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The Three-Tier Security Scheme in Wireless

Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks

Recent developments on Wireless sensor networks have made their
application used in a wide range of applications, such as, military sensing
and tracking, health monitoring. Wireless sensor nodes have restricted
computational resources, and are always deployed in a harsh, unattended or
hostile environment. Therefore, network security represents a challenging
task. This work presents a public-key based pre-distribution scheme with
time-position nodes for simultaneous exchange of secure keys. In this paper,
we proposed a general three-tier security framework for authentication and
pair wise key establishment between mobile sinks and sensor nodes. The
proposed defend attack and key management mechanism for sensor network
applications can successfully handle sink mobility and can continually
deliver data to neighboring nodes and sinks. Simulation results indicate that
the proposed mechanism can reduce energy consumption and extend the
average network lifetime by about 25%.


The Existing Systems used various techniques such as:
o Asymmetric key technique for the key exchange technique.
o Probabilistic key predistribution scheme
o Two key predistribution schemes
Although the above security approach makes the network more
resilient to mobile sink replication attacks compared to the single
polynomial pool-based key predistribution scheme, it is still
vulnerable to stationary access node replication attacks. In these types
of attacks, the attacker is able to launch a replication attack similar to
the mobile sink replication attack. After a fraction of sensor nodes
have been compromised by an adversary, captured static polynomials
can be loaded into a replicated stationary access node that transmits

the recorded mobile sinks data request messages to trigger sensor

nodes to send their aggregated data.
The problem of existing key establishment in sensor networks with
MSs is still not solved in the face of mobile sink replication attacks.

Disadvantages of Existing System:

For the basic probabilistic and q-composite key pre-distribution schemes, an
attacker can easily obtain a large number of keys by capturing a small
fraction of the network sensor nodes, making it possible for the attacker to
take control of the entire network by deploying a replicated mobile sink,
preloaded with some compromised keys to authenticate and then initiate data
communication with any sensor node.

To address the above-mentioned problem, we have developed a general
framework that permits the use of any pairwise key predistribution scheme
as its basic component, to provide authentication and pairwise key
establishment between sensor nodes and MSs.
To facilitate the study of a new security technique, we first cultivated a
general three-tier security framework for authentication and pairwise key
establishment, based on the polynomial pool-based key predistribution

To make the three-tier security scheme more robust against a stationary

access node replication attack, we have strengthened the authentication
mechanism between the stationary access nodes and sensor nodes using oneway hash chains algorithm in conjunction with the static polynomial poolbased scheme. Our analytical results indicate that the new security technique
makes the network more resilient to both mobile sink replication attacks and
stationary access nodes replication attacks compared to the single
polynomial pool-based approach.

Advantages of Proposed System:

The proposed technique will substantially improve network resilience to
mobile sink replication attacks compared to the single polynomial poolbased key pre distribution approach, as an attacker would have to
compromise many more sensor nodes to launch a successful mobile sink
replication attack.

Sensor Module
Access Point Module
Mobile Sink Module
Pair-wise Key Establishment Scheme Module
Key Distribution scheme Module

Sensor Module
We know that Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are sensing, computing
and communication infrastructure that are able to observe and respond to
phenomena in the natural environment and in our physical and cyber
infrastructure. The sensors themselves can range from small passive micro
sensors to larger scale, controllable weather-sensing platforms.

Access Point Module

In this module first we develop the access point module. In WSN, these
access point module acts as an intermediate between the sensor node and
sink node.
Mobile Sink Module
In this module first we develop the Mobile Sink Module, where the data are
to be delivered or reached as destination.

Pair-wise Key Establishment Scheme

A hybrid cryptosystem can be constructed using any two separate

A key encapsulation scheme, which is a public-key cryptosystem,


A data encapsulation scheme, which is a symmetric-key


To encrypt a message addressed to Alice in a hybrid cryptosystem, Bob does

the following:
1. Obtains Alice's public key.
2. Generates a fresh symmetric key for the data encapsulation scheme.
3. Encrypts the message under the data encapsulation scheme, using the
symmetric key just generated.
4. Encrypt the symmetric key under the key encapsulation scheme, using
Alice's public key.
5. Send both of these encryptions to Alice.
To decrypt this hybrid ciphertext, Alice does the following:
1. Uses her private key to decrypt the symmetric key contained in the
key encapsulation segment.
2. Uses this symmetric key to decrypt the message contained in the data
encapsulation segment.

Key Distribution scheme Module

This protocol uses two separate key management schemes; one for
group-wide and individual keys and another for sub-network key

The group-wide key is used for non-critical broadcast messages


Nodes. The individual keys are used for secure

communication between nodes creating a subnetwork and setting up a

subnetwork key. The second key management scheme is creating and
distributing the keys for the dynamically created subnetworks.
Securely distributing the keys for the subnetworks created by events
within the sensor network is a non-trivial problem since the
subnetworks may contain any arbitrary set of neighboring nodes.
These nodes all must have a mechanism to securely communicate
with each other to distribute the subnetwork key to all the subnetwork

System Requirements:
Hardware Requirements:

: Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.

Hard Disk

: 40 GB.

Floppy Drive

: 1.44 Mb.


: 15 VGA Colour.


: Logitech.


: 512 Mb.

Software Requirements:
Operating system : Windows XP.
Coding Language : Java

: J2SE


: Netbeans 7.0

Front End

: Swings

Amar Rasheed, Student Member, IEEE, and Rabi N. Mahapatra, Senior
Member, The Three-Tier Security Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks