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Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as
societal phenomena
Joshua A. Fishman



Yeshiva University
Published online: 14 Sep 2010.

To cite this article: Joshua A. Fishman (1980) Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as societal phenomena, Journal
of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1:1, 3-15, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.1980.9993995
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Bilingualism and Diglossia The relationship between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia is far from being a necessary or causal one. Thus diglossia differs from bilingualism in that it represents an enduring societal arrangement. These desiderata are hard to attain and to retain — both ideologically and structurally — under "modern". so di-ethnia is the stable. Fishman Downloaded by [85.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Yeshiva University Abstract. 1967). Much of bilingual education unknowingly leads to transitional rather than stable accommodations in the areas of language and culture. such that two "languages" each have their secure. As such it is but one more example of the weak relationship obtaining between various individual social behaviours and their corresponding societal counterparts. societal counterpart to individual bilingualism. H will be used to designate the superposed variety in a 3 . Just as diglossia is the stable. particularly as these pertain to ethnic identity. interactive. Di-ethnia requires societal compartmentalization as well as institutionally protected functional specificity. However.e. Wealthy individuals can be found in both rich and poor societies.247. Kinds of Diglossia: Linguistic Relationships Following usage that has become widely accepted ever since Ferguson's seminal article of 1959. i.196. displayed a talent for exactly such arrangements. either phenomenon can occur with or without the other (Fishman. This paper raises for consideration the corresponding problem of arrangements at the individual and societal levels in conjunction with the phenomenon of biculturism. Traditional individuals are recognizable within both modern and traditional societies. extending at least beyond a three generation period. societal counterpart to individual biculturism. intuitively or consciously. some groups have.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM as Individual and as Societal Phenomena* Joshua A. phenomenologically legitimate and widely implemented functions. mobile and individualistic urban industrial conditions.

For example. classical and vernacular Sinhalese. (b) H as classical. the variety that is learned later in socialization (and.e.g. On the other hand. the two being genetically related to each other. (c) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular.247. Many developing nations hope to establish a type (c) pattern involving both a Western Language of Wider Communication and one or more . There are. classical Mandarin and modern Pekinese. classical or classicized Greek (Katarevusa) and demotiki. classical and vernacular Tamil. the two not being genetically related. High German and Swiss German. 1968).104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 diglossic society. 1980). above. e. The Old Order Amish also reveal a complex form of (a) involving High (Luther Bible) German and English as H and Pennsylvanian German as L. such that without schooling the written/formal-spoken cannot even be understood (otherwise every dialect/standard situation in the world would qualify within this rubric). Loshn koydesh (textual Hebrew/Aramaic) and Yiddish (Fishman. L as vernacular. Latin and French among francophone scholars and clergy in earlier centuries. therefore. 1976) (or any one of the several dozen other non-semitic Jewish L's. we find various stable Arabic speech communities that have both Classical Arabic and English or French as H and a vernacular Arabic as L. is differentially accessible to the extent that entry to formal institutions of language/literacy learning [typically: school. e. several different kinds of linguistic relationships between H's and L's (the latter being the universally available and spoken [mother-}tongues and varieties of everyday life) will be recognized: (a) H as classical. (d) H as written/formal-spoken and L as vernacular.4 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. i. the two being genetically unrelated to each other. is no one's mother tongue) under the influence of one or another formal institution outside of the home (and.g. standard spoken Pekinese (Putonghua) and Cantonese. various more complex cases within each of the above major clusters. However. of course.196. 1980)). departing from Ferguson's initial designation. e. in conjunction with type (a).. Standard English and Caribbean Creole. the two being genetically related. etc. church. Cooper and Conrad. government] is available).g. one H commonly being utilized for ethnically encumbered or traditional H pursuits and the other for ethnically unencumbered or modern pursuits. 1976). Hasidim reveal a complex form of type (b) involving Loshn koydesh and English as H and Yiddish as L (and in Israel: Loshn koydesh and Ivrit as H and Yiddish as L (Fishman. e.. Here only significantly discrepant written/formalspoken and informal-spoken varieties will be admitted. L as vernacular. as long as the latter operate in vernacular functions rather than in traditional literacy related ones (Weinreich. Pol. Sanscrit and Hindi. Thus there are several instances of dual H's in conjunction with a single L. classical and vernacular Arabic. Spanish and Gurani in Paraguay (Rubin. therefore. 1980. English (or French) and various vernaculars in post-colonial areas throughout the world (Fishman.g.

ultimately. these and others are all possible bases of rather rigid and stable compartmentalization in societal arrangements and. in the Philippines. but sociologically speaking. Thus. ascribed social statification such as in caste distinctions. in the rationalization of the work sphere (the sphere that has. therefore. whether in the language use repertoire or in the social behaviour repertoire outside of language use per se. All of these factors — and the constantly increasing urbanization. Classicals are a good example of diglossia situations. after all. so far. that in all these "more complex" cases an indigenous variety/language is available at both the H and the L level even if modern H functions are also shared with a language recently imported or imposed from without. after all.247. with which classicals are usually linked) but of a stress on social compartmentalization. Thus. However. in the allocation of languages (or language varieties) to such arrangements. which. Stability via Compartmentalization of the Societal Allocation of Functions The above rapid review of a dozen or more instances of relatively stable and widespread societal bilingualism (i. i. and. above all..104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 favoured standardized vernacular(s) as H's and the same (or even more) local vernaculars as L's. Among the hallmarks of modernization.g. e. presumably. the presence or absence of social compartmentalization in ethnocultural behaviour in bicultural settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to biculturism. indigenousness/foreignness. 1972).196. become the dominant arena of human affairs). if we are concerned with the relationship between bilingualism and biculturism. relatively little has been written. in superficial "public familiarity" between strangers or semi-strangers. traditionalism/modernism. is an individual behavioural manifestation.e. in non-status-stressing interactions (even where status differences remain). There is much in modern life that militates against such compartmentalization. Sanctity/secularity. about the possible relationships between societal ethnocultural . which. Similarly.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 5 Downloaded by [85. as expounded by the great sociologists of the past two centuries. we find a national policy fostering English and Pilipino/Filipino as H's and.e. massification and mobility of which they are a part — tend to diminish compartmentalization. diglossia) was intended to discount the view that only in connection with classicals can such stability be maintained. what they are an example of is not classicism per se (nor even of traditional religion. Tagalog as an L. on the maintenance of strict boundaries between the societal functions associated with H and L respectively (Fishman. The presence or absence of social compartmentalization in language-use in bilingual settings leads to very different societal arrangements with respect to bilingualism. we must be concerned with the co-occurrence patterns obtaining between societally compartmentalized and uncompartmentalized biculturism. in fluid role relationships. of course. is the increase in open networks. however. is also an individual behavioural manifestation. Note.

therefore. Let us. it is simpler to treat them both as if they were dichotomous variables. as a mother-tongue. (Obviously we are using bi/di as generics and intend that our comments with respea to them also apply to more complex cases as well.247.e. etc. Both Diglossia and Bilingualism 3. for purposes of initial conceptual clarity. Types of diglossia-bilingualism relationships Both diglossia and bilingualism are continuous variables. Let us. "Membership" in the culture requires that the various languages that are recognized as pertaining to such membership be implemented in culturally "correct" contexts. that the H (or H's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) H contexts and the L (or L's) be utilized in (the normatively appropriate) L contexts.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Figure I The Relationships Between Bilingualism and Diglossia Diglossia Bilingualism + 1. Downloaded by [85. L is acquired at home. to cases of tri/ter. Treated in this fashion there are four possible combinations between individual bilingualism and societal diglossia as Table 1 indicates. and continues to be employed there throughout life while its use is extended also to . above. even when compartmentalization obtains.e. i. quadri/tetra. The separate locations in which L and H are acquired immediately provide them with separate institutional supports. first re-examine the latter literature and then apply its concepts and contexts to the former topic.6 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT compartmentalization and individual biculturism. therefore. and we will proceed to consider them one at a time. Bilingualism without Diglossia 4.). i. merely summarize our observations in this connection at this time. Nevertheless.. certainly little in comparison to the literature on the possible relationships between societal diglossia and individual bilingualism. This is a societal arrangement in which individual bilingualism is not only widespread but institutionally buttressed. matters of degree rather than all-or-none phenomena. Neither Diglossia nor Bilingualism (a) Bilingualism and Diglossia (cell 1) The occurrence of bilingualism and diglossia has already been discussed.196. Diglossia without Bilingualism — 2.

neither of them being considered foreign. emotion and spontaneity-related) interactions. Similarly. the completely Yiddish phonology of Ashkenazi Loshn koydesh). viz. each in accord with its own institutionally congruent behaviours and values.. for example. There is full freedom of press in Switzerland. at least in terms of early Leninist idealism. sent letters into all the King's provinces. The above picture is. Diglossic societies are marked not only by compartmentalization conventions but by varying degrees of access restriction. King Ahasuerus of old. is never learned at home and is never utilized to signal such interactions. higher/specialized work sphere. note. the USSR. It requires that we set aside our earlier mrra-societal notion of widespread bilingualism and extend it to the political recognition and institutional protection thereof on an mtersocietal basis.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 7 Downloaded by [85. and. into every province according to the writing thereof. 1975).196. Hness (whether in lexical. in addition. Nevertheless. of course. in point of historical reality. government. we note that in this great multilingual empire of old. but. nevertheless. (b) Diglossia without Bilingualism (cell 3) Since diglossia applies to societal arrangements. and contrawise Lness does creep in to H interactions (particularly where access restrictions are minimal. and the compartmentalization between them is sufficient for this arrangement not to suffer from "leakage" and from the resulting potential for language spread and shift. Not only were various empires of old characterized by diglossia without bilingualism (except for small commercial. The authority and the reward systems associated with these separate institutions are sufficient for both L and H to be required at least referentially (if not — due to possible access restrictions in the case of H — overtly) for membership in the culture. This is diglossia in accord with the territoriality principle (McRae. Thus. Given this fact we must recognize political or governmental diglossia whereby two or more differently monolingual entities are brought together under one political roof. the case of "Middle Arabic" and "Learned Yiddish". phonological or grammatical respects) does creep into L interactions (particularly among the more educated strata of society). who "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia. political arrangements may certainly be included under this rubric. Canada. on the other hand. H. even though one or the other might. Similarly. military and civil service elites) but various modern states may be so classified: Switzerland.247.e. the perceived ethnocultural legitimacy of two languages as "our own" (i. remains undisturbed.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 other familial and familiar (intimate. etc. . one cannot publish a German newspaper in Geneva or an Italian one in Bern. and to every people after their language" (Esther 1:1 and 22). religion. regardless of whether this might be desirable in terms of short term population movements.. be such). affect-dominated. at least somewhat idealized. H is related to and supported by other-than-home institutions: education. Belgium. and the normative functional complementarity of both languages.

247. groups strong enough to maintain or to fashion a reward system under their own control (whether in -the home. immigrant languages have disappeared as their speakers have adopted the languages of their hosts (B—A=A). in press). situations and role-relations. impacted and dislocated groups have been involved. the community. Large groups. In other instances.196. These are characterized not only by language spread but also by language shift.) bilingual functional redundancy cannot be maintained intergenerationally and gives way to the stronger functional system. governmental and commercial presence which mediates between the absent masters and the local indigenous populations. In the American and Soviet contexts three generations or less have generally been sufficient for this process to run its course where sufficiently small. also instances of political/territorial diglossia without widespread demographicindigenous bilingualism. or elsewhere) may succeed in establish- . Most forms of colonialism throughout the world (whether under capitalist or communist auspices) are.8 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. diglossia without bilingualism is in effect. therefore. on the other) can protect themselves from the greater reward and sanction system associated with the language of new institutions to which they are exposed and in which they are involved. Wherever an absent nobility controls a peasantry from afar by means of a small military. long-term arrangements. etc. and of immigrants. As a result of the lack of successful compartmentalization both A and B compete for realization in the same domains. the language with stronger rewards and sanctions asspciated with it wins out. on the one hand. since these are highly interpretable and judgemental dimensions {how stable does a socio/political arrangement have to be before we consider it long term?) let us once more agree to use a three generational rule of thumb in connection with them. the church. In some instances indigenous languages are swamped out by intrusive ones (B—A=B) as in the case of many native American. What both of these otherwise quite different contexts reveal in common is an absence of social compartmentalization such that the languages of hearth and home (of indigenous peoples. There are obviously innumerable bilingual situations around the world that do not last up to or beyond three generations. 1974. Kriendler. Since. (c) Bilingualism without Diglossia (cell 2) Both diglossia with bilingualism and diglossia without bilingualism are relatively stable. with the exception of fleeting metaphorical usage (humour. sarcasm. However. When substantial numbers of colonizers have settled in the erstwhile colonies and access to H is not restricted in so far as indigenous populations are concerned a transformation may ultimately take place to that of diglossia with bilingualism. aboriginal Australian and not a few non-Russian Soviet populations as well (Silver.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 there was not only territorial diglossia at the governmental level (as between the various written languages for governmental use) but also societal diglossia between the one written and the several spoken languages of each province.

are examples of the "successful" implementation of policies of this kind. however. are characterizable in this latter fashion without ever having gone through the former stage. However. speech communities and even polities that may be characterized in this fashion. in so far as Irish speakers are concerned. the functionally unbalanced nature of the bilingualism that obtains (both in terms of who becomes bilingual and who remains monolingual. Even fewer of these can opt for a completely territorial solution implementing compartmentalization via secession or isolation. as are several indigenous and immigrant groups in the USSR. Portugal and Norway have all experienced relatively little immigration within the past three generations and have few if any indigenous minorities.from establishment society — the flow process from language spread to language shift is an inexorable one. and the power differentials/reward and sanction differentials of the remaining monolingual A and monolingual B domains) always leads displacively and replacively only in one direction. Yemen. uncompartmentalized) bilingualismwithout-diglossia is neither bilingualism nor diglossia. Spanish America. Different social experiences (in work. Strictly speaking. no socially complex speech community is fully homogeneous linguistically. Some settings. Cuba.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 9 ing and maintaining the compartmentalization needed for diglossia. in so far as its indigenous Maoris are concerned. Israel and others. education. we are faced by the lack of a terminological and conceptual distinction such as exists between .247. to begin with. however.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 (d) Neither bilingualism nor diglossia (cell 4) The outcome of uninterrupted (i. many settings that have initially had numerous immigrants or linguistic minorities or both have translinguified (or exterminated) them to a very large degree.e. there are of course numerous speech networks.196. What is the Ethnocultural Counterpart to Diglossia? We are now ready to broaden our discussion from a treatment of sociolinguistic parameters alone (bilingualism and diglossia) to one involving ethnocultural dimensions as well. Korea. and Ireland. Normal foreign language instruction and tourism clearly lead neither to stable bilingualism nor to diglossia. require more than three generations for its inroads to be clearly discerned. Nevertheless. USA. the Arab Moslem world. In the latter connection. of course. Downloaded by [85. Although it may. New Zealand. at times. Without compartmentalization of one kind or another — at times attained by ideological/philosophical and even by a degree of physical withdrawal. religion) lead to different socially patterned varieties of talking (and even of writing) and different regional dialects may maintain themselves in a stable fashion even after former communications and interactional barriers are gone. even if we hold to a definition of bilingualism as involving consensually separate "languages".

At earlier stages of social development all of culture is ethnically defined and defining. belief. because they are viewed as "authentic" and associated with discontinuity across ethnic boundaries and/or self-definitions. Saville-Troike (1978) has suggested the term dinomia (two sets of norms. what one eats. values and beliefs that are related to "peopleness authenticity". that is: on those cultural behaviours. At later stages of social development many of the above behaviours (and many values and beliefs as well) have become ethnically neutralized because of their widespread ("international") currency. However. Languagebehaviour (particularly mother-tongue use) is frequently considered to be ethnicity related. at times. It deals with norms pertaining to all of human behaviour. Ethnicity is a narrower concept. particularly in modern times. then we may find it useful to utilize bicultural for the individual manifestations in this realm but what are we to use for the societal counterpart thereto? It is in this connection that I would like to tentatively suggest the term di-ethnia. how one's house or furniture is built — these are distinctively peopleness related behaviours. be they scholars or not) as ethnicity related. into a residual corner of culture. However.Downloaded by [85. paralleling our usage of diglossia in the sociolinguistic realm? Most investigators use "bicultural" in both instances with considerable confusion and circumlocution as a result. paralleling our usage of bilingualism in the sociolinguistic realm. Culture is a much broader designation than ethnicity. If what is of concern to us is the co-occurrence between bilingualism/diglossia and the enactments of single versus multiple norms and identities in the realm of ethnocultural behaviour. and valuation. it is a bit too broad for our purposes. the kind of work one does.e. to membership in a particular people and its defining tradition (Fishman. This is certainly a worthwhile suggestion.e. defining. two cultures) for societally widespread biculturism. in a sense. i. beliefs and values. not only can we find bilingualism with and without diglossia (cells 1 and 2). biculturism is an individual asset or debit that corresponds to no particular societal institutions or concerns. If we employ biculturism to designate the individual pattern in the ethnocultural realm. It focuses on "peopleness relatedness". di-ethnia is a sociocultural pattern that is maintained by means of specific institutional arrangements. so that only a much smaller set of behaviours. like diglossia. Even though cultures continue to coincide with broad ethnic designations.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 10 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT bilingualism and diglossia. ethnicity recedes into a smaller corner. The arrangements.196. 1977a). defining. as well as diglossia with and without bilingualism (cells 1 and 3) but we can also find .247. ethnic compartmentalization and linguistic compartmentalization are only weakly related to each other in any causal sense. implying. require (as they do in the case of diglossia) repertoire compartmentalization. as we will see. Thus. what can we use to designate the societal pattern in the ethnocultural realm. but. values and beliefs are considered (by "insiders" or by "outsiders". particularly in connection with modern complex societies. i. Like bilingualism. How one dresses. Without such it is not intergenerationally maintained. indeed. implying.

acculturation (and. and. Thus.247. indeed. Only one peopleness is involved. as they do for speakers of a vernacular Arabic who read/write Koranic Classical Arabic. rendering the other culture inoperative (consensually unacceptable) in certain functions — or even rejecting the functions per se — if two ethnocultural systems are to operate side by side on a stable and widespread basis. It is just such complementarity and compartmentalization that this cell (cell 2) lacks. Paraguayans do not view Spanish and Guarani as pertaining to two different ethnocultural memberships. however. far rarer one than biculturism as well. of course. in so far as their macrosocietal functions are concerned. albeit different functions are fulfilled by each language and the two together constitute the whole. neither di-ethnia (societal biculturism) nor individual biculturism are involved in cases such as these. that language shift and ethnocultural shift need not proceed apace. as does language maintenance. integrated or transitioned into translinguification. in cell 4. integrated or transitioned into transethnification. assimilation) finally result. ethnicity maintenance (particularly at any creative level or in any central domain) requires strong institutional support. Since the diglossia encountered there . As we will note. The same is true with respect to Geez and Amharic among Ethiopian Copts. Note. Neither passes the three generation test and the bilingualism they prompt is either ultimately lost. The reason for this is that di-ethnia is a rarer phenomenon than diglossia and a far. 1966. as must be their language usage counterparts. Downloaded by [85. 1978). Cell 3 also is inhospitable to di-ethnia.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 11 (a) multiculturism with and without di-ethnia. and of ordinary crosscultural contacts on the other hand. multiculturism and di-ethnia do not form a four-fold table (a counter-balanced 2X2 table) as do bilingualism and diglossia.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Biculturism-Di-ethnia in various Bilingualism-Diglossia Contexts When bilingualism and diglossia obtain (cell 1 above) di-ethnia may yet be absent. language shift for American immigrants has commonly proceeded more rapidly than has their re-ethnification (Fishman et ah. as well as (b) diethnia with and without either bilingualism or diglossia. Both languages are required for full membership in the Paraguayan people and for the implementation of complete Paraguayanness.196. Certainly. if they are to constitute something more than transitional arrangements. The two languages are in complementary distribution. but they are both accepted as indicative of the same ethnocultural membership: Paraguayan. This is the context of transitional bilingualism and transitional biculturism on the one hand. Two sets of cultural behaviours and identities must be in complementary distribution and strongly compartmentalized. When diglossia is absent but bilingualism is present (cell 2) multiculturism may well be present but di-ethnia not. just as the biculturism they prompt is ultimately either lost. as a result. Nevertheless.

writing) so that they can engage in "the other culture" within carefully prescribed limits of kind and degree. therefore. the least ethnically encumbered domain of modern society. the primary point of generalizable interest in connection with them is not so much the specific area in which their stable societal biculturism is expressed as the fact that it is stabilized by: (a) not integrating the two cultures involved but by keeping them separate. stable. compartmentalization is recognized as necessary so that the outside world will not intrude upon (spread into: Cooper. In addition. the weakening and overcoming of boundaries. The Old Order Amish and the Hasidim represent two patterns of di-ethnia on American shores. .104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Stable Societal Biculturism: Some USA Examples We have made the rounds of our 2X2 table and have not encountered diethnia in any of its four cells. Most of modern life is inhospitable — whether ideologically or pragmatically — to compartmentalization between a people's behaviours and values. Little wonder then that our examples of di-ethnia will derive primarily from nonmodern contexts. only a small class of middlemen (civil servants. Both groups maintain a pattern of bilingualism and diglossia (cell 1) for their own internal needs involving Luther German and Pennsylvania Dutch on the one hand.247. The "outside world" must be engaged to some unavoidable degree — and for such purposes the outside language must be learned — but this degree must be a limited one and. The "other culture" is viewed as necessary and the "own culture" is. Downloaded by [85.196.e. therefore. commercial representatives. Actually. but the purpose of our initial "go-round" has been attained if it has clarified the rarity of the phenomenon we are pursuing. and Loshn koydesh and Yiddish. and even most of them have no need for either biculturism or di-ethnia. both groups control their own schools wherein their children are taught to become proficient in English (speaking. 1968. reading. is both a goal and result of most modern behaviour and its emphasis on efficiency and reciprocity/solidarity in social behaviour. on the other hand. limits are carefully observed. this being the most universalized and.12 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT is that based upon the territorially principle it is. Nevertheless.1974). in a state of tension vis-a-vis each other. in necessary complementary distribution with it. It is probably not accidental that the rural Old Order Amish and the urban Hasidim both accept another culture only in the econo-technical domain. professional translators) who have any need for being bilingual. but not for refrigeration of their own food or to power modern farm machinery (Hostetler. once again. societal biculturism does exist in part of cell 1. i. indeed. In both cases actualization of the "other culture" is restricted to economic pursuits and relationships and even in this domain. ultimately. Electricity may be used for pasteurization (the latter being required by state law) among the Pennsylvania Dutch. Fluidity across role and network boundaries and. even it is rationalized as necessary for the maintenance and well being of the "inside world".

therefore. even with the transethnification of Blacks and aborigines. diet and values dominate most of life but where modern econo-technical roles require different dress. sports contests). 1977b) the "inner world": and (b) not accepting or implementing "the other culture" in its entirety but. Downloaded by [85.). di-ethnia is still encountered at times even after language shift has eroded bilingualism and diglossia to the vanishing point. i. unknowingly. It is found beyond the three generation cut-off in the Moslem world where traditional behaviours. and therefore. stable societal bilingualism (diglossia) depends on institutionally protected functional sociolinguistic compartmentalization. a deep-seated and often conflicted di-ethnia at times reveals itself. diet and languages and do so not only for mrergroup interactions but for intragroup interactions within this arena as well. biculturism. friendship. Di-ethnia of a more marginal or peripheral kind is sometimes also found among stable populations living at long-established political borders and sharing market days and other limited collective experiences (e.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Does Di-ethnia Exist Elsewhere As Well? Di-ethnia is a relatively rare phenomenon — much rarer than its individual counterpart. Similar compartmentalization is encountered beyond the three generation cut-off among various segments of Japanese. Thus.g. work. if it is to be pursued seriously and societally. Chinese (Hong Kong. just as no speech community can maintain two languages on a stable basis (past three generations) if they are both used in the same social functions and. Thus.247. so no ethnocultural collectivity can maintain two cultures on a stable basis past three generations if they are both implemented in the same social functions (family. Finally. displace/replace: Fishman. stable societal multiculturism (di-ethnia) depends on institutionally protected ethnocultural compartmentalization. they are transitional and transethnifying.e. etc. English is specifically excluded from home use (where it would threaten their own L mother tongues) and from religious use (where it would threaten their own sacred H's). Singapore). is recognized. trivializing and peripheralizing in connection with the marked culture ("thingification" I have called it elsewhere) and Anglo-Americanizing . dress. religion.196. and even more exceptionally. the arrangements entered into usually foster biculturism in the most dislocative sense. rather. Indeed. education. The Bicultural "Thrust" of Bilingual/Bilingual Education The term "bicultural" is often introduced quite innocently in connection with Title VII bilingual education in the USA. They are commonly condescending. Native American and nonRussophone Soviets.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 13 1980. Neither the institutional stability nor the functional compartmentalization of this phenomenon. implementing it selectively and in a particular domain so as to keep it in complementary distribution with their "own" H-governed and L-govemed domains.

. too weak to attain their goals.247. tragically.14 MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Downloaded by [85. In distinction to the destructive Title VII empty-headedness in this connection is the conscious and conscientious societal multiculturism often pursued by ethnic community sponsored "parochial" schools in the USA. beliefs and values upon which stable societal biculturism (di-ethnia) crucially depends are not only unrecognized but would probably be anathema if they were recognized. The basic compartmentalization of societal funaions and the vital institutional protection of marked sociolinguistic and ethnocultural behaviours. the latter (ethnic community "parochial") programmes are too few and.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 even when they least suspect. America is the poorer in each case but for quite opposite reasons. while the former (Title VII) programmes are numerous and tragically destructive. Unfortunately.196.

1972. In J. A. (1977a) Language. et al. Kjolseth (eds. Ferguson. (1980) History of the Yiddish Language (translated from the Yiddish original (Geshikhte fun der yidisher shprakh. L.BILINGUALISM AND BICULTURISM 15 Downloaded by [85. New York.). (1972) The Sociology of Language: A n Interdisciplinary Social Science Approach to the Study of Language in Society. 29-38. (1974) Hutterite Society.) by S. Saville-Troike. Noble and J. K. Arlington (Va. Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change.). L. W. 24. R. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Silver. 33-54. The Hague: Mouton (Reprinted New York: Arno Press. In R. Word. C. A. 39-42. 1978).). . Rowley: Newbury House.). Andrew W. Poll. Journal of Social Issues. Rubin. 297-309. Yivo. 1973. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Joan. W. diglossia with and without bilingualism. L. 89-103.): Center for Applied Linguistics. 4. (1967) Bilingualism with and without diglossia. Conrad. (1959) Diglossia. Fishman. Rosslyn: National Clearing house for Bilingual Education. (1968) National Bilingualism in Paraguay. Fishman. (1974) The impact of urbanization and geographical dispersion on the linguistic Russification of Soviet nationalities. A.196. pp. Language in Sociology.104] at 05:09 24 July 2015 Bibliography Cooper. Baltimore: John Hopkins (rev. Fishman. 23 (2). Cooper (ed. The Hague: Mouton. Rowley: Newbury House. Baltimore: John Hopkins. A. Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change. Isabelle (in Press) The changing status of Russian in the Soviet Union. Center for Applied Linguistics (provisional titles). Arlington (Va. (1977) The Spread of English. B. ethnicity and racism. (1968) Amisk Society. 108-36. pp. (1980) Loshn koydesh. In A. Verdoodt and R. S. 15. Fishman). J. McRae. M. Weinreich. (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States. L. Kreindler. Louvain: Peeters. R. (1977b) The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of language mantenance and language shift. (in Press) Language maintenance and ethnicity. Cooper (ed. (1978) A Guide to Culture in the Classroom.). (1975) The principle of territoriality and the principle of personality in multilingual states.. Cooper. (1980) Toward a general theory of language spread. 4 vols. L. Demography.). 325-40. The Spread of English. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. pp. Muriel. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. A.247. A. et al. Cooper. 11. Georgetown University Roundlable on Languages and Linguistics. (1976) Yiddish and Loshn koydesh in traditional Ashkenaz: the problem of societal allocation of macro-functions. In R. R. Hostetler. Yiddish and Ivrit among ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel. A. Conrad et al (eds. (1980) Attracting a following to high culture functions for a language of everyday life.. Rowley: Newbury House. J.

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