Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Technological and Higher Education Institute

of Hong Kong
Faculty of Science and Technology

Individual Assignment Report 1


Sustainable Development of To
Kwa Wan, Kowloon
SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure
Design

Name of Authors: WONG Yu Hin


Student Number: 120505503
Group 1B
Date of Submission: 10/2015
Project Advisor: Dr. Wan

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 2
Scope of Works ...................................................................................................... 3
Aims ....................................................................................................................... 3
Objectives .............................................................................................................. 3
Background Information of To Kwa Wan ...................................................................... 4
Site Conditions ....................................................................................................... 4
Geotechnical condition .......................................................................................... 5
Project need ............................................................................................................ 5
Performance requirements ..................................................................................... 5
Design Schemes - Upgrade the existing pedestrian infrastructures ............................... 6
Impact of design options ................................................................................................ 7
Primary Impact Harming the existing structures ................................................ 7
Secondary Impact Environmental impact ........................................................... 9
Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 10
Appendix ...................................................................................................................... 11
Attachment 1 Reference .................................................................................... 11
Online resource .................................................................................................... 11
Literature resources .............................................................................................. 11
Attachment 2 - Management Action Plan ............................................................ 12

1|Pa ge

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

Introduction
Shatin to Central Link (SCL) is one of the most important infrastructure of Hong Kong
in recent decade. To Kwa Wan area selected to construct two stations for this major
project. However, To Kwa Wan faces urban decay. This poor and complicated
developed area provides poor life quality to the local residents. SCL provides a chance
of starting the renewal plan of the locate residents and other stakeholders. After SCL
operated, To Kwa Wan Station and Ma Tau Wai Station will link up To Kwa Wan
community with the whole railway network and it would become an important part of
the interchange for the passengers to Kai Tak area, Kowloon city and Hong Hom.
Thousands of people will travel to To Kwa Wan every day in the future. In addition,
due to the redevelopment plan of To Kwa Wan, the population will increase from
120,267 to around 149,199 in 2065. For the sake of facing the new impacts from SCL
and the increasing number of residents, the current pedestrian infrastructures must
renew and reorganized in order to provide sufficient adaptability.

Figure 1: The outline zoning plan of To Kwa Wan


2|Pa ge

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Scope of Works
In this project, the sustainable redevelopment plan of the pedestrian infrastructures and
connectivity of the SCL is included. The focus is about how to improve the pedestrians
environment and quality. The details of the redevelopment of the buildings or other
infrastructures are not included.

Aims
This project aims to provide advice and recommendation for how to improve the current
pedestrian environment for To Kwa Wan that influenced by the To Kwa Wan Stations
and Ma Tau Wai Station in order to provide sustainable services for the stakeholders.
In addition, enhancing the connectivity of the pedestrian road highlights the historic
elements and improving the living quality and the environment of the local residents
are other the three important elements of this project wants to achieve.

Objectives
I.

To remedy the travel congestion by combining the grade-separated infrastructure


and footpath.

II.

To provide safe and convenient pedestrian crossing facilities.

III. To weave and connect the To Kwa Wan Station and the surrounded trip attractions
efficiently.
IV. To review and provide possible improvements for the current pedestrian
environment.
V.

To highlight the unique culture and history of To Kwa Wan.

3|Pa ge

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

Background Information of To Kwa Wan


Site Conditions
Some area of To Kwa Wan is undergoing SCL and the Central Kowloon Route
constructions at the same time. There are numbers of excavation work is expected in
the surrounding area spontaneously. When the contractors started the construction stage
of the pedestrian infrastructures, they require coordinating with different site managers
to coordinate the heavy goods vehicles pass through the site area.

For the residents, To Kwa Wan is an aging area. During the design stage, the contractors
have to consider how to protect and reduce the inconvenience for the elderly, especially
for the emergency vehicles. In addition, To Kwa Wan has three existing major highways
now. When the construction is nearby those areas, diversion of traffic should planned
in order to reduce the effect to a minimum. Due to the high building density of To Kwa
Wan, there only can provide limited space for site formation. The site is comparatively
small that not convenient for using the precast structure.

There are numbers of the old shophouses surrounded the whole To Kwa Wan, most of
them are using footing which is relatively easy to be affected by the nearby excavation
work.

Photo 1: Sea view of To Kwa Wan


4|Pa ge

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Geotechnical condition
Most of the To Kwa Wan area is flat land. The flat land nearby the Victoria Harbor
obtained by reclamation. In addition, To Kwa Wan surrounds by two hills.

To Kwa Wan
surrounds by
hills.

Figure 2: The topography of To Kwa Wan

Project need
In this project, a mature and sustainable, pedestrian infrastructure system would
propose in response to provide sufficient capability in the future To Kwa Wan. This
infrastructure system would depend on the population provision after the urban renewal,
Kai Tak development and the SCL.

Performance requirements
The performance of the grade-separated pedestrian infrastructures required to capable
of supporting the needs of pedestrian and not congested. The design of the
infrastructures should be sustainable with universal design in order to serve several
generations.
5|Pa ge

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

Design Schemes - Upgrade the existing pedestrian infrastructures


Due to the high building density, residents living in To Kwa Wan suffer from the
deterioration of the living environment and quality. There are always have heavy traffic
congestion on the highways affecting the air quality of their home.

In the new sustainable design schemes of the pedestrian roadwork, the extension of the
existing footpath and constructing grade-separated infrastructure are the design option
of the new pedestrian system.

Unfortunately, the extension of the footpath is not a possible method for To Kwa Wan,
although this method only consumes a small amount of resources and easy to construct,
the limited space cannot allow this option to implement. In addition, it is not effective
to remedy the traffic congestion in order to reduce the conflict between vehicles and
pedestrians, which restricted the living environment and quality of the residents. For
the sake of improving the connectivity of To Kwa Wan, the footbridges and pedestrian
tunnels are more suitable for pedestrian crossing. Using grade-separated structure
allows traffic to move freely, with fewer interruptions, less trouble between traffic
movements reduce the risk for accidents and allows to link with the exit of To Kwa Wan
station and Ma Tau Wai Station.

After finishing the construction of the foot bridges and pedestrian tunnels, the existing
pedestrian crossing can now be reorganized, especially the one which causes traffic
congestion. The removal of useless pedestrian crossings can reduce the loss time due to
the pedestrian stage of the traffic light junction. But not all of the crossings would be
removed, the Engineer have to prevent all the traffic transfers to other area too quick
that cause the traffic congestion occur in other areas. In addition, not all areas is suitable
to construct grade-separated infrastructures. Some of the pedestrian crossing facilities
would remain unchanged.

6|Pa ge

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Impact of design options


Primary Impact Harming the existing structures
Shophouses are the most common type of structure in To Kwa Wan. Most of the
shophouses have constructed at least 30 years ago. Footings commonly used in their
foundations. When the contractors started the excavation works, the soil foundation
may slip away and endanger the existing footings if there are not sufficient support on
the ground. When the soil slip happened, the soil foundation may not have enough
strength to support the whole structures and the structures would collapse.

Other than the slip of soil, most of the shophouses use common wall, which share the
same wall between two structures. If one of the footings or the walls are damaged, the
collapse may hinder the nearby common wall structures. Make Ma Tau Wai Road
Building Collapse as an example, the collapse damages the shophouses. In serious cases,
it would cause the series collapse like the Domino Chain Reaction.

Figure 3: The typical common wall structure

In order to reduce the chance of causing the tragedy, the Engineer must undergo detail
investigation of the shophouses including foundations and structures before started the
constructions of grade separated infrastructures. Several safety percussions should
use during the construction stages.
7|Pa ge

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

In response to provide safety percussions for the excavation sites during the
construction stage, when the contractors undergo excavation work for constructing the
pedestrian tunnels and the foundation of the footbridges, the hole must be supported by
light sheet piles and steel beams temporarily for the earth retaining until the
construction process finish.

Photo 2: Earth retaining using light sheet piles and steel beams

Photo 3: Typical light sheet pile

8|Pa ge

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Secondary Impact Environmental impact


During the construction stage, the life quality of the local residents would affected in
different ways, including air, water and sound pollutions. During operation, the poor
site condition such as noise also affect the local residents. The outlook of the
infrastructures also important for the upgrade and fusion with To Kwa Wan.
In order to enhance the sustainability of the grade separated structures, there are some
recommendation for the design. Firstly, To Kwa Wan is an aging area that there are
elderly and disabled, the universal design such as lift should adopt in response to their
needs. Secondly, the outlook of the infrastructure can design to show the consistency or
uniqueness of To Kwa Wan. The design of the foot bridges and tunnels can shape the
characteristics and highlights the history. Use the footbridge in Luxembourg as an
example, the designer considers the application and the outlook of the bridges. This
bridge not only provide useful access to the residents, but also improve the beauty of
the city.

Photo 4: Pedestrian footbridge in Luxembourg

In addition, installed the sound barrier and effective ventilation systems can provide the
best environment and experience for the pedestrian. The inner area can add the
information board for introducing the historic background of To Kwa Wan.

9|Pa ge

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

Conclusion
Shatin to Central Line provides a great chance for To Kwa Wan to improve, but the old
pedestrian infrastructure is not capable for the future use. It may cause conflict between
the residents and the people who come to To Kwa Wan.

In order to reduce the impact from the new development to the residents, the grade separated pedestrian infrastructures are recommended. A sustainable, user-oriented and
innovative designed footbridges and tunnel suggested meeting for the future need of To
Kwa Wan.

10 | P a g e

Individual Assignment Report 1: Sustainable Development of To Kwa Wan, Kowloon

Appendix
Attachment 1 Reference
Online resource
1. www2.ozp.tpb.gov.hk, (2015). Statutory Planning Portal 2 (CW). [online] Available
at: http://www2.ozp.tpb.gov.hk/gos/default.aspx? [Accessed 18 Sep. 2015].
2. Durf.org.hk, (2015). . [online] Available at:
http://www.durf.org.hk/klcity/index.php [Accessed 19 Sep. 2015].
3. Mtr-shatincentrallink.hk, (2015). MTR - Shatin to Central Link - Home. [online]
Available at: http://www.mtr-shatincentrallink.hk/en/home/ [Accessed 19 Sep.
2015].
4. Pland.gov.hk, (2015). Projections of Population Distribution 2013-2021. [online]
Available at: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/statistic/wgpd13.html
[Accessed 21 Sep. 2015].
5. ursreview.gov.hk, (2011).
[online] Available at:
http://www.ursreview.gov.hk/eng/doc/Kowloon%20City%20Aspiration%20Study.
pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2015].

Literature resources
6. Knappett, J., Craig, R. and Craig, R. (2012). Craig's soil mechanics. Abingdon,
Oxon: Spon Press.
7. Schexnayder, C. (2008). Construction management fundamentals. [Place of
publication not identified]: Mcgraw Hill Higher Educ.

11 | P a g e

SCE5461 Sustainability & Infrastructure Design

Attachment 2 - Management Action Plan


Goal
Action Step

1. Propose the Renewal Plan

2. Site Investigation

3. Study the land ownerships

4. Coordination with MTR and other potential contractors

5. Prepare the preliminary design details

6. Estimate the possible site constricts

7. Public Consultation
8. Study the Stakeholders point of views

9. Discuss the recommendations with the Kowloon City District Council

10. Make the possible changes

11. Setup the Tender document

12. Open Tendering

13. Sign up contract with the selected Contractors

12 | P a g e