confer simultaneously using
telephone or e-mail group communications software.
If meeting participants can see each other over video screens, the simultaneous
conference is called video conferencing.

An internet is an organizational communication network that uses Internet


technology and is accessible only by organizational employees.
An extranet is an organizational communication network that uses Internet
technology and allows authorized users inside the organization to communicate
with certain outsiders such as customers or vendors.

Chapter 18: Foundations of Control


Control is the process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being
accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations.
Type
Control

of
Characteristics
Uses external market mechanisms, such as price competition

Market

and relative
market share, to establish standards used in system. Typically
used by
organizations whose products or services are clearly specified
and distinct
and that face considerable marketplace competition.
Emphasizes organizational authority. Relies on administrative

Bureaucratic

and
hierarchical

mechanisms,

such

as

rules,

regulations,

procedures, policies,
standardization of activities, well-defined job descriptions,
and budgets to
ensure that employees exhibit appropriate behaviors and
meet
performance standards.
Regulates employee behavior by the shared values, norms,
Clan

traditions,
rituals, beliefs, and other aspects of the organization's
culture. Often used
by organizations in which teams are common and technology
is changing
rapidly.

Characteristics of Three Approaches to Control Systems

The

control

process

is a

three-step

process including

measuring

actual

performance, comparing actual performance against a standard, and taking


managerial action to correct deviations or inadequate standards.
Types of Control
Managers can implement controls before an activity begins, during the time the
activity is going on, and after the activity has been completed. The first type is
called feed forward control, the second is concurrent control, and the last is
feedback control.
Feedforward

Concurrent

Careful

prehiring Treat

screening.

employees

respect
and dignity.

Establish specific policies


defining theft and fraud
and

Feedback
with Make

sure

employees

know
when theft or fraud has
occurrednot
naming
names
but letting people know

Openly communicate the this

discipline procedures.
costs of stealing.
is not acceptable.
Involve employees in Let employees know on
writing

Use the services of


professional

policies.

regular basis about their investigators.


successes in preventing
theft

Educate
employees

and

train

Redesign
and fraud.

measures.

control

Evaluate

about the policies.


Use video surveillance
Have

professionals

review
your internal security
controls.

equipment if conditions

your

organization's
culture
and

the

relationships
of
managers

and

warrant.
employees.
Install "lock-out" options
on
computers,

telephones,

and email.
Use corporate hot lines
for
reporting incidences.
Set a good example.

Chapter 20: Controlling for Organizational Performance


Managers are concerned with Organizational performancethe accumulated end
results of all the organization's work processes and activities.
Why Is Measuring Organizational Performance Important?
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Better Asset Management


Increased Ability to Provide Customer Value
Impact on Organizational Reputation
Improved Measures of Organizational Knowledge

Balanced
Scorecard Approach
The Balanced score card is a performance measurement tool that looks at four

areasfinancial, customer, internal processes, and people/innovation/growth assets


that contribute to a company's performance.
Management Information Systems
How Are Information Systems Used in Controlling?
Managers need information to monitor organizational performance and to control
organizational activities.
Benchmarking is the search for the best practices among competitors or no
competitors that lead to their superior performance