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Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as
societal phenomena
Joshua A. Fishman



Yeshiva University
Published online: 14 Sep 2010.

To cite this article: Joshua A. Fishman (1980) Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as societal phenomena, Journal
of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1:1, 3-15, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.1980.9993995
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Much of bilingual education unknowingly leads to transitional rather than stable accommodations in the areas of language and culture. Di-ethnia requires societal compartmentalization as well as institutionally protected functional specificity. such that two "languages" each have their secure. Just as diglossia is the stable. Kinds of Diglossia: Linguistic Relationships Following usage that has become widely accepted ever since Ferguson's seminal article of 1959. mobile and individualistic urban industrial conditions. extending at least beyond a three generation period. displayed a talent for exactly such arrangements. i. some groups have. societal counterpart to individual biculturism.247. interactive.e. Wealthy individuals can be found in both rich and poor societies.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Yeshiva University Abstract. intuitively or consciously.196. so di-ethnia is the stable. This paper raises for consideration the corresponding problem of arrangements at the individual and societal levels in conjunction with the phenomenon of biculturism. These desiderata are hard to attain and to retain — both ideologically and structurally — under "modern". particularly as these pertain to ethnic identity. Fishman Downloaded by [85. phenomenologically legitimate and widely implemented functions. Bilingualism and Diglossia The relationship between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia is far from being a necessary or causal one. H will be used to designate the superposed variety in a 3 .BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM as Individual and as Societal Phenomena* Joshua A. societal counterpart to individual bilingualism. Thus diglossia differs from bilingualism in that it represents an enduring societal arrangement. As such it is but one more example of the weak relationship obtaining between various individual social behaviours and their corresponding societal counterparts. However. either phenomenon can occur with or without the other (Fishman. 1967). Traditional individuals are recognizable within both modern and traditional societies.

classical Mandarin and modern Pekinese. as long as the latter operate in vernacular functions rather than in traditional literacy related ones (Weinreich. departing from Ferguson's initial designation. Here only significantly discrepant written/formalspoken and informal-spoken varieties will be admitted. various more complex cases within each of the above major clusters. There are.4 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. However. e. Many developing nations hope to establish a type (c) pattern involving both a Western Language of Wider Communication and one or more .. several different kinds of linguistic relationships between H's and L's (the latter being the universally available and spoken [mother-}tongues and varieties of everyday life) will be recognized: (a) H as classical. standard spoken Pekinese (Putonghua) and Cantonese. Standard English and Caribbean Creole.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 diglossic society. 1968).196.g. such that without schooling the written/formal-spoken cannot even be understood (otherwise every dialect/standard situation in the world would qualify within this rubric). in conjunction with type (a). is no one's mother tongue) under the influence of one or another formal institution outside of the home (and. the variety that is learned later in socialization (and. classical and vernacular Tamil. Hasidim reveal a complex form of type (b) involving Loshn koydesh and English as H and Yiddish as L (and in Israel: Loshn koydesh and Ivrit as H and Yiddish as L (Fishman. On the other hand. L as vernacular.g. Spanish and Gurani in Paraguay (Rubin. one H commonly being utilized for ethnically encumbered or traditional H pursuits and the other for ethnically unencumbered or modern pursuits. 1980). e. 1980)). etc. The Old Order Amish also reveal a complex form of (a) involving High (Luther Bible) German and English as H and Pennsylvanian German as L. (d) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular.. Thus there are several instances of dual H's in conjunction with a single L. 1976) (or any one of the several dozen other non-semitic Jewish L's. the two not being genetically related. church. Pol. 1980. Sanscrit and Hindi. is differentially accessible to the extent that entry to formal institutions of language/literacy learning [typically: school. therefore. (b) H as classical. classical and vernacular Arabic. we find various stable Arabic speech communities that have both Classical Arabic and English or French as H and a vernacular Arabic as L. Cooper and Conrad.247. e. Loshn koydesh (textual Hebrew/Aramaic) and Yiddish (Fishman. above.g. L as vernacular. 1976). therefore.e. the two being genetically related. the two being genetically unrelated to each other. government] is available). High German and Swiss German. e. Latin and French among francophone scholars and clergy in earlier centuries. the two being genetically related to each other. (c) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular. For example.g. classical and vernacular Sinhalese. classical or classicized Greek (Katarevusa) and demotiki. English (or French) and various vernaculars in post-colonial areas throughout the world (Fishman. i. of course.

e.e. massification and mobility of which they are a part — tend to diminish compartmentalization.. in non-status-stressing interactions (even where status differences remain). ascribed social statification such as in caste distinctions. presumably. Thus. Classicals are a good example of diglossia situations. All of these factors — and the constantly increasing urbanization. in fluid role relationships. but sociologically speaking. and. The presence or absence of social compartmentalization in language-use in bilingual settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to bilingualism. i. after all. However.247. Stability via Compartmentalization of the Societal Allocation of Functions The above rapid review of a dozen or more instances of relatively stable and widespread societal bilingualism (i. is an individual behavioural manifestation. on the maintenance of strict boundaries between the societal functions associated with H and L respectively (Fishman. as expounded by the great sociologists of the past two centuries. in the allocation of languages (or language varieties) to such arrangements. in the rationalization of the work sphere (the sphere that has. which. so far.196. Note. Among the hallmarks of modernization.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 favoured standardized vernacular(s) as H's and the same (or even more) local vernaculars as L's. with which classicals are usually linked) but of a stress on social compartmentalization. Sanctity/secularity. that in all these "more complex" cases an indigenous variety/language is available at both the H and the L level even if modern H functions are also shared with a language recently imported or imposed from without. in the Philippines. whether in the language use repertoire or in the social behaviour repertoire outside of language use per se. Similarly. about the possible relationships between societal ethnocultural .e. what they are an example of is not classicism per se (nor even of traditional religion. therefore. we must be concerned with the co-occurrence patterns obtaining between societally compartmentalized and uncompartmentalized biculturism. Tagalog as an L. ultimately. the presence or absence of social compartmentalization in ethnocultural behaviour in bicultural settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to biculturism. these and others are all possible bases of rather rigid and stable compartmentalization in societal arrangements and. above all. become the dominant arena of human affairs). indigenousness/foreignness. of course. relatively little has been written.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 5 Downloaded by [85. There is much in modern life that militates against such compartmentalization. traditionalism/modernism. diglossia) was intended to discount the view that only in connection with classicals can such stability be maintained. after all. is also an individual behavioural manifestation. if we are concerned with the relationship between bilingualism and biculturism. Thus. which. in superficial "public familiarity" between strangers or semi-strangers.g. however. 1972). is the increase in open networks. we find a national policy fostering English and Pilipino/Filipino as H's and.

). therefore. Types of diglossia-bilingualism relationships Both diglossia and bilingualism are continuous variables. Nevertheless. merely summarize our observations in this connection at this time. first re-examine the latter literature and then apply its concepts and contexts to the former topic. quadri/tetra. This is a societal arrangement in which individual bilingualism is not only widespread but institutionally buttressed.196. that the H (or H's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) H contexts and the L (or L's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) L contexts.247. (Obviously we are using bi/di as generics and intend that our comments with respea to them also apply to more complex cases as well. Bilingualism without Diglossia 4. Let us. it is simpler to treat them both as if they were dichotomous variables. even when compartmentalization obtains. above. "Membership" in the culture requires that the various languages that are recognized as pertaining to such membership be implemented in culturally "correct" contexts. Diglossia without Bilingualism — 2. to cases of tri/ter.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Figure I The Relationships Between Bilingualism and Diglossia Diglossia Bilingualism + 1. The separate locations in which L and H are acquired immediately provide them with separate institutional supports. Both Diglossia and Bilingualism 3. etc.6 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT compartmentalization and individual biculturism. matters of degree rather than all-or-none phenomena. i. Let us. and continues to be employed there throughout life while its use is extended also to . therefore. i. certainly little in comparison to the literature on the possible relationships between societal diglossia and individual bilingualism. and we will proceed to consider them one at a time. for purposes of initial conceptual clarity.e.. as a mother-tongue.e. Neither Diglossia nor Bilingualism (a) Bilingualism and Diglossia (cell 1) The occurrence of bilingualism and diglossia has already been discussed. L is acquired at home. Treated in this fashion there are four possible combinations between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia as Table 1 indicates. Downloaded by [85.

The above picture is. Similarly. Similarly. regardless of whether this might be desirable in terms of short term population movements. at least somewhat idealized. is never learned at home and is never utilized to signal such interactions. remains undisturbed. and the compartmentalization between them is sufficient for this arrangement not to suffer from "leakage" and from the resulting potential for language spread and shift. viz. This is diglossia in accord with the territoriality principle (McRae. Nevertheless. It requires that we set aside our earlier mrra-societal notion of widespread bilingualism and extend it to the political recognition and institutional protection thereof on an mtersocietal basis. and contrawise Lness does creep in to H interactions (particularly where access restrictions are minimal. emotion and spontaneity-related) interactions. Not only were various empires of old characterized by diglossia without bilingualism (except for small commercial.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 7 Downloaded by [85. Diglossic societies are marked not only by compartmentalization conventions but by varying degrees of access restriction. of course. each in accord with its own institutionally congruent behaviours and values. The authority and the reward systems associated with these separate institutions are sufficient for both L and H to be required at least referentially (if not — due to possible access restrictions in the case of H — overtly) for membership in the culture. .247. one cannot publish a German newspaper in Geneva or an Italian one in Bern. on the other hand. but. government. religion. even though one or the other might.e. Hness (whether in lexical. who "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia. Given this fact we must recognize political or governmental diglossia whereby two or more differently monolingual entities are brought together under one political roof. H is related to and supported by other-than-home institutions: education. the case of "Middle Arabic" and "Learned Yiddish". and.. Belgium.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 other familial and familiar (intimate. etc. at least in terms of early Leninist idealism. and to every people after their language" (Esther 1:1 and 22). we note that in this great multilingual empire of old. affect-dominated. the USSR. King Ahasuerus of old. in point of historical reality.. higher/specialized work sphere. (b) Diglossia without Bilingualism (cell 3) Since diglossia applies to societal arrangements. nevertheless. into every province according to the writing thereof. There is full freedom of press in Switzerland. military and civil service elites) but various modern states may be so classified: Switzerland. H. the perceived ethnocultural legitimacy of two languages as "our own" (i. for example. Thus. in addition. political arrangements may certainly be included under this rubric. note. the completely Yiddish phonology of Ashkenazi Loshn koydesh). be such). phonological or grammatical respects) does creep into L interactions (particularly among the more educated strata of society). 1975). Canada. and the normative functional complementarity of both languages. sent letters into all the King's provinces. neither of them being considered foreign.196.

situations and role-relations. Wherever an absent nobility controls a peasantry from afar by means of a small military. 1974. on the other) can protect themselves from the greater reward and sanction system associated with the language of new institutions to which they are exposed and in which they are involved. also instances of political/territorial diglossia without widespread demographicindigenous bilingualism. the community. the church. aboriginal Australian and not a few non-Russian Soviet populations as well (Silver. These are characterized not only by language spread but also by language shift. immigrant languages have disappeared as their speakers have adopted the languages of their hosts (B—A=A). groups strong enough to maintain or to fashion a reward system under their own control (whether in -the home. In some instances indigenous languages are swamped out by intrusive ones (B—A=B) as in the case of many native American. etc. Large groups. long-term arrangements. and of immigrants. sarcasm. There are obviously innumerable bilingual situations around the world that do not last up to or beyond three generations. As a result of the lack of successful compartmentalization both A and B compete for realization in the same domains. governmental and commercial presence which mediates between the absent masters and the local indigenous populations. When substantial numbers of colonizers have settled in the erstwhile colonies and access to H is not restricted in so far as indigenous populations are concerned a transformation may ultimately take place to that of diglossia with bilingualism. diglossia without bilingualism is in effect. Kriendler. Since. with the exception of fleeting metaphorical usage (humour. in press). What both of these otherwise quite different contexts reveal in common is an absence of social compartmentalization such that the languages of hearth and home (of indigenous peoples. In the American and Soviet contexts three generations or less have generally been sufficient for this process to run its course where sufficiently small.247. In other instances. or elsewhere) may succeed in establish- . since these are highly interpretable and judgemental dimensions {how stable does a socio/political arrangement have to be before we consider it long term?) let us once more agree to use a three generational rule of thumb in connection with them.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 there was not only territorial diglossia at the governmental level (as between the various written languages for governmental use) but also societal diglossia between the one written and the several spoken languages of each province. on the one hand.) bilingual functional redundancy cannot be maintained intergenerationally and gives way to the stronger functional system. However. Most forms of colonialism throughout the world (whether under capitalist or communist auspices) are.8 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. (c) Bilingualism without Diglossia (cell 2) Both diglossia with bilingualism and diglossia without bilingualism are relatively stable. therefore.196. the language with stronger rewards and sanctions asspciated with it wins out. impacted and dislocated groups have been involved.

in so far as Irish speakers are concerned.196. uncompartmentalized) bilingualismwithout-diglossia is neither bilingualism nor diglossia. Israel and others. education.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 9 ing and maintaining the compartmentalization needed for diglossia. New Zealand.e. however. the Arab Moslem world. Spanish America. are characterizable in this latter fashion without ever having gone through the former stage. Even fewer of these can opt for a completely territorial solution implementing compartmentalization via secession or isolation. Different social experiences (in work. no socially complex speech community is fully homogeneous linguistically. Without compartmentalization of one kind or another — at times attained by ideological/philosophical and even by a degree of physical withdrawal. many settings that have initially had numerous immigrants or linguistic minorities or both have translinguified (or exterminated) them to a very large degree. speech communities and even polities that may be characterized in this fashion. as are several indigenous and immigrant groups in the USSR. Nevertheless. and Ireland.from establishment society — the flow process from language spread to language shift is an inexorable one. Korea.247. and the power differentials/reward and sanction differentials of the remaining monolingual A and monolingual B domains) always leads displacively and replacively only in one direction. Normal foreign language instruction and tourism clearly lead neither to stable bilingualism nor to diglossia. Yemen. Strictly speaking.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 (d) Neither bilingualism nor diglossia (cell 4) The outcome of uninterrupted (i. However. USA. Some settings. the functionally unbalanced nature of the bilingualism that obtains (both in terms of who becomes bilingual and who remains monolingual. Although it may. What is the Ethnocultural Counterpart to Diglossia? We are now ready to broaden our discussion from a treatment of sociolinguistic parameters alone (bilingualism and diglossia) to one involving ethnocultural dimensions as well. are examples of the "successful" implementation of policies of this kind. in so far as its indigenous Maoris are concerned. to begin with. we are faced by the lack of a terminological and conceptual distinction such as exists between . even if we hold to a definition of bilingualism as involving consensually separate "languages". religion) lead to different socially patterned varieties of talking (and even of writing) and different regional dialects may maintain themselves in a stable fashion even after former communications and interactional barriers are gone. at times. however. Downloaded by [85. there are of course numerous speech networks. Portugal and Norway have all experienced relatively little immigration within the past three generations and have few if any indigenous minorities. of course. In the latter connection. require more than three generations for its inroads to be clearly discerned. Cuba.

two cultures) for societally widespread biculturism. Ethnicity is a narrower concept. It focuses on "peopleness relatedness". i. How one dresses. then we may find it useful to utilize bicultural for the individual manifestations in this realm but what are we to use for the societal counterpart thereto? It is in this connection that I would like to tentatively suggest the term di-ethnia. indeed. ethnicity recedes into a smaller corner.e. However. how one's house or furniture is built — these are distinctively peopleness related behaviours. defining. Languagebehaviour (particularly mother-tongue use) is frequently considered to be ethnicity related. at times. particularly in connection with modern complex societies. implying. di-ethnia is a sociocultural pattern that is maintained by means of specific institutional arrangements. The arrangements. so that only a much smaller set of behaviours. Culture is a much broader designation than ethnicity. belief. defining. and valuation. If we employ biculturism to designate the individual pattern in the ethnocultural realm. that is: on those cultural behaviours. as well as diglossia with and without bilingualism (cells 1 and 3) but we can also find . Even though cultures continue to coincide with broad ethnic designations. It deals with norms pertaining to all of human behaviour. 1977a). it is a bit too broad for our purposes. what one eats. the kind of work one does. beliefs and values. At later stages of social development many of the above behaviours (and many values and beliefs as well) have become ethnically neutralized because of their widespread ("international") currency. Thus. Without such it is not intergenerationally maintained. At earlier stages of social development all of culture is ethnically defined and defining. what can we use to designate the societal pattern in the ethnocultural realm.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 10 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT bilingualism and diglossia. require (as they do in the case of diglossia) repertoire compartmentalization. paralleling our usage of diglossia in the sociolinguistic realm? Most investigators use "bicultural" in both instances with considerable confusion and circumlocution as a result. as we will see. Saville-Troike (1978) has suggested the term dinomia (two sets of norms. be they scholars or not) as ethnicity related. ethnic compartmentalization and linguistic compartmentalization are only weakly related to each other in any causal sense.247. values and beliefs are considered (by "insiders" or by "outsiders". into a residual corner of culture. to membership in a particular people and its defining tradition (Fishman. If what is of concern to us is the co-occurrence between bilingualism/diglossia and the enactments of single versus multiple norms and identities in the realm of ethnocultural behaviour. paralleling our usage of bilingualism in the sociolinguistic realm. particularly in modern times. This is certainly a worthwhile suggestion. values and beliefs that are related to "peopleness authenticity". biculturism is an individual asset or debit that corresponds to no particular societal institutions or concerns. in a sense. because they are viewed as "authentic" and associated with discontinuity across ethnic boundaries and/or self-definitions. like diglossia. not only can we find bilingualism with and without diglossia (cells 1 and 2).e.Downloaded by [85. Like bilingualism. but.196. implying. i. However.

Thus. ethnicity maintenance (particularly at any creative level or in any central domain) requires strong institutional support. Downloaded by [85. Paraguayans do not view Spanish and Guarani as pertaining to two different ethnocultural memberships. integrated or transitioned into transethnification. Neither passes the three generation test and the bilingualism they prompt is either ultimately lost. 1966. rendering the other culture inoperative (consensually unacceptable) in certain functions — or even rejecting the functions per se — if two ethnocultural systems are to operate side by side on a stable and widespread basis. as well as (b) diethnia with and without either bilingualism or diglossia. language shift for American immigrants has commonly proceeded more rapidly than has their re-ethnification (Fishman et ah. Note. just as the biculturism they prompt is ultimately either lost. As we will note. indeed. assimilation) finally result. Certainly. as does language maintenance. Both languages are required for full membership in the Paraguayan people and for the implementation of complete Paraguayanness. Only one peopleness is involved. This is the context of transitional bilingualism and transitional biculturism on the one hand. integrated or transitioned into translinguification. Since the diglossia encountered there . if they are to constitute something more than transitional arrangements. Cell 3 also is inhospitable to di-ethnia. multiculturism and di-ethnia do not form a four-fold table (a counter-balanced 2X2 table) as do bilingualism and diglossia. as a result. of course. When diglossia is absent but bilingualism is present (cell 2) multiculturism may well be present but di-ethnia not. albeit different functions are fulfilled by each language and the two together constitute the whole. that language shift and ethnocultural shift need not proceed apace.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Biculturism-Di-ethnia in various Bilingualism-Diglossia Contexts When bilingualism and diglossia obtain (cell 1 above) di-ethnia may yet be absent. Nevertheless. The same is true with respect to Geez and Amharic among Ethiopian Copts. but they are both accepted as indicative of the same ethnocultural membership: Paraguayan. Two sets of cultural behaviours and identities must be in complementary distribution and strongly compartmentalized. far rarer one than biculturism as well. and.247. however. It is just such complementarity and compartmentalization that this cell (cell 2) lacks.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 11 (a) multiculturism with and without di-ethnia. in cell 4. 1978). The reason for this is that di-ethnia is a rarer phenomenon than diglossia and a far. in so far as their macrosocietal functions are concerned. as they do for speakers of a vernacular Arabic who read/write Koranic Classical Arabic. and of ordinary crosscultural contacts on the other hand. The two languages are in complementary distribution.196. neither di-ethnia (societal biculturism) nor individual biculturism are involved in cases such as these. acculturation (and. as must be their language usage counterparts.

the primary point of generalizable interest in connection with them is not so much the specific area in which their stable societal biculturism is expressed as the fact that it is stabilized by: (a) not integrating the two cultures involved but by keeping them separate.e. societal biculturism does exist in part of cell 1. Electricity may be used for pasteurization (the latter being required by state law) among the Pennsylvania Dutch. but not for refrigeration of their own food or to power modern farm machinery (Hostetler. in necessary complementary distribution with it. even it is rationalized as necessary for the maintenance and well being of the "inside world". Little wonder then that our examples of di-ethnia will derive primarily from nonmodern contexts. It is probably not accidental that the rural Old Order Amish and the urban Hasidim both accept another culture only in the econo-technical domain. only a small class of middlemen (civil servants. Nevertheless. In both cases actualization of the "other culture" is restricted to economic pursuits and relationships and even in this domain. this being the most universalized and.196. therefore. The "outside world" must be engaged to some unavoidable degree — and for such purposes the outside language must be learned — but this degree must be a limited one and. and even most of them have no need for either biculturism or di-ethnia. the weakening and overcoming of boundaries. but the purpose of our initial "go-round" has been attained if it has clarified the rarity of the phenomenon we are pursuing.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Stable Societal Biculturism: Some USA Examples We have made the rounds of our 2X2 table and have not encountered diethnia in any of its four cells. Fluidity across role and network boundaries and. both groups control their own schools wherein their children are taught to become proficient in English (speaking. on the other hand. stable. 1968. . In addition. once again. and Loshn koydesh and Yiddish. The "other culture" is viewed as necessary and the "own culture" is. commercial representatives. Downloaded by [85. limits are carefully observed. Both groups maintain a pattern of bilingualism and diglossia (cell 1) for their own internal needs involving Luther German and Pennsylvania Dutch on the one hand.247. therefore. in a state of tension vis-a-vis each other. professional translators) who have any need for being bilingual. is both a goal and result of most modern behaviour and its emphasis on efficiency and reciprocity/solidarity in social behaviour. The Old Order Amish and the Hasidim represent two patterns of di-ethnia on American shores. writing) so that they can engage in "the other culture" within carefully prescribed limits of kind and degree. compartmentalization is recognized as necessary so that the outside world will not intrude upon (spread into: Cooper. reading. the least ethnically encumbered domain of modern society. ultimately. indeed. i.1974).12 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT is that based upon the territorially principle it is. Most of modern life is inhospitable — whether ideologically or pragmatically — to compartmentalization between a people's behaviours and values. Actually.

247. Chinese (Hong Kong. i. and therefore. Singapore). displace/replace: Fishman. stable societal bilingualism (diglossia) depends on institutionally protected functional sociolinguistic compartmentalization. implementing it selectively and in a particular domain so as to keep it in complementary distribution with their "own" H-governed and L-govemed domains. if it is to be pursued seriously and societally. Finally. just as no speech community can maintain two languages on a stable basis (past three generations) if they are both used in the same social functions and. etc. so no ethnocultural collectivity can maintain two cultures on a stable basis past three generations if they are both implemented in the same social functions (family. trivializing and peripheralizing in connection with the marked culture ("thingification" I have called it elsewhere) and Anglo-Americanizing . rather. di-ethnia is still encountered at times even after language shift has eroded bilingualism and diglossia to the vanishing point. religion.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 13 1980. diet and languages and do so not only for mrergroup interactions but for intragroup interactions within this arena as well. work. English is specifically excluded from home use (where it would threaten their own L mother tongues) and from religious use (where it would threaten their own sacred H's). It is found beyond the three generation cut-off in the Moslem world where traditional behaviours. unknowingly. sports contests). stable societal multiculturism (di-ethnia) depends on institutionally protected ethnocultural compartmentalization. is recognized. dress. Di-ethnia of a more marginal or peripheral kind is sometimes also found among stable populations living at long-established political borders and sharing market days and other limited collective experiences (e.e. 1977b) the "inner world": and (b) not accepting or implementing "the other culture" in its entirety but. the arrangements entered into usually foster biculturism in the most dislocative sense. Downloaded by [85. Neither the institutional stability nor the functional compartmentalization of this phenomenon. Indeed. The Bicultural "Thrust" of Bilingual/Bilingual Education The term "bicultural" is often introduced quite innocently in connection with Title VII bilingual education in the USA. a deep-seated and often conflicted di-ethnia at times reveals itself. friendship. Thus. biculturism. and even more exceptionally. education. diet and values dominate most of life but where modern econo-technical roles require different dress. They are commonly condescending. even with the transethnification of Blacks and aborigines. therefore. Native American and nonRussophone Soviets. they are transitional and transethnifying.g.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Does Di-ethnia Exist Elsewhere As Well? Di-ethnia is a relatively rare phenomenon — much rarer than its individual counterpart.). Similar compartmentalization is encountered beyond the three generation cut-off among various segments of Japanese. Thus.196.

In distinction to the destructive Title VII empty-headedness in this connection is the conscious and conscientious societal multiculturism often pursued by ethnic community sponsored "parochial" schools in the USA.14 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. The basic compartmentalization of societal funaions and the vital institutional protection of marked sociolinguistic and ethnocultural behaviours. too weak to attain their goals. while the former (Title VII) programmes are numerous and tragically destructive. Unfortunately. America is the poorer in each case but for quite opposite reasons.196. the latter (ethnic community "parochial") programmes are too few and. beliefs and values upon which stable societal biculturism (di-ethnia) crucially depends are not only unrecognized but would probably be anathema if they were recognized. .247. tragically.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 even when they least suspect.

pp. A. Arlington (Va. Cooper (ed.).196. Cooper (ed. Fishman). Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change. (in Press) Language maintenance and ethnicity. (1968) Amisk Society. Arlington (Va. New York. Rowley: Newbury House. edn. (1977) The Spread of English. (1980) Toward a general theory of language spread. 23 (2). (1967) Bilingualism with and without diglossia.247. Hostetler. . R. A. B. 89-103.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 15 Downloaded by [85.. McRae. Rubin. W.). 11. A. (1977a) Language. Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change. S. Ferguson. In R. Isabelle (in Press) The changing status of Russian in the Soviet Union.. The Hague: Mouton (Reprinted New York: Arno Press. Louvain: Peeters. et al. Demography. The Hague: Mouton. Kreindler. diglossia with and without bilingualism. 4 vols. M. A. 33-54. (1968) National Bilingualism in Paraguay. Georgetown University Roundlable on Languages and Linguistics. 24. 108-36. Muriel. L. Baltimore: John Hopkins (rev. (1975) The principle of territoriality and the principle of personality in multilingual states. Noble and J. Verdoodt and R. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Kjolseth (eds. (1980) Attracting a following to high culture functions for a language of everyday life. Saville-Troike. (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States. (1977b) The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of language mantenance and language shift. Word. In J. et al. Yiddish and Ivrit among ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel.) by S. 4. Rowley: Newbury House. pp. (1972) The Sociology of Language: A n Interdisciplinary Social Science Approach to the Study of Language in Society. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. W.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Bibliography Cooper. 1972. (1980) Loshn koydesh. L. Yivo. 325-40. C. Poll. Rosslyn: National Clearing house for Bilingual Education. R. 15.).): Center for Applied Linguistics. Andrew W. K. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 297-309.). A. R.). 1978). (1959) Diglossia. A. Fishman. Cooper. L. Fishman. Journal of Social Issues. 1973. Silver. Weinreich. pp. 29-38. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1976) Yiddish and Loshn koydesh in traditional Ashkenaz: the problem of societal allocation of macro-functions. (1974) Hutterite Society. Cooper. ethnicity and racism. The Spread of English. Joan. Fishman. 39-42. Language in Sociology. A. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Conrad. In R. L. (1974) The impact of urbanization and geographical dispersion on the linguistic Russification of Soviet nationalities. Baltimore: John Hopkins. L. J. (1980) History of the Yiddish Language (translated from the Yiddish original (Geshikhte fun der yidisher shprakh. Center for Applied Linguistics (provisional titles).). In A. Rowley: Newbury House. Conrad et al (eds. (1978) A Guide to Culture in the Classroom. J.

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