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Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as
societal phenomena
Joshua A. Fishman



Yeshiva University
Published online: 14 Sep 2010.

To cite this article: Joshua A. Fishman (1980) Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as societal phenomena, Journal
of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1:1, 3-15, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.1980.9993995
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some groups have. Kinds of Diglossia: Linguistic Relationships Following usage that has become widely accepted ever since Ferguson's seminal article of 1959.196. These desiderata are hard to attain and to retain — both ideologically and structurally — under "modern". interactive. Fishman Downloaded by [85. societal counterpart to individual biculturism.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Yeshiva University Abstract. Much of bilingual education unknowingly leads to transitional rather than stable accommodations in the areas of language and culture. particularly as these pertain to ethnic identity. intuitively or consciously.247. societal counterpart to individual bilingualism. Wealthy individuals can be found in both rich and poor societies. As such it is but one more example of the weak relationship obtaining between various individual social behaviours and their corresponding societal counterparts. Bilingualism and Diglossia The relationship between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia is far from being a necessary or causal one. mobile and individualistic urban industrial conditions. such that two "languages" each have their secure. This paper raises for consideration the corresponding problem of arrangements at the individual and societal levels in conjunction with the phenomenon of biculturism. Di-ethnia requires societal compartmentalization as well as institutionally protected functional specificity. Traditional individuals are recognizable within both modern and traditional societies.e. so di-ethnia is the stable. Thus diglossia differs from bilingualism in that it represents an enduring societal arrangement.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM as Individual and as Societal Phenomena* Joshua A. phenomenologically legitimate and widely implemented functions. displayed a talent for exactly such arrangements. either phenomenon can occur with or without the other (Fishman. i. Just as diglossia is the stable. H will be used to designate the superposed variety in a 3 . extending at least beyond a three generation period. 1967). However.

4 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. above. in conjunction with type (a). 1968). church. the two not being genetically related.g. Loshn koydesh (textual Hebrew/Aramaic) and Yiddish (Fishman. is no one's mother tongue) under the influence of one or another formal institution outside of the home (and. On the other hand. However. of course. etc. High German and Swiss German. i. Many developing nations hope to establish a type (c) pattern involving both a Western Language of Wider Communication and one or more .104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 diglossic society. L as vernacular. Here only significantly discrepant written/formalspoken and informal-spoken varieties will be admitted. Latin and French among francophone scholars and clergy in earlier centuries. the two being genetically related to each other. Cooper and Conrad.. we find various stable Arabic speech communities that have both Classical Arabic and English or French as H and a vernacular Arabic as L. such that without schooling the written/formal-spoken cannot even be understood (otherwise every dialect/standard situation in the world would qualify within this rubric).247. classical or classicized Greek (Katarevusa) and demotiki. government] is available).. classical and vernacular Arabic. is differentially accessible to the extent that entry to formal institutions of language/literacy learning [typically: school. (d) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular. several different kinds of linguistic relationships between H's and L's (the latter being the universally available and spoken [mother-}tongues and varieties of everyday life) will be recognized: (a) H as classical. For example. There are. classical and vernacular Sinhalese.g. Standard English and Caribbean Creole. Hasidim reveal a complex form of type (b) involving Loshn koydesh and English as H and Yiddish as L (and in Israel: Loshn koydesh and Ivrit as H and Yiddish as L (Fishman. the two being genetically related. various more complex cases within each of the above major clusters. 1976). one H commonly being utilized for ethnically encumbered or traditional H pursuits and the other for ethnically unencumbered or modern pursuits. The Old Order Amish also reveal a complex form of (a) involving High (Luther Bible) German and English as H and Pennsylvanian German as L. 1976) (or any one of the several dozen other non-semitic Jewish L's. departing from Ferguson's initial designation.g. therefore.g. e. e. e.196. Spanish and Gurani in Paraguay (Rubin. Thus there are several instances of dual H's in conjunction with a single L. (c) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular. 1980)). Pol. Sanscrit and Hindi. as long as the latter operate in vernacular functions rather than in traditional literacy related ones (Weinreich. standard spoken Pekinese (Putonghua) and Cantonese.e. 1980). classical and vernacular Tamil. 1980. English (or French) and various vernaculars in post-colonial areas throughout the world (Fishman. (b) H as classical. the two being genetically unrelated to each other. the variety that is learned later in socialization (and. L as vernacular. e. therefore. classical Mandarin and modern Pekinese.

these and others are all possible bases of rather rigid and stable compartmentalization in societal arrangements and. diglossia) was intended to discount the view that only in connection with classicals can such stability be maintained. whether in the language use repertoire or in the social behaviour repertoire outside of language use per se. we must be concerned with the co-occurrence patterns obtaining between societally compartmentalized and uncompartmentalized biculturism. about the possible relationships between societal ethnocultural . Classicals are a good example of diglossia situations. with which classicals are usually linked) but of a stress on social compartmentalization. of course. after all.. which.e. Note. indigenousness/foreignness. All of these factors — and the constantly increasing urbanization. so far. we find a national policy fostering English and Pilipino/Filipino as H's and. relatively little has been written. presumably. Stability via Compartmentalization of the Societal Allocation of Functions The above rapid review of a dozen or more instances of relatively stable and widespread societal bilingualism (i.196. therefore. become the dominant arena of human affairs). Thus. that in all these "more complex" cases an indigenous variety/language is available at both the H and the L level even if modern H functions are also shared with a language recently imported or imposed from without. 1972).247. traditionalism/modernism. The presence or absence of social compartmentalization in language-use in bilingual settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to bilingualism. above all. Similarly.e. in non-status-stressing interactions (even where status differences remain). Among the hallmarks of modernization. however. ultimately. in the allocation of languages (or language varieties) to such arrangements. ascribed social statification such as in caste distinctions. Sanctity/secularity. is an individual behavioural manifestation. Tagalog as an L. However.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 favoured standardized vernacular(s) as H's and the same (or even more) local vernaculars as L's. after all. There is much in modern life that militates against such compartmentalization. e. in the Philippines. as expounded by the great sociologists of the past two centuries. what they are an example of is not classicism per se (nor even of traditional religion. is the increase in open networks. in the rationalization of the work sphere (the sphere that has. in superficial "public familiarity" between strangers or semi-strangers. is also an individual behavioural manifestation. Thus. i. the presence or absence of social compartmentalization in ethnocultural behaviour in bicultural settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to biculturism. in fluid role relationships. which. but sociologically speaking. on the maintenance of strict boundaries between the societal functions associated with H and L respectively (Fishman. massification and mobility of which they are a part — tend to diminish compartmentalization. and. if we are concerned with the relationship between bilingualism and biculturism.g.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 5 Downloaded by [85.

Let us. The separate locations in which L and H are acquired immediately provide them with separate institutional supports.6 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT compartmentalization and individual biculturism. i. to cases of tri/ter.. etc. This is a societal arrangement in which individual bilingualism is not only widespread but institutionally buttressed.196. Types of diglossia-bilingualism relationships Both diglossia and bilingualism are continuous variables. therefore. L is acquired at home. that the H (or H's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) H contexts and the L (or L's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) L contexts. even when compartmentalization obtains. it is simpler to treat them both as if they were dichotomous variables. therefore. matters of degree rather than all-or-none phenomena. merely summarize our observations in this connection at this time. Both Diglossia and Bilingualism 3. (Obviously we are using bi/di as generics and intend that our comments with respea to them also apply to more complex cases as well.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Figure I The Relationships Between Bilingualism and Diglossia Diglossia Bilingualism + 1. and we will proceed to consider them one at a time. "Membership" in the culture requires that the various languages that are recognized as pertaining to such membership be implemented in culturally "correct" contexts.). Treated in this fashion there are four possible combinations between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia as Table 1 indicates. Let us. Bilingualism without Diglossia 4. Nevertheless. Downloaded by [85. quadri/tetra. above. and continues to be employed there throughout life while its use is extended also to . for purposes of initial conceptual clarity. as a mother-tongue. i.e. certainly little in comparison to the literature on the possible relationships between societal diglossia and individual bilingualism. Neither Diglossia nor Bilingualism (a) Bilingualism and Diglossia (cell 1) The occurrence of bilingualism and diglossia has already been discussed.e. Diglossia without Bilingualism — 2. first re-examine the latter literature and then apply its concepts and contexts to the former topic.247.

and the compartmentalization between them is sufficient for this arrangement not to suffer from "leakage" and from the resulting potential for language spread and shift.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 7 Downloaded by [85. and.. H.196. the USSR.247. regardless of whether this might be desirable in terms of short term population movements. remains undisturbed. of course. emotion and spontaneity-related) interactions. Given this fact we must recognize political or governmental diglossia whereby two or more differently monolingual entities are brought together under one political roof. the perceived ethnocultural legitimacy of two languages as "our own" (i. 1975). military and civil service elites) but various modern states may be so classified: Switzerland. and contrawise Lness does creep in to H interactions (particularly where access restrictions are minimal. each in accord with its own institutionally congruent behaviours and values. Not only were various empires of old characterized by diglossia without bilingualism (except for small commercial. . neither of them being considered foreign. The authority and the reward systems associated with these separate institutions are sufficient for both L and H to be required at least referentially (if not — due to possible access restrictions in the case of H — overtly) for membership in the culture. Thus. we note that in this great multilingual empire of old. on the other hand. The above picture is. religion.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 other familial and familiar (intimate. in addition. political arrangements may certainly be included under this rubric. It requires that we set aside our earlier mrra-societal notion of widespread bilingualism and extend it to the political recognition and institutional protection thereof on an mtersocietal basis. viz. affect-dominated. Belgium. and the normative functional complementarity of both languages. note. at least in terms of early Leninist idealism.e. the case of "Middle Arabic" and "Learned Yiddish". Nevertheless. is never learned at home and is never utilized to signal such interactions. one cannot publish a German newspaper in Geneva or an Italian one in Bern. Similarly. This is diglossia in accord with the territoriality principle (McRae. etc. at least somewhat idealized. higher/specialized work sphere. for example. even though one or the other might. H is related to and supported by other-than-home institutions: education. Similarly. in point of historical reality.. sent letters into all the King's provinces. but. the completely Yiddish phonology of Ashkenazi Loshn koydesh). (b) Diglossia without Bilingualism (cell 3) Since diglossia applies to societal arrangements. King Ahasuerus of old. and to every people after their language" (Esther 1:1 and 22). who "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia. into every province according to the writing thereof. government. Canada. nevertheless. There is full freedom of press in Switzerland. be such). phonological or grammatical respects) does creep into L interactions (particularly among the more educated strata of society). Hness (whether in lexical. Diglossic societies are marked not only by compartmentalization conventions but by varying degrees of access restriction.

However. the community. governmental and commercial presence which mediates between the absent masters and the local indigenous populations. with the exception of fleeting metaphorical usage (humour. long-term arrangements. In some instances indigenous languages are swamped out by intrusive ones (B—A=B) as in the case of many native American. aboriginal Australian and not a few non-Russian Soviet populations as well (Silver. These are characterized not only by language spread but also by language shift. sarcasm. situations and role-relations. Most forms of colonialism throughout the world (whether under capitalist or communist auspices) are. impacted and dislocated groups have been involved. in press). on the one hand.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 there was not only territorial diglossia at the governmental level (as between the various written languages for governmental use) but also societal diglossia between the one written and the several spoken languages of each province. 1974. In the American and Soviet contexts three generations or less have generally been sufficient for this process to run its course where sufficiently small. therefore. Kriendler. When substantial numbers of colonizers have settled in the erstwhile colonies and access to H is not restricted in so far as indigenous populations are concerned a transformation may ultimately take place to that of diglossia with bilingualism. As a result of the lack of successful compartmentalization both A and B compete for realization in the same domains. In other instances. Wherever an absent nobility controls a peasantry from afar by means of a small military. (c) Bilingualism without Diglossia (cell 2) Both diglossia with bilingualism and diglossia without bilingualism are relatively stable. since these are highly interpretable and judgemental dimensions {how stable does a socio/political arrangement have to be before we consider it long term?) let us once more agree to use a three generational rule of thumb in connection with them. immigrant languages have disappeared as their speakers have adopted the languages of their hosts (B—A=A).8 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. also instances of political/territorial diglossia without widespread demographicindigenous bilingualism. What both of these otherwise quite different contexts reveal in common is an absence of social compartmentalization such that the languages of hearth and home (of indigenous peoples. Since. etc. Large groups.247.) bilingual functional redundancy cannot be maintained intergenerationally and gives way to the stronger functional system. diglossia without bilingualism is in effect. on the other) can protect themselves from the greater reward and sanction system associated with the language of new institutions to which they are exposed and in which they are involved.196. the church. the language with stronger rewards and sanctions asspciated with it wins out. and of immigrants. groups strong enough to maintain or to fashion a reward system under their own control (whether in -the home. or elsewhere) may succeed in establish- . There are obviously innumerable bilingual situations around the world that do not last up to or beyond three generations.

Nevertheless. the functionally unbalanced nature of the bilingualism that obtains (both in terms of who becomes bilingual and who remains monolingual. Although it may. of course. are characterizable in this latter fashion without ever having gone through the former stage. however. to begin with. in so far as its indigenous Maoris are concerned. Normal foreign language instruction and tourism clearly lead neither to stable bilingualism nor to diglossia. Cuba. at times. religion) lead to different socially patterned varieties of talking (and even of writing) and different regional dialects may maintain themselves in a stable fashion even after former communications and interactional barriers are gone.e. In the latter connection. New Zealand.196. However. Downloaded by [85. many settings that have initially had numerous immigrants or linguistic minorities or both have translinguified (or exterminated) them to a very large degree.from establishment society — the flow process from language spread to language shift is an inexorable one. Different social experiences (in work. are examples of the "successful" implementation of policies of this kind. Spanish America. however. Yemen. and the power differentials/reward and sanction differentials of the remaining monolingual A and monolingual B domains) always leads displacively and replacively only in one direction. in so far as Irish speakers are concerned. Portugal and Norway have all experienced relatively little immigration within the past three generations and have few if any indigenous minorities. Israel and others. the Arab Moslem world. speech communities and even polities that may be characterized in this fashion.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 9 ing and maintaining the compartmentalization needed for diglossia. Without compartmentalization of one kind or another — at times attained by ideological/philosophical and even by a degree of physical withdrawal. Korea. What is the Ethnocultural Counterpart to Diglossia? We are now ready to broaden our discussion from a treatment of sociolinguistic parameters alone (bilingualism and diglossia) to one involving ethnocultural dimensions as well. Some settings. even if we hold to a definition of bilingualism as involving consensually separate "languages". we are faced by the lack of a terminological and conceptual distinction such as exists between . and Ireland. Even fewer of these can opt for a completely territorial solution implementing compartmentalization via secession or isolation. USA. require more than three generations for its inroads to be clearly discerned.247. no socially complex speech community is fully homogeneous linguistically. education. uncompartmentalized) bilingualismwithout-diglossia is neither bilingualism nor diglossia.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 (d) Neither bilingualism nor diglossia (cell 4) The outcome of uninterrupted (i. Strictly speaking. as are several indigenous and immigrant groups in the USSR. there are of course numerous speech networks.

values and beliefs are considered (by "insiders" or by "outsiders". defining. ethnic compartmentalization and linguistic compartmentalization are only weakly related to each other in any causal sense. Culture is a much broader designation than ethnicity. Saville-Troike (1978) has suggested the term dinomia (two sets of norms. to membership in a particular people and its defining tradition (Fishman. Thus. If what is of concern to us is the co-occurrence between bilingualism/diglossia and the enactments of single versus multiple norms and identities in the realm of ethnocultural behaviour. like diglossia. It focuses on "peopleness relatedness". as well as diglossia with and without bilingualism (cells 1 and 3) but we can also find . how one's house or furniture is built — these are distinctively peopleness related behaviours. that is: on those cultural behaviours. in a sense. However. It deals with norms pertaining to all of human behaviour. not only can we find bilingualism with and without diglossia (cells 1 and 2). Like bilingualism. require (as they do in the case of diglossia) repertoire compartmentalization. However. This is certainly a worthwhile suggestion.196.247. 1977a). and valuation.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 10 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT bilingualism and diglossia. implying. How one dresses. particularly in connection with modern complex societies. indeed. the kind of work one does.e. beliefs and values. what one eats. at times.e. what can we use to designate the societal pattern in the ethnocultural realm. into a residual corner of culture. but. ethnicity recedes into a smaller corner. At earlier stages of social development all of culture is ethnically defined and defining. Without such it is not intergenerationally maintained. paralleling our usage of bilingualism in the sociolinguistic realm. particularly in modern times. Ethnicity is a narrower concept. Even though cultures continue to coincide with broad ethnic designations. implying. defining. At later stages of social development many of the above behaviours (and many values and beliefs as well) have become ethnically neutralized because of their widespread ("international") currency. If we employ biculturism to designate the individual pattern in the ethnocultural realm. be they scholars or not) as ethnicity related. paralleling our usage of diglossia in the sociolinguistic realm? Most investigators use "bicultural" in both instances with considerable confusion and circumlocution as a result. Languagebehaviour (particularly mother-tongue use) is frequently considered to be ethnicity related. two cultures) for societally widespread biculturism. di-ethnia is a sociocultural pattern that is maintained by means of specific institutional arrangements. biculturism is an individual asset or debit that corresponds to no particular societal institutions or concerns. belief. values and beliefs that are related to "peopleness authenticity". The arrangements.Downloaded by [85. as we will see. because they are viewed as "authentic" and associated with discontinuity across ethnic boundaries and/or self-definitions. then we may find it useful to utilize bicultural for the individual manifestations in this realm but what are we to use for the societal counterpart thereto? It is in this connection that I would like to tentatively suggest the term di-ethnia. i. i. it is a bit too broad for our purposes. so that only a much smaller set of behaviours.

neither di-ethnia (societal biculturism) nor individual biculturism are involved in cases such as these. Only one peopleness is involved. that language shift and ethnocultural shift need not proceed apace. language shift for American immigrants has commonly proceeded more rapidly than has their re-ethnification (Fishman et ah. of course. but they are both accepted as indicative of the same ethnocultural membership: Paraguayan. Cell 3 also is inhospitable to di-ethnia. Neither passes the three generation test and the bilingualism they prompt is either ultimately lost. albeit different functions are fulfilled by each language and the two together constitute the whole. Certainly. just as the biculturism they prompt is ultimately either lost. in so far as their macrosocietal functions are concerned. 1966. The reason for this is that di-ethnia is a rarer phenomenon than diglossia and a far. as they do for speakers of a vernacular Arabic who read/write Koranic Classical Arabic. and. acculturation (and. as must be their language usage counterparts. indeed. The two languages are in complementary distribution. The same is true with respect to Geez and Amharic among Ethiopian Copts. Two sets of cultural behaviours and identities must be in complementary distribution and strongly compartmentalized. Thus. ethnicity maintenance (particularly at any creative level or in any central domain) requires strong institutional support. far rarer one than biculturism as well. as does language maintenance. Both languages are required for full membership in the Paraguayan people and for the implementation of complete Paraguayanness. Note. When diglossia is absent but bilingualism is present (cell 2) multiculturism may well be present but di-ethnia not. in cell 4. Paraguayans do not view Spanish and Guarani as pertaining to two different ethnocultural memberships. as well as (b) diethnia with and without either bilingualism or diglossia. as a result. if they are to constitute something more than transitional arrangements. integrated or transitioned into translinguification. 1978). This is the context of transitional bilingualism and transitional biculturism on the one hand. rendering the other culture inoperative (consensually unacceptable) in certain functions — or even rejecting the functions per se — if two ethnocultural systems are to operate side by side on a stable and widespread basis. integrated or transitioned into transethnification. Downloaded by [85. Nevertheless. multiculturism and di-ethnia do not form a four-fold table (a counter-balanced 2X2 table) as do bilingualism and diglossia.247. As we will note. It is just such complementarity and compartmentalization that this cell (cell 2) lacks.196.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Biculturism-Di-ethnia in various Bilingualism-Diglossia Contexts When bilingualism and diglossia obtain (cell 1 above) di-ethnia may yet be absent. assimilation) finally result. Since the diglossia encountered there . however. and of ordinary crosscultural contacts on the other hand.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 11 (a) multiculturism with and without di-ethnia.

1974). ultimately. on the other hand.247.e. Both groups maintain a pattern of bilingualism and diglossia (cell 1) for their own internal needs involving Luther German and Pennsylvania Dutch on the one hand. Most of modern life is inhospitable — whether ideologically or pragmatically — to compartmentalization between a people's behaviours and values. It is probably not accidental that the rural Old Order Amish and the urban Hasidim both accept another culture only in the econo-technical domain. societal biculturism does exist in part of cell 1. Nevertheless. The Old Order Amish and the Hasidim represent two patterns of di-ethnia on American shores. The "outside world" must be engaged to some unavoidable degree — and for such purposes the outside language must be learned — but this degree must be a limited one and. In both cases actualization of the "other culture" is restricted to economic pursuits and relationships and even in this domain. in necessary complementary distribution with it. once again. even it is rationalized as necessary for the maintenance and well being of the "inside world".196. indeed. but the purpose of our initial "go-round" has been attained if it has clarified the rarity of the phenomenon we are pursuing. professional translators) who have any need for being bilingual. compartmentalization is recognized as necessary so that the outside world will not intrude upon (spread into: Cooper. the weakening and overcoming of boundaries. limits are carefully observed. therefore. In addition. therefore. is both a goal and result of most modern behaviour and its emphasis on efficiency and reciprocity/solidarity in social behaviour. The "other culture" is viewed as necessary and the "own culture" is. . writing) so that they can engage in "the other culture" within carefully prescribed limits of kind and degree. but not for refrigeration of their own food or to power modern farm machinery (Hostetler. Downloaded by [85. 1968. and Loshn koydesh and Yiddish.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Stable Societal Biculturism: Some USA Examples We have made the rounds of our 2X2 table and have not encountered diethnia in any of its four cells. only a small class of middlemen (civil servants. Little wonder then that our examples of di-ethnia will derive primarily from nonmodern contexts. Actually. this being the most universalized and. both groups control their own schools wherein their children are taught to become proficient in English (speaking. stable. Fluidity across role and network boundaries and. the primary point of generalizable interest in connection with them is not so much the specific area in which their stable societal biculturism is expressed as the fact that it is stabilized by: (a) not integrating the two cultures involved but by keeping them separate. i. Electricity may be used for pasteurization (the latter being required by state law) among the Pennsylvania Dutch. commercial representatives. the least ethnically encumbered domain of modern society. in a state of tension vis-a-vis each other.12 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT is that based upon the territorially principle it is. and even most of them have no need for either biculturism or di-ethnia. reading.

Finally. even with the transethnification of Blacks and aborigines. diet and languages and do so not only for mrergroup interactions but for intragroup interactions within this arena as well. The Bicultural "Thrust" of Bilingual/Bilingual Education The term "bicultural" is often introduced quite innocently in connection with Title VII bilingual education in the USA.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 13 1980. stable societal bilingualism (diglossia) depends on institutionally protected functional sociolinguistic compartmentalization. implementing it selectively and in a particular domain so as to keep it in complementary distribution with their "own" H-governed and L-govemed domains. They are commonly condescending. if it is to be pursued seriously and societally. religion. displace/replace: Fishman. trivializing and peripheralizing in connection with the marked culture ("thingification" I have called it elsewhere) and Anglo-Americanizing . biculturism. therefore. education. Thus. they are transitional and transethnifying. Similar compartmentalization is encountered beyond the three generation cut-off among various segments of Japanese.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Does Di-ethnia Exist Elsewhere As Well? Di-ethnia is a relatively rare phenomenon — much rarer than its individual counterpart.e. English is specifically excluded from home use (where it would threaten their own L mother tongues) and from religious use (where it would threaten their own sacred H's).g. 1977b) the "inner world": and (b) not accepting or implementing "the other culture" in its entirety but. so no ethnocultural collectivity can maintain two cultures on a stable basis past three generations if they are both implemented in the same social functions (family. Downloaded by [85. Native American and nonRussophone Soviets. friendship.247. rather. diet and values dominate most of life but where modern econo-technical roles require different dress. Indeed. a deep-seated and often conflicted di-ethnia at times reveals itself. etc. and therefore. work. di-ethnia is still encountered at times even after language shift has eroded bilingualism and diglossia to the vanishing point. sports contests). It is found beyond the three generation cut-off in the Moslem world where traditional behaviours. is recognized. i.196. Chinese (Hong Kong. the arrangements entered into usually foster biculturism in the most dislocative sense.). and even more exceptionally. dress. unknowingly. Di-ethnia of a more marginal or peripheral kind is sometimes also found among stable populations living at long-established political borders and sharing market days and other limited collective experiences (e. Neither the institutional stability nor the functional compartmentalization of this phenomenon. stable societal multiculturism (di-ethnia) depends on institutionally protected ethnocultural compartmentalization. Singapore). Thus. just as no speech community can maintain two languages on a stable basis (past three generations) if they are both used in the same social functions and.

104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 even when they least suspect.247. while the former (Title VII) programmes are numerous and tragically destructive. the latter (ethnic community "parochial") programmes are too few and. America is the poorer in each case but for quite opposite reasons. The basic compartmentalization of societal funaions and the vital institutional protection of marked sociolinguistic and ethnocultural behaviours. too weak to attain their goals. beliefs and values upon which stable societal biculturism (di-ethnia) crucially depends are not only unrecognized but would probably be anathema if they were recognized.14 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85.196. In distinction to the destructive Title VII empty-headedness in this connection is the conscious and conscientious societal multiculturism often pursued by ethnic community sponsored "parochial" schools in the USA. . tragically. Unfortunately.

1978). pp. Yivo. A. 1972. Baltimore: John Hopkins (rev. Cooper (ed. Ferguson. Baltimore: John Hopkins. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. M.). Georgetown University Roundlable on Languages and Linguistics. Center for Applied Linguistics (provisional titles). (1977b) The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of language mantenance and language shift. diglossia with and without bilingualism. Muriel. Journal of Social Issues. J. pp.). Rubin. Arlington (Va. pp. Fishman. Isabelle (in Press) The changing status of Russian in the Soviet Union. Rowley: Newbury House. C. (1976) Yiddish and Loshn koydesh in traditional Ashkenaz: the problem of societal allocation of macro-functions. J. 33-54. Yiddish and Ivrit among ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel. L. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. (1972) The Sociology of Language: A n Interdisciplinary Social Science Approach to the Study of Language in Society. A. Joan. et al. The Spread of English. (1978) A Guide to Culture in the Classroom.). (1975) The principle of territoriality and the principle of personality in multilingual states. L. (1968) National Bilingualism in Paraguay. 1973. Language in Sociology. Fishman. A. Hostetler. Louvain: Peeters. (1959) Diglossia. 89-103.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 15 Downloaded by [85. Conrad. W. Rosslyn: National Clearing house for Bilingual Education. (1980) Attracting a following to high culture functions for a language of everyday life. A. Arlington (Va. L. Andrew W. Cooper. In R. Cooper.) by S. 11. R. (1977) The Spread of English. 24. (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States. Poll. Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change. R. L. R. 297-309. W. Fishman).).. Rowley: Newbury House. The Hague: Mouton (Reprinted New York: Arno Press. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 23 (2). Rowley: Newbury House. The Hague: Mouton. K. McRae. (1968) Amisk Society. Noble and J. Word. 15. A. (in Press) Language maintenance and ethnicity.196. Kjolseth (eds. et al. Saville-Troike. Kreindler. New York. S.). (1974) Hutterite Society. Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change. 39-42. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Verdoodt and R. L. Fishman. B. Demography. Weinreich. Conrad et al (eds.. 29-38. 4. . A. Cooper (ed. In J. (1980) Loshn koydesh.247.): Center for Applied Linguistics. In R. (1977a) Language. 4 vols. A. In A. (1980) Toward a general theory of language spread. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ethnicity and racism.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Bibliography Cooper. edn. Silver. (1974) The impact of urbanization and geographical dispersion on the linguistic Russification of Soviet nationalities. 325-40. (1980) History of the Yiddish Language (translated from the Yiddish original (Geshikhte fun der yidisher shprakh. 108-36.). (1967) Bilingualism with and without diglossia.

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