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IGCSE ICT - Manual Input Devices

IGCSE ICT - Direct Input Devices

25

IGCSE ICT - Sensors

34

IGCSE ICT - Output Devices

39

IGCSE ICT - Control Devices

57

IGCSE ICT - Data Storage and Backing up Data

61

IGCSE ICT - Serial and Direct Data Access

65

IGCSE ICT - Storage Media

69

IGCSE ICT - Magnetic Storage Devices and Media

73

IGCSE ICT - Optical Storage Devices and Media

81

IGCSE ICT - Solid State Storage Devices and Media

92

IGCSE ICT - Comparison of Storage Media

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IGCSEICTManualInputDevices

TheICTLounge
Section2.1:
ManualInputDevices

Inthissectionwewilllookathowinputdevicescanbeusedtogetdata
intoacomputersystem.

Learningobjectivesofthissection:
# Knowthepurposeofandbeabletoidentifydifferent
manualinputdevices.
# Understandtheusesofeachmanualinputdevice.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
eachmanualinputdevice.

Insection2.1wewillfocusonmanualinputdevicesandthenmoveonto
directinputdevicesinsection2.2.
Foreachinputdeviceyouhavetobeabletoidentifyitfromanimage,
explainwhatitisusedforanddiscussadvantages/disadvantages.

InputDevices(whatarethey?)
Definition:

KeyWords:

"Hardwaredevicesthatallowdatatobeenteredintoacomputer."

OverviewofInputDevices:

Input,Data,Manual,
Automatic

Examples:

# Inputdevicesarepartofthe4mainhardwarecomponentsofacomputersystem:
InputDevicesthesegetdataintothecomputer
Processorthisdoessomethingwiththedatatomakeitusefulinformation
OutputDevicestheseshowtheresultsofprocessing
StorageDevicesholdsthedatainthesystem.
# Theimagebelowshowswhereinputdevicesfitintoacomputersystem:

Thisdiagram
showswhereinput
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Amouseisanexampleofacommonlyused
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devicesfitintoa
computersystem.

inputdevice.

Akeyboardsisanotherexampleofacommonlyused
inputdevice.

# Therearetwodifferenttypesofinputdevices:
1. ManualInputDevices

Dataisinputintothecomputerbyhand(peoplehave
todomostofthework)

2. DirectInputDevices

Dataisinputintothecomputerdirectlybya
machine/device(thereisminimalinputbypeople)

NOTE:
Moreexampleswillbeshown
furtherdownthispage.

ManualInputDevices

KeyWords:
Keyboard,Keypad,PointingDevice,RemoteControl,
Joystick,TouchScreen,Scanner,DigitalCamera,
Microphone,GraphicTablet,VideoCamera,WebCam,
LightPen

(dataenteredbyhand)
ExamplesofManualInputDevices:

# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofmanualinputdevices.Clickeachdevicetomovetomoreinformation:
Keyboard

NumericKeypad

PointingDevices

RemoteControl

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

REMEMBER!
Manualinputdevices
requirehumanstodo
mostoftheworkneeded
togetdataintothe
system.
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Joystick

TouchScreen

Scanner

GraphicsTablet

Forexample:
Ifyouareusinga
keyboardtoinput
instructionsintothe
computer,youhavepress
thekeysyourself.Itisa
manualjobnotautomatic.

LightPen

Microphone

DigitalCamera

WebCamera

NOTE:

Clicktheimagestotheleft
tomovetomore
informationabouteach
one.

Breakdownofeachmanualinputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachofthemanualinputdevices.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthedevice
Usesofthedevice
Advantagesofthedevice
Disadvantagesofthedevice

Keyboard
Information:

Examples:

# Keyboardsareoneofthemostcommonlyusedmanualinputdevices.
# Keyboardsareusedtoinputthefollowingintothecomputer:
Text
Numbers
Instructions
# MostkeyboardsuseaQWERTYkeylayout.Thename'QWERTY'comesfromthefirstfive
letteredkeysononthetoprowofthekeyboardQWERTY.
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Therstveleeredkeysofakeyboardspellout
QWERTY.

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# Specialkeyboardscalled'ErgonomicKeyboards'havebeendevelopedtohelpreduce
healthproblems(suchasrepetitivestraininjury)linkedwithtyping.
Ergonomickeyboardshaveamorenaturalshapetothemwithreducesstressonthewrist
andhands.
Ergonomickeyboardsalsocomewithabuiltinhandrestwhichfurtherhelpsprevent
healthissuessuchasRSI(RepetitiveStrainInjury).
ErgonomicKeyboardshaveanaturalshapeandbuiltin
handrest.

UsesofaKeyboard:

# Keyboardsareusedtoinputdataintoapplications.
ForExample

EnteringtextintowordprocessingapplicationslikeMicrosoftWord
EnteringnumbersintospreadsheetapplicationslikeMicrosoftExcel

# Keyboardscanalsobeusedtoentercommandsintothecomputer.
ForExample

Keyboardshortcuts:
CTRL+Ptoprint
CTRL+Stosave
CTRL+Ctocopy
CTRL+Vtopaste
PRTSCtotakeascreenshotofyourwork

Inpungdataintoacomputerusingakeyboard.

NOTE:
CommandLineoperatingsystems
requireakeyboardinordertobe
abletousethecomputeratall!

Advantages/DisadvantagesofusingaKeyboard:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Enablesfastentryoftextintodocuments.

Peoplewithwristandhandproblemscanfindkeyboards
painfultouse.

Veryeasytouse(youjustpressthekeys).

Keyboardsarequitelargeandcantakeupalotofdeskspace.

Informationthatyouinputinstantlyappearsonthescreen.
Thisletsyouquicklycheckthatwhatyouareenteringis
correct.

Enteringdataisslowwhencomparedtoautomaticmethods.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Forexampleabarcodecodescannerwillinputdataintothe
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computeralmostinstantly.

NumericKeypads
Information:

Examples:

# Numerickeypadsareusedforenteringnumbersintoacomputersystem('Numeric'
meansnumber)
# Somenumerickeypadsalsoallowyoutoentersimpletextandsymbols.

UsesofNumericKeypads:
# Therearemanydaytodayusesofnumerickeypads.Herearesomeofthem:
ATM(Automaticteller
machines)

Enteringpersonalidentificationnumbers(PIN)intoan
ATMtoallowustoaccessourcash.

WithdrawingfromATM

Keyinginhowmuchmoneyyouwouldliketowithdraw
fromanATM.

Telephones

Theseusenumerickeypadstoallowustoenterphone
numbers.

ChipandPindevices

ThesehavenumerickeypadstoallowuserstoenterPIN
numbersandpaymentamountswhenwebuygoodsand
products.

BankATM'susenumerickeypadstoletusenterPIN
numbersandwithdrawalamounts.

Mobilephonesusenumerickeypadstoallowusto
enterphonenumbers.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofusingNumericKeypads:
Advantages

Disadvantages

FasterthanQWERTYkeyboardswhenused
forenteringnumbers.

Peoplewithlargehandscanfindthem
hardtousebecauseoftheirsmallkeys.

Numerickeypadsaresmallsotheycan
easilyfitonsmallerdeviceslikemobile
phones.

Difficult(butnotimpossible)toentertext
information.

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Inpungdataintoacomputerusingakeyboard.

PointingDevices(mouse,touchpad,trackerball)
Overviewofpointingdevices:

Examples:

# Pointingdevicesarepiecesofhardwarethatareusedtocontrolapointer(curser)ona
screen.
# PointingdevicesarefrequentlyusedwithGraphicalUserInterface(GUI)operating
systemswherepointersareusedtoinputcommandsbyselectingicons.

Miceareoneofthedevicesthatallowustocontrola
screenpointer.

Poinngdevices(likemice)areusedtocontrolpointers(curser's)andclickiconsandoponsonGUIoperangsystems.

# Therearethreemaintypesofpointingdevice:
Mouse
Touchpad
Trackerball
Trackerballsalsoallowustocontrolascreenpointer.

InformationabouttheMouse:
# Therearetwodifferenttypesofmiceaballmouseandanopticalmouse.
BallMouse

Usesaballunderthemousetodetectmovement.

OpticalMouse

Usesreflectedlighttodetectmovement.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Examples:

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# Theball(inaballmouse)andthereflectedlight(inanopticalmouse)allowstheuserto
directandcontrolanonscreenpointer.
# Micehavetwobuttonsandascrollwheel.Theseprovideuserswithdifferentfunctions:
Leftbuttonisusedtoselecticonsandclickoptions
Rightbuttonisusedtocallupadropdownmenuofoptions
Scrollwheelisusedtomoveupanddownthroughadocument.

Aballmouseusesaballtodetectmovement.These
arepronetocloggingwhichcanaectaccuracy.

Miceusetwobuonsandascrollwheeltoallowustoacvatedierentfuncons.

# Cordlessmiceworkinthesamewayasregularmicebuttheydonotneedawire
pluggedintothecomputer.Theyarepoweredbybatteriesinsteadofthecomputer.

Anopcalmouseuseslighttodetectmovement.These
aremoreaccuratethanballmiceandarebeerfor
edingimages.

Cordlessmiceareanexampleofawirelessdevice.

UsesofMice:
# Commonusesofmiceinclude:
1.

Opening,closing,maximisingandminimisingprogramsandfiles.

2.

Moving,groupinganddeletingfiles.

3.

Controllingapointeronscreentoselecticonsormovearoundthepage.

4.

Editingimagesintermsofsizeandpositiononthescreen.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Cordlessmiceareusedinexactlythesamewayas
regularmicebuttheydonotuseawirepluggedinto
thecomputer.Theyusewirelesstechnologyinorderto
communicatewiththecomputer.Theyarepoweredby
baeries.
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Advantages/DisadvantagesofMice:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Fastertoselecticonsandoptionswhencomparedtoa
keyboard.

Peoplewithwristandhandproblems(likeRSI)canfindmice
painfultouse.

Veryeasytomoveapointeraroundascreenandtonavigate
throughdocuments.

Ballmicecanpickupdirtwhichwillaffecttheaccuracyof
pointermovement.

Micearesmallanddonottakeupmuchspace.

Miceneedaflatsurfaceinordertoworkproperly
Forexampletheywouldbedifficulttouseontrainunlessyou
hadaflattabletoreston.

InformationabouttheTouchpad:

Examples:

# Usedasareplacementtoamouseinmanylaptops.
# Userslightlybrushtheirfingeroverthetouchpadinordertocontrolapointer.
# Touchpadshavetwobuttonswhichhavethesamepurposeasmousebuttons:
LeftButton

Usedtoselecticonsandactivateoptions.

RightButton

Usedtocallupadropdownlistofmenuoptions.
Touchpadsarebuiltintolaptopsandperformthesame
funconsasmice.
Thetouchpadallowsustocontrolascreenpointerand
thebuonsallowustoselecticonsandcallupopons.

UsesofTouchpads:
# Touchpadshavethesameusesasmice.(clickheretoreturntomouseuses)

Advantages/DisadvantagesofTouchpads:

Advantages

Disadvantages

EasierthanQWERTYkeyboardswhenusedtoselectoptions
andicons.

Moredifficulttocontrolamousepointerwhencomparedtoa
mouse.

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Touchpadsarebuiltintolaptopssothereisnoneedfora
separatemouse.Thishelpsimproveportability.

Peoplewithwristandhandproblems(likeRSI)canfind
touchpadspainfultouse.

Canbeusedevenwhenthereisnoflatsurfaceavailable.

Someoperationsaremoredifficulttoperformwhencomparedto
amouse.DragandDropforexample.

Won'tgetcloggedwithdirt(ascanhappenwithballmice)so
performanceisneverreduced.

InformationabouttheTrackerball:

Examples:

# Trackerball'saresimilartomicebuttheballisonthetopofthedeviceinsteadofthe
bottom.
# Screenpointersarecontrolledbyrotatingthelargeballwithyourhand.
# Thebuttonsontrackerball'sperformthesamefunctionsasthoseonmiceandtouchpads.

UsesofTrackerball's:
# Trackerball'shavethesamefunctionsasmice.(clickheretoreturntomouseuses)
# Theyare,however,muchmorecomfortabletousethanmice.Thismeansthatpeople
withpainfulhandandwristproblems(likeRSI)canuseatrackerball.
Whyaretheymore
comfortable?

Trackerball'saremorecomfortablethanmicebecausethereis
lesswristmovementrequired.Theyaremoreergonomic.

Trackerball'sperformthesamefunconsasamouse
buttheyrequirelesswristmovementandsoaremore
comfortabletouse.

# Somearcadegamingmachinesusetrackerball'stocontrolgamescharactersonscreen.
Becausetrackerball'saresodurable(tough)theycandealwiththewearandtearof
gamersusingthem.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofTouchpads:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Oldarcadegamesmachinesoenusedtrackerball'sto
allowgamerstodirectingamecharacters.

Peoplewithhand/wristproblemscanstilluse
trackerball's

Moreexpensivethanmice.

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Moreaccuratethanmiceortouchpads.
Pointercanbepositionedmoreexactlywhichmakes
trackerball'sveryusingforimageediting.

Moredifficulttolearntousethana
mouse.

Canbeusedevenwhenthereisnoflatsurface
available.
Nolimitonballtravel.
Amousesometimesrunsoutofroomonamouse
mat.Withatrackerballyoujustkeeprolling.
Theworld'srsttrackerballwasdevelopedin1952and
usedabowlingball.

RemoteControl
Information:

Examples:

# Remotecontrolsareusedtocontrolotherdevicesusinginfraredsignals.
# Buttonsontheremotecontrolcanbeusedtoperformfunctionssuchas:
ChangingthechannelonaT.V
Increasing/Decreasingthevolumeonamusicplayer
SelectingadifferentchapteronaDVDplayer

UsesofRemoteControls:
# Homeentertainmentsystemsuseremotecontrols.Examplesare:
1.

HiFisystems(musiccenters).

2.

DVD/BlurayPlayers.

3.

Satellitesystems.

4.

Someoverheadprojectors(likeoursintheclassroom).

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AsatelliteT.Vremotecontrolwithbuonsto
controlthechannel,volumeandmanymore.

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# Industryusesremotecontrolstooperatemachinerythatmighttotoodangeroustoget
nearto.Examplesinclude:
1.

Craneswithheavyloads.

3.

Operatingrobotarmsinhazardous
chemicalplants.

2.

Activatingexplosivesindemolition.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofRemoteControls:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Devicescanbeoperatedwithouthavingto
gotothem.Thisisusefulforpeoplewith
disabilities.

Peoplewithlimitedhandmovementcan
findthemdifficulttouse.

Theycanoperatedevicesthatareinan
unsafeenvironment.

Theinfraredsignalbetweentheremote
controlandthedeviceitoperatescan
becomeblocked.

Forexample:Explosivestodemolisha
buildingcanbesetoffatasafedistance.

Amanusingaremotecontroltooperateacrane.

Joysticks
Information:

Examples:

# Joystickshavesimilarfunctionstothatofmiceandtrackerballs......tocontrolapointeron
ascreen.
# Therearetwomainpartstoajoystick:
Handle/
Stick

Allowsustomoveapointerinthedirectionwewant.

Buttons

Allowustoselectoptionsor'clickstuff'.

# Joysticksarealsopopulardevicesforgaming.Thehandleallowsgamerstocontrolon
screencharactersandthebuttonsareusedforthingslikefiringweapons.
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Astandardjoysckwithacontrolsck/handle,buons
forselecngoponsanda're'buon
forgaming.

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UsesofJoysticks:
# Theycancontrolcharactersorobjectsinvideogames.
# Cancontrolindustrialmachinery(cranesforexample)
# Theyareusedinsimulators.Forexampleflightsimulatorsusejoysticksinorderfor
traineepilotstocontrolthesimulatedplane.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofJoysticks:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Easiertocontrolanonscreencurseror
moveaningamecharacterthanitiswhen
usingakeyboard.

Notaseasytocontrolanonscreen
curserwhencomparedtousingamouse.

Verysimpletogetusedto.

Peoplewithhand/wristissues(likeRSI)
canfindthempainfultouse.

Anyonecanjustpickoneupanduseit!
Canbeusedbydisabledpeople.Joysticks
canbeoperatedbyhandsorevenfeet.

Joyscksusedtooperateacrane.

Difficult(butnotimpossible)toentertext.
Forexample:somegamesallowyouto
selectindividuallettersusingthejoystickin
ordertospelloutyournamewhenentering
ahighscore.
Joyscksarealsousedtomimicreallifeight
condionsonightsimulators.

TouchScreens
Information:

Examples:

# Touchscreensallowuserstoinputcommandsintoacomputerbypressingor
touchingbuttons/iconsonthescreen.

# Givingusersthisabilitytotouchorpressiconsonthescreenremovestheneedtousea
mouse.
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# Touchscreensaremoresuitableforusewithalimitedamountofoptions.

UsesofTouchScreens:
# Commonusesoftouchscreensinclude:
1.

MobilephonesandPDA'susetouchscreensasawayofsavingspace(a
separatekeyboardwouldmakethedevicesquitelarge).

2.

Publicinformationsystemsatairportsortouristinformationoffices.

3.

Interactivewhiteboardsinschools.

4.

Onscreenmultiplechoicetests(likedrivingtheorytests)sometimesusetouch
screens.

Atouchscreenwith'pressable'opons.

Modernmobilephonesusetouchscreensto
reducethesizeofthedevice.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofTouchScreens:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Veryfastandeasytoenteroptions(you
justpressthem).

Limitednumberofoptionsavailableon
thescreen.

Notrainingneededinorderforpeopleto
beabletousethem.Allpeopledoispress
thecorrectoption.

Expensivecomparedtootherinput
devices.

Screencanbecomedirtyandfullof
germsduetopeopletouchingit.

Schoolclassroomsusespecialtouchscreenscalled
'InteracveWhiteboards'.

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Scanners
Information:

Examples:

# Scannersareusedtoenterinformationonpaper(hardcopies)intoacomputer.
Scannerscanconverthardcopies(printeddocuments,photographsetc)intodigital
data.Thisdigitaldatacanthenbestoredandmanipulatedonyourcomputer.

# Scannersreflectlightoffthehardcopyinordertocaptureananalogueimageofthe
document.Thescannerthenconvertsthereceivedanaloguedataintoadigital
format.
# Oncethehardcopyhasbeenconvertedtodigitaldata,itcanbestoredonacomputer
andmanipulatedusingGraphicsEditingSoftware(suchasPhotoshop).

Earlierscanners,liketheSharpJX450,couldonlyscan
documentsinlowresoluon(imagequalitylost).

UsesofScanners:
# Usedtoscanhardcopy/printeddocumentsintoacomputer:
# Oldphotosandimportantdocuments(likebirthcertificates)canbescannedintothe
computer.Thismeansyoustillhaveacopyiftheoriginalisdamagedorlost.

Modernscannersarecapableofscanningdocuments
andimagesinmuchhigherresoluon.Thismeansthat
digitalcopiesareclosertotheoriginalquality.

Scannersareusedtoconvertanaloguehardcopiesofdocumentsandphotosindigitaldata.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofScanners:
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Advantages

Disadvantages

Veryfasttoenterhardcopiesintothe
computer(comparedtoretypingwitha
keyboard).

Scannedimagesareusuallyoflesser
qualitythantheoriginaldocument.

Veryeasytoscanandstoredocumentsand
imagesintothecomputer.

Scannedimagescantakeupalotofdisk
space(especiallyifyouscanthematahigh
resolution).

Digitalcopiesofthestoreddatacaneasily
beduplicatedandbackedup.

Somescannersare'handheld'whichmeanstheuser
physicallymovesthescanneracrosstheimageinorder
tosendacopytoacomputer.

Oldphoto'sthatmaybedamagedcanbe
scannedintothecomputerthenrepaired
usingGraphicsEditingSoftware.

GraphicsTablet
Information:

Examples:

# Graphicstabletsareusedbyartistsanddesignerstoeasilycreateandstoredigital
graphicsinacomputer.
# Agraphicstabletcanbedrawnonwithaspecialpencalleda'stylus'.
# Whateverisdrawnontothetabletcanbeseenonacomputerscreen.
Itisreallyjustthesameasdrawingonpaperbutthefinalimageisdigital.

Agraphicstabletwithastyluspen.

# Anythingdrawnontothetabletcanbesavedintothecomputerasimages.
Onceimagesaresavedintothecomputer,theycanbeeditedusinggraphicsediting
software.

UsesofGraphicsTablets:
# Allowdesignerstoproducedigitalimagesmuchmoreaccuratelythaniftheywereusing
amouse.
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Graphicstabletscanbeusedtoaccurately'draw'
illustraons,symbolsanddiagrams.
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Advantages/DisadvantagesofGraphicTablets:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Mucheasiertodrawimagesusingapen
thanitistodrawthemusingamouse.

Veryexpensivewhencomparedtoa
mouse.

Veryaccuratedrawingscanbeproduced.

Notusefulforsomeinputneeds.

Styluspensmakeitbetterfortheartistto
capturefinedetailthantheycouldusinga
mouse.

Forexamplegraphicstabletsarenot
designedforenteringdataintothecomputer
byclickingiconsormenus.

Usefulincountrieswheredrawingsand
symbolsareusedinsteadoftext(likeChina
andJapan).

Ahighendillustraonofacarproducedusinga
graphictablet.

LightPens
Information:

Examples:

# Lightpensarequiteoldtechnologyandcanbeusedasalternativestomice,touch
screensorgraphicstablets.
# Lightpensareusedbydirectlydrawingorselectingiconsonacomputerscreen.

Note:CurrentlylightpenscancurrentlyonlybeusedwithCRT(cathoderaytube)
monitors.

# Theyworkbypickinguplightfromthecomputerscreenandthensignalingtothe
computerexactlywherethelightwaspickedup.Thisallowsthecomputerto'draw'onthe
partofthescreenwherethepenpickedupthelight.

UsesofLightPens:
# UsedforselectingobjectsonaCRTscreen.

Lightpenscanreplacemiceandtouchscreenfor
selecngitemsonaCRTscreen.

Forexample:replacingamouseortouchscreenclicking/touchingicons.
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# UsedfordirectlydrawingontoaCRTscreen.

Forexample:replacingagraphicstablettoproducehanddrawndesigns.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofLightPens:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Moreaccuratethantouchscreens.

Notasaccurateasagraphicstabletwhen
usedforproducingdrawings.

(endofthepenismuchthinnerthana
fingerandsocanaccuratelyselectsmall
icons)
Theyareverysmallandsocanbeused
wherethereisnoroomforamouseor
graphicstablet.

Lightpenscanbeusedtoproducedrawingsdirectlyon
aCRTscreen.

CanonlybeusedwithCRT(cathoderay
tube)screens.
(notusablewithTFTorLCDscreens)
Canbequiteuncomfortabletouseasyou
havetoholdyourhandraiseduptothe
computerscreenforlongperiods.
LightpensonlycurrentlyworkwithCRTScreens(the
fatones).

Microphones
Information:

Examples:

# Microphonesareusedtoinputanaloguesoundsintoadigitalcomputer.
1. Soundsexistintheformofsoundwaves
(analoguesignalsthatchangeslowly).
2. Computersunderstanddigitaldataandnot
analogue.

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Forexample:computersunderstandcombinations
of0'sand1's.
3. Thejobofthemicrophoneistoinputanalogue
soundsignalsintothecomputerwherethesound
cardwillconvertanaloguesoundintodigital(in
otherwordsthesoundcardwill'digitize'the
analoguesoundinto1'sand0's)
Note:thesoundcardactsasanADC(analogueto
digitalconverter).

4. Oncedigitized,thesoundscanbestoredandused
bythecomputer.
Microphonesareusedtoinputsoundintoacomputer.

UsesofMicrophones:
# Usedtoinputsounds/speechforuseinarangeofapplications.Forexample:
Narration(spokenwords)inpresentationsorinwebsites
Voiceover'sinmovies
SpeakingovertheInternetusingVoIP(VoiceoverInternetProtocol)
AnexampleofthiswouldbeusingSkypetoholdanonlineconversation
Conductingvideoconferencing(e.g.businessmeetingsonline).
# Usedinvoicerecognitionsoftware.Forexample:
Convertingspeechintotextforuseinwordprocessors(usefulforpeoplewhodo
nothaveuseoftheirhands)
Issuingcommands(e.g.somecarsallowforspeechtoactivatecertainfeatureslike
'startingtheengine'or'alteringradiovolume').

Microphonescanbeusedtoholdvoiceconversaons
overtheInternet(likeusingSkype).

# HandsFreemobilephonesuseamicrophonetoallowpeopletoholdconversations
withoutusingtheirhands(thismakesdrivingmuchsafer).
# Used(alongwithheadphones)ingamingsothatgamerscantalktoeachother.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofMicrophones:
Advantages
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Disadvantages

Microphonesareusedonhandsfreemobilephonekits
tomakedrivingsafer.
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Fastertoreadintextthantotypeitin
usingakeyboard.

Soundfilescantakeupalotofcomputer
storagespace.

Meansthatwordprocessorscanbeusedby
peoplewhocannotusetheirhands.Words
aresimplyspokenintothesoftware
insteadoftyped.

Speakingwordsintoawordprocessorisnot
asaccurateastyping.Thismeansthat
mistakesarecommonwithwordsthatsound
thesamebuthavedifferentmeanings.

Forexample:'see'and'sea'.
Makesdrivingsaferbecausepeopledonot
needtotaketheirhandsoffthesteering
wheelinordertousetheirmobilephone.

Backgroundnoisecaninterferewith
voicerecognitionsystems.

Microphonesareverycheaptobuy.

Gamersusemicrophonestocommunicateinstrucons
toeachotheringame.

DigitalCameras
Information:

Examples:

# Haveprettymuchreplacedtheoldstylefilmbasedcameras.
# Digitalcamerasstoredigitalphotographsonamemorycardandtheseimagescan
easilybetransferredontoacomputerforviewingorediting.
# Mostdigitalcamerashaveabuiltinscreentoallowforpreviewingthedigital
photograph.Thisisusefulsothatthephotographercandecidewhichimagestokeepand
whichtodelete.
Anoldlmbasedcamera.

# Digitalcameraimagequalityismeasuredin'Megapixels'.Thesearethenumberofdots
thatmakeuptheimage.Generallyspeaking,thehighertheMegapixels,thehigherthe
detailqualityoftheimage.

3Megapixelcamerasproduceimagesmadeupof3Millionpixels(dots).
24Megapixelcamerasproduceimagesmadeupof24Milliondots(8timesmoredetail)

# Mostdigitalcamerascanalsocapturevideoandsoundaswellasimages.
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# Almostallmodernmobilephoneshaveabuiltindigitalcamera.

UsesofDigitalCameras:
# Usedtocapturedigitalimagesforusessuchas:
Savingspecialmoments(weddings,birthdays,familysnapsetc)
Gatheringimagesforuseinpresentations,webpagesorpublications
(newspapersandmagazinesetc)
# Easytotransferimagestoacomputerforediting.
Forexample:usingPhotoShoptoalterbrightnessorcontrast

Amoderndigitalcamerawithpreviewscreen.

# Imagescanbeprintedeasilyby:
Uploadingtoacomputerandthenprinting
Connectingdirectlytoaphotoprinterandprintingstraightfromthecamera
(noneedtouploadtoacomputer)
# Mostdigitalcamerasalsoallowforshort,highqualityvideoclipstobeproduced.
Tradionalphotographswerestoredonreelsoflm.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofDigitalCameras:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Nofilmtodevelop.Thismeansthat
producingthephotoismuchquicker.

Camerauserneedstohavecomputer
skillstobeabletotransferandprintdigital
photographs.

Unwantedimagescaneasilybedeleted
fromthememorycard.

Notalldigitalcamerasproduceimagesas
highqualityastraditionalcameras.

Becausetheimagesaredigitalitiseasyto
makecopiesofthem.

Artistryoftraditionalphotographyisbeing
lost.

Noneedtoprintatallbecausetheimages
canbeviewedacomputerscreen.This
savespaperandisbetterforthe
environment.

Camerasoftwarecanautomatically
correct'badimages'makingphotography
easiertomasterwithoutasmuchskill.

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Digitalphotographsarestoredonmemorycards.

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Memorycardscanstorethousandsof
digitalphotographs.Traditional
photographscantakeupalotofphysical
storagespace.

Peopleusingtraditional'filmcameras'had
totakemuchmorecaretocaptureeach
imageperfectly.

Digitalimagescaneasilybetransferred
usingblutooth,emailattachmentsand
mobilephones.
Digitalimagescanbeimprovedand
editedeasilyusingsoftware(sharpening
theimageforexample)

Tradionalphotographywasmuchmoredicultto
master.Muchthoughthadtogointocapturingquality
photographs.
Digitalphotographsarerunthroughsowarewhich
doesmostofthehardworkforusandmakesitharder
toproducebadimages.

WebCameras(webcams)
Information:

Examples:

# Webcamerasaresimilartodigitalcamerasintheirfunctionbuttheyaredirectly
connectedtoacomputeranddonothavememorystorage.
# Webcamerascancapturebothdigitalimagesandvideo.
# Images/videoaresentdirectlytothecomputerwheretheycanbestoredandused.

Thesedigitalimagesandvideoareoftenaddedtopresentations,websitesandother
publications.
YouTubechannelssometimesusewebcamstocapturethecontentofthechannel.
Thisisusuallyapresentergivingoutinformationaboutwhatevertopicthechannelis
about.
Awebcamaachedtoacomputermonitor.

# Manymoderncomputingdevices(suchaslaptops)comewithbuiltinwebcams.

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UsesofWebCameras:
# UsedtoconductfacetofaceconversationswithfriendsandfamilyonlineoverVoIP
applicationssuchasSkype.

AsimilaruseistoconductfacetofacejobinterviewsovertheInternet.This
removestheneedforjobapplicantstotravelverylargedistancestoattendtheinterview.

# UsedtoholdvideoconferencingmeetingsovertheInternet.
# Cancaptureimageandvideocontentforpresentations,websitesandevenYouTube
content.

Webcamsallowlongdistancefacetofaceinterviews
totakeplace.

# WebCamerasaresometimesusedbyparentstokeepaneyeontheirchildrenwhen
theyareinanotherroom.
# Somepeopleusewebcamsasacheapalternativetosecuritycameras.
# Sometimesusedtoallowdriverstoviewthetrafficconditionsonroads.

Thisallowsthedrivertoplanadifferentrouteifthetrafficonaroadistoocongested.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofWebCameras:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Allowforlongdistancefacetoface
conversations.Thisremovestheneedfor
peopletotravel.

Theimage/videoqualitycansometimes
bepoor(lowresolution).

Webcamsallowelderlypeopletoholdfacetoface
conversaonswithrelaves.

(especiallyusefulforelderlyanddisabled
peopletokeepintouchwithfamily)
Videoconferencebusinessmeetings
andjobinterviewscanbeconductedvery
cheaplyoverlongdistances.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/manual_input_devices.htm

Theydonothavetheirownstorageandso
mustbepermanentlyfixedtothe
computingdevice.

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(noneedforexpensivetravelorbookingsof
hotelroomstoattendthemeetingor
interview)
Parentscankeepaneyeontheirchildren
fromadifferentlocation.

Areusuallyinafixedpositionandso
cannotbeeasilymovedaround.

Webcamscanbeleftrunningconstantly
whichmakesthemusefulassecurity
devicesonproperties.

(asaformofsecuritycamera)
Traccamsallowdriverstoavoidheavytrac.

PreviousInput/OutputDevices
MainMenu

NextDirectInputDevices

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section2.2:
DirectInputDevices

Insection2.1welookedatmanualinputdevicesandtalkedabouthow
theserequirealargeamountofhumaninteractioninordertogetdata
intoacomputer.
Inthissectionwewillfocusondirectinputdevices.Directinputdevices
requirelesshumaninteractioninordertogetdataintoacomputer.

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowthepurposeofandbeabletoidentifydifferent
directinputdevices.
# Understandtheusesofeachdirectinputdevice.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
eachdirectinputdevice.

DirectInputDevices
(no/littlehumaninteractionneeded)

KeyWords:
MagneticStripeReader,ChipandPinReader,
BarcodeReader,MagneticInkCharacterRecognition
(MICR),OpticalMarkRecognition(OMR),
OpticalCharacterReader(OCR)

ExamplesofDirectInputDevices:
# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofdirectinputdevices.Clickeachdevicetomovetomoreinformation:
MagneticStripe
Reader

OpticalMarkReader
(OMR)

ChipandPIN
Reader

OpticalCharacter
Reader(OCR)

Barcode
Reader

MagneticInkCharacter
Recognition(MICR)

REMEMBER!

Directinputdevicesdonot
requiremuchhuman
interactiontogettheirdata
intoacomputersystem.
Forexample:
Allahumanhastodoto
useaBarcodeReaderis
pointthereaderatthe
barcodeandpullthe
trigger.Thereaderwilldo
therest.

NOTE:
Clicktheimagestotheleft
tomovetomoreinformation
abouteachone.
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Breakdownofeachdirectinputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachofthedirectinputdevices.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthedevice
Usesofthedevice
Advantagesofthedevice
Disadvantagesofthedevice

MagneticStripeReader
Information:

Examples:

# ReadsinformationfrommagneticstripesfoundonBankCards,MembershipCards
andHotelDoorCardsetc.
# Thestriponthecardsholdsinformationsuchas:
Bankaccountnumber
Nameofcardholder
Expirydateofmembership
etc
# Datacontainedonthecard'sstripeisreadbypullingthecardthroughthemagneticstripe
reader.
Thisisknownas'swiping'.

# Themagneticstripereaderthensendsdatafromthecardintothecomputerfor
processing.

Informa onheldonacard's'magne cstripe'isreadby


swipingthecardthroughastripreader.

UsesofaMagneticStripeReader:
# ATM'susethesereaderstoprocesstheinformationonbankcards.
# EFTPOS(ElectronicFundsTransferPointofSale)usethereaderstotransfercustomer's
moneyfromtheirbankaccountswhentheypurchasegoodsinstores.
# Hotelroomssometimesusemagneticstripereadersinplaceofdoorkeys.
Peoplewhowanttoenteraroomwouldswipetheircardthroughthereaderinorderto
openthedoor.
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/direct_input_devices.htm

Detailsaboutbankaccountsarestoredona
magne cstripe.

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Advantages/DisadvantagesofusingaMagneticStripeReader:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Enteringdataisveryfast.Youjustswipe
thecardthroughthemachine.

Themagneticstripeoncardscanonlyhold
asmallamountofdata.

Nopossiblyofdataentryerrorsasthere
isnotypinginvolved.

Thecardsneedtobeincontactwiththe
readerinordertobeused.
(cannotbeusedovertheinternetfor
example)

Thestripesoncardsarenotaffectedby
waterandsoquiterobust(noteasily
damaged).

Ifthestripedoesgetdamagedthenthe
dataislost(unreadable).

Dataheldonthecardcannotbereadby
eyesobankdetailsetcaresafe.

Magneticstripesoncardsareeasily
duplicated(knownascardcloning).

Hotelroomcardscontaindataonthestripethatwill
unlockthedooronceinsertedintothereader.

(ifthishappensyouarepronetotheftof
fundsinyourbank)

ChipandPinReader
Information:

Examples:

# TheseallowpeopletopayforgoodsandserviceselectronicallyatEFTPOSterminals
(electronicfundstransferpointofsale).
# Thechipandpinreaderworksbyinsertingabank/creditcardintoaslotandthenentering
aPIN(personalidentificationnumber).
ThePINensuresthatthepersonwiththebankcardisthegenuineowner.Onlythe
ownerofthecardshouldknowthePINandmoneycanonlybetransferredwiththe
correctnumber.

# IfthecorrectPINisentered,thecostofgoods/serviceswillbetakenfromthecard
holder'sbankandtransferredtothecompanies(restaurant,storeetc)

ChipandPINReadersrequirethecorrect
iden ca onnumbertobeentered.

UsesofChipandPinReaders:
# Usedtomakesecurepaymentsforgoods/servicesinplacessuchas:
Supermarkets
Restaurants
Cafes
Buyingpetrol
etc
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Advantages/DisadvantagesofusingChipandPINReaders:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Moresecurethanmagneticstripereaders
astheuserneedstoknowthecorrectPIN.

ItispossibletoforgetyourPINwhich
meansyoucannotmakepaymentswith
yourcard.

Informationcontainedonthechipisharder
toclone(copy)thanitistocopymagnetic
stripes.

Peoplecanlookoveryourshoulderas
youenteryourPIN.Thismakesitpossible
toaccessyourmoneyiftheyeverstoleyour
card.

Informa ononacard'schipismoresecurethan
onamagne cstripe.

Manygoodsandservicescanbepurchasedusing
ChipandPINReaders.

Chipscanholdmoredatathanmagnetic
stripescan.

ChipandPINReadersareportableso
theycanbebroughttoyou(waiterina
restaurantforexample)

BarcodeScanner/Reader
Information:

Examples:

# Usedtoreadinformationthatisstoredonproduct'sbarcodes.
# Thebarcodescannerreadstheinformationstoredonthebarcodeusingavisiblered
lightwhichisreflectedandtranslatedintodigitalinformation.
# Thebarcodeispresentonproductsandholdsinformationabouteachproductincluding:
ProductIdnumber
Manufacturer
Countryoforigin
Thebarcodedoesnotstorethepriceoftheproduct.Thisinformationisheldina
computerdatabaseandaccessedusingtheproductid.

Barcodescontaininforma onaboutproductsandcan
bereadwithscanners.

Note:Bystoringthepriceinadatabaseinsteadofonindividualbarcodes,itiseasierto
change(ifyouhadasaleforexample).Allyouwoulddoischangethepriceinthe
databaseinsteadofhavingtoreplacethebarcodesoneachoftheitems.

# Onceabarcodehasbeenscanned,acomputercanreadtheinformationstoredonthe
barcodeandaccessdetailsabouttheproductthatarestoredinadatabase.
# BarcodescannersareusuallybuiltintoPOS(pointofsale)terminalsinsupermarkets.
# Handheldscannersarealsocommonlyusedtoreadbarcodes(usuallyifitemsaretoo
largeandheavytomovetothescanner).
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Abarcodeonapackagebeingscanned.

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UsesofBarcodeScanners/Readers:
# Usedinsupermarkets,storesandwarehouseswheregoodsaremarkedwitha
barcode.
Remember:

Barcodesholdinformationabouttheproductwhichislinkedtoa
computerdatabase.Thisenablesautomaticveryfastitemisedbillingto
takeplace.

# TheyareusedinlibrariestoscaninlibrarycardsandreadISBNnumbersonbooks
tofindoutwhichonesareonloan.

Barcodesarefoundonitemsthatwebuyinstores.

# Theyareusedinkeepingtrackofpackagesthatarebeingdeliveredtodifferent
locations.
# Alsousedinorganisingluggageinairports(helpsensurethatluggageisloadedonto
thecorrectplane).

Advantages/DisadvantagesofBarcodeScanners/Readers:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Quickandeasytochangeproduct
prices.

Quiteanexpensivewaytogather
information.Eachitemneedsabarcode
andthescanners/computertechnology/
databaseneededisalsoexpensive.

Onlythepricedatainthedatabaseneeds
toupdated.Thereisnoneedtochange
individualpricesoneachoftheitem'sbar
codes.
Quickandeasywayofgettinginformation
intoasystem.
(allyoudoisscantheitem'sbarcode)

POSterminalsinsupermarketshavebuiltin
barcodescanners.

Barcodescanbeswappedonitems
whichmeanspeoplemaypaylessformore
expensiveitems.

Veryaccurateasthereisnomanual
typinginvolved.

Relyonundamagedbarcodesinorderto
function.

Enablesautomaticstockcontrol.

(ifabarcodeisdamaged,itemnumbers
havetobetypedintothesystembyhand)

Handheldbarcodescannersareusedtoreadbarcodes
onlargeitems.

OpticalMarkReader(OMR)
Information:

Examples:

# Systemwhichautomaticallyreadsmarksmadeinpenorpencil.
# Typicallyusedtoreadmultiplechoiceexaminationswherestudentsshadein(mark)
answersthattheythinkarecorrect.
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# TheOMRreadershinesalightontotheformandlesslightisreflectedwhereapencil
markhasbeenmade.
# Thisallowsthereadertotellwhichoptionshavebeenchosenandsendstheresults
backtoacomputer.
Oncethedataisonacomputeritcanbequicklyanalysed.
Op calMarkReaderautoma callyinpu ngthe
answersgivenonamul plechoiceform.

Forexample:thecomputerwillworkoutthegradeofamultiplechoicetest.

# OptimalMarkReaderscaninputthedataheldonforms(suchasmultiplechoiceexams)
veryfast.

Upto4000sheetsperhourcanbeprocessedthisway.
Imaginehowlongitwouldtaketomark4000multiplechoicetestsbyeye!!

OMRdevicescanreadtheshadedareason
mul plechoicetests.

UsesofOMR's:

# Usedtoreadtheshadedareasondocumentssuchas:
Multiplechoiceexaminations
Multiplechoicequestionnaires
Lotterytickets

Butaretypicallyusedonanydocumentthathasmultiplechoiceresponsesthatare
shadedin.
Theycanalsoreadshadedareasonlo o ckets.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofOMR's:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Extremelyfastwayofinputtinginformationintoacomputer.

Formsneedtobeaccuratelydesignedtomakesurethatthe
marks/shadingareincorrectpositiontobereadbythedevice.

(around4000formscanbereadperhour)
Veryaccurateasdocument'sdataisfedintothecomputer
automaticallywithnomanualtyping.

Ifformshavebeenincorrectlyfilledintheycannotberead
properly.

(accuracyreliesontheformsbeingfilledincorrectly)

(Inthiscasedocumentswouldhavetobereadmanually,byeye,
whichwouldtakealongtime)

Cansavemoneyasthereisnoneedtoemployworkersto
enterforminformationintoacomputer.

Canonlyreadshadedareas(Cannotinputorreadtext).

Formscanjaminthemachineastheyarefedthrough.
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OpticalCharacterReader(OCR)
Information:

Examples:

# Opticalcharacterreadersconsistofascanneralongwithspecialsoftware.
# OCR'sallowustoscantextonpaper(hardcopy)intoacomputer.
# Onceintothecomputer,OCRsoftwareconvertsthescannedtextintoadigitalformat.
Thedigitalversionofthetextcanbeeditedandformatted.
# Onceconvertedtodigital,thetextcanbebeusedinprogramssuchaswordprocessors,
presentations,websitesetc.Seediagrambelow:
DiagramshowshowOCRworks:
1.

Hardcopyscannedintocomputer

2.

OCRsoftwareusedtoconvert
scannedtextintodigital(digitizes)

3.

Digitaltextcanbeusedindigital
devicesandapplications

Printedtextonadocumentbeingscannedaspartof
the'digi zing'process.

Regularscannerscanalsobeusedforinpu ng
scannedtextintoacomputerreadyfordigi zing.

UsesofOCR's:

# UsedintheprocessingofPassportsandIdentityCards.
# OCRisalsousedintheprocessofdigitizingbooks.
Note:bookdigitizingiswherehardcopyprintedbooksareconvertedintodigital
formatforuseonEbookreaderssuchasAmazon'sKindle.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofOCR's:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Veryfastwayofenteringhardcopytext

Thesystemcanhavedifficultyreading

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/direct_input_devices.htm

Imageoftextbeingconvertedtodigital.
(clickimagetozoom)

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intoacomputer.

handwriting(especiallyifitismessy).

Cheaperthanpayinganemployeeto
manuallyretypeprintedtextintoa
computer.

Not100%accurate.

Avoidstypingerrorsastheprocessis
automatic(notypinginvolved)

Asitisnot100%accurate,information
needstobemanuallycheckedforerrors.
Thisistimeconsuming.

(reliesonbeingabletoreadtheoriginal
text)

Itisalsopossibletodigi zehandwri ng.

MagneticInkCharacterRecognition(MICR)
Information:

Examples:

# MICRisasystemwhichcanreadinformationprintedinaspecialink
(theinkcontainsironparticles).
# Thisspecialinkisusedtowritecustomeraccountnumbersonthebottomofcheques.
# TheMICRdevicereadstheaccountnumbersthenconvertsittoaformthecomputercan
understand.
# Theconvertedinformationisthensenttothecomputersothechequecanbe
processed.

UsesofMICR:
# MICRdevicesaremainlyusedtoprocesscheques.Belowthereisasummaryofthe
process:

AMICRdevicereadingthemagne cinkonacheque.

1.

Everydaymillionsofcheques.aresenttobanksforprocessing.Toprocessthe
informationonthesecheques.wouldtakefartoolongifitweredonebyhand.

2.

MICRautomatically(andquickly)processestheinformationonthesecheques.with
100%accuracy(Theycanhandle300perminute).

3.

MICRcanbeusedtoreadthefollowinginformation:
Customeraccountnumber
Banksortcode/branchnumber
Chequenumber.

Magne cinkisusedtowritevariousaccountnumbers
oncheques.(clickimagetozoom)

# SomecountriesalsouseMICRdevicestoreadthepassportnumberonpassports.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofMICR:
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Advantages

Disadvantages

Cheques.canbeprocessedveryquickly(upto300per
minute.)

Onlyaverylimitednumberofdifferentcharacterscanberead.

GreatersecuritythanOCRbecausethespecialinkcharacters
cannotbechanged.

BoththeMICRdeviceMagneticInkaremoreexpensivethan
othermethodsofdirectdataentry.

Nomanualinputthereforelesserrors.
(userjustswipesinformationthroughthereader)
Informationcanstillbereadevenifsomeonewritesoverthe
magneticinkcharacters.
Forexample:ifsomeonetriestomanuallyalteranaccount
numberbyhandthedevicewillstillreadonlytheoriginaldata.

PreviousManualInputDevices

NextSensors

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section2.3:
Sensors

Inthelastsectionwelookedathowdatacanbeinputintoacomputer
system(bothmanuallyanddirectly).
Inthissectionwewilldiscusshowsensorscanbeusedtoautomatically
detectchangesintheenvironmentaroundandthendirectlyfeedthis
dataintoacomputerforprocessing.

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowthedefinitionoftheterm'sensor'.
# Understandthedifferenttypesofsensorsandwhat
usestheyperform.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
sensors.

Sensors(whatarethey?)
Definition:

"Adevicewhichautomaticallyinputsdataintoacomputersystem,
wherethedataisconstantlychangingandcanbemeasured."

OverviewofSensors:

KeyWords:
Data,Automatic,Measured,
Analogue,Digital,Analogueto
DigitalConverter,ADC

Examples:

# Usedtodetectdatainthesurroundingenvironmentthatconstantlychanges.For
example:
Temperaturemeasuringheatinaroom
Lightsettingoffaburglaralarm
Humiditydetectingwhenplantsbecometoodry.
# Thisinformationisphysicalandanalogue.
Analoguedataisconstantlychanginganditchangesverysmoothly.
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/sensors.htm

Thermometersareexamplesoftemperaturesensors.
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Forexample:Outsidetemperaturechangesallofthetimebutitdoessoverygradually
andsmoothly.Itdoesn'tsuddenlyjumpfrom10Cto20C.

# Computersdontunderstandanaloguedataandthereforeitneedstobeconvertedto
digital(e.g.1sand0s).
Thecomputercanthenreadthedata.
AspecialdevicecalledanAnaloguetoDigitalConverter(ADC)isusedin
ordertoachievethis.
Infraredburglaralarmsareexamplesoflightsensors.

ExamplesofSensors
# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofsensors:
Temperature

Pressure

KeyWords:
Temperature,Pressure,Light,Sound,Humidity,pH,
Monitoring,DataCollection

Light

REMEMBER!

Sensorsareusedto
AUTOMATICALLYget
dataintoacomputer
system.

NOTE:
Wewilllookateach
sensoringreaterdetail
furtherdownthispage.

Sound

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/sensors.htm

Humidity/Moisture

pH

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UsesofSensors

Examples:

# Sensorsareusedinmonitoringandcontrolapplications.
# Whenmonitoring,thedataissentdirectlytosomesortofacomputerandisthen
processedandused.
For
example:

Aburglarclimbsthroughawindowandwalksthroughanalarmslight
sensor.Thecomputerinsidethealarmwillpickuponthebrokenlightsignal
andusethisinformationtosoundthealarm

# Sensorscanalsobeusedforawiderangeofdatacollectionandeveryday
applications.
For
example:

Sensorsinburglaralarmscan
automa callydetectintruders.

Takingmeasurementsinscientificexperiments
Measuringpollutionintheatmosphere
Sensingthetemperatureinaroomandusingthistoeitherturna
heatingsystemonoroff
Automaticdoorsopenthemselveswhentheydetectapersonnearby.

# Thetablebelowspecifiestheusesofdifferenttypesofsensors:

TypeofSensor:

UsedFor:

Temperature

Automaticwashingmachines,Centralheatingsystems,
Automaticgreenhouses,Cookers.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/sensors.htm

Automa cdoorsopenwhenpeopleare
detectednearby.

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Pressure

Burglaralarmsystems,Washingmachines,Robotics,
Environmentalmonitoring.

Light

Automaticgreenhouses,Automaticdoors,Burglaralarm
systems,Streetlightingcontrol.

Sound

Burglaralarmsystems,Voicerecognitionsystems(likeusinga
voicecommandtostartacar).

Humidity/Moisture

Automaticgreenhouses,Environmentalmonitoring,Agriculture,
Factoriesthatmanufactureitemsthatcanberuinedbytoo
muchairmoisture(microchipsetc).

pH

Automaticgreenhouses,Chemicalmanufacturing,
Environmentalmonitoring,Aquariums(wrongpHcankillfish).

Avarietyofsensorsareusedonautoma c
greenhousestokeepplantsinperfectcondi ons.

Advantages/Disadvantagesof
Sensors
# The table below highlights some of the main advantages and disadvantages of using
sensors:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Readingstakenusingsensorsaremoreaccurate
thanthosetakenbyahuman.
Sensorscanmonitorinformationconstantly
(Theydontgettiredlikehumanscan).
Sensorscanrespondtoinformationimmediately
(Burglaralarmsgoesoffassoonasanintruderis
detected).
Noneedforhumanstooperatethesensor.This
canbeusefulifgatheringtheinformationis
hazardouslikeindetectingradiationlevelsfor
example.

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/sensors.htm

pHsensorsareusedtomonitortheacidityand
alkalinitylevelofaquariums(wronglevelscankillsh).

Faultysensorscangiveincorrect
results.
Forexample:ifthesensorsona
carthathelpwithreverseparking
becomedirtytheymaynotidentify
anobstacleandcauseyoutocrash
intoit.

Malfunc oningsensorsusedoncarstoassistin
'reverseparking'cancausecrashes.

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PreviousDirectInputDevices

NextOutputDevices

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section2.4:
OutputDevices

Oncedatahasbeeninputintoacomputersystemandprocessed,itis
now'usefulinformation'.Thisinformationisreadytobeoutput(sent
out).
Inthissectionyouwilllearnaboutthedifferenttypesofoutputdevices
thatarecommonlyinuse.
Foreachoutdeviceyouhavetobeabletoidentifyitfromanimage,
explainwhatitisusedforanddiscussadvantages/disadvantages.

Keyobjectivesofthissection:
# Knowthepurposeofandbeabletoidentifydifferent
outputdevices.
# Understandtheusesofeachoutputdevice.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
eachoutputdevice.

OutputDevices(whatarethey?)
Definition:

"Hardwaredevicesthatallowinformationtobesentoutofa
computersystem."

OverviewofOutputDevices:

KeyWords:
Input,Processor,Output,
Storage,Hardware,Data,
Information

Examples:

# Outputdevicesarepartofthe4mainhardwarecomponentsofacomputersystem:
InputDevicesthesegetdataintothecomputer
Processorthisdoessomethingwiththedatatomakeitusefulinformation
OutputDevicestheseshowtheresultsofprocessing
StorageDevicesholdsthedatainthesystem

# Theimagebelowshowswhereoutputdevicesfitintoacomputersystem:
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Thisdiagram
showswhere
outputdevicesfit
intoacomputer
system.

Acomputermonitor(screen)isanexampleofa
commonlyusedoutputdevice.

# Somedevicesproduceatemporaryoutput.

Forexample: acomputermonitorproducesimagesonthescreenthatconstantlyrefresh
andchange.

# Somedevicesproduceapermanentoutput.

Forexample:

aprinterproducesoutputsashardcopiesonpaper
(thesecannotbechangedonceprinted).

Printersareanotherexampleofacommonlyused
outputdevice.

Theinformationbelowdiscussessomeexamplesofoutputdevicesincludingtheiruses,
advantagesanddisadvantages.

ExamplesofOutput
Devices
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/output_devices.htm

NOTE:
Moreexampleswillbeshown
furtherdownthispage.

KeyWords:
CRTMonitor,TFTMonitor,LaserPrinter,InkjetPrinter,
DotmatrixPrinter,Plotter,Speakers,Multimedia
Projector
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# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofoutputdevices.Clickeachdevicetomovetomoreinformation:
CRTMonitor

TFTMonitor

LaserPrinter

InkjetPrinter

REMEMBER!

Outputdevicessend
processedinformationOUT
ofacomputer.

NOTE:

DotMatrixPrinter

Plotter

Speakers

MultimediaProjector

Clicktheimagestotheleft
tomovetomore
informationabouteachone.

Breakdownofeachoutputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachofthemanualinputdevices.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthedevice
Usesofthedevice
Advantagesofthedevice
Disadvantagesofthedevice

CRTMonitor(cathoderaytube)
Information:

Examples:

# CRTstandsfor'cathoderaytube'.

# Thesearetheold,bulky,heavymonitorsthatarestillinusetoday(althoughbeingused
lessandless).

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# Thesearetheleastexpensivetypesofmonitor.

# CRTsarebecomingrareasTFTmonitorsarereplacingthem.

Note:

TFT'sarereplacingCRT'slargelybecausetheyproduceahigherquality
screenimageandtakeupfarlessspace.

CRT'sproduceanimage(Madeupoftinydots)by
firingElectronBeamsagainstaPhosphorScreen
EachdotiscolouredRed,GreenorBlueofdifferent
intensitieswhichproducesavastamountofdifferent
colours.

CRTmonitorsareverybulkyandtakeup
alotofdeskspace.

Note:
Thesedotscombinetocreatemillionsof
differentcolourshades.
(justlikewhenyoumixcoloursinart)

LightpenscanbeusedwithCRT'stoproducedrawings
anddesignsdirectlyontothescreen.

UsesofaCRTMonitors:
# CRTMonitorsallowuserstoinstantlyseeoutputsfromthecomputer.

Forexample Userswouldbeabletoseewordstheyaretypingintowordprocessors.
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Userscouldalsoseechangesthattheyaremakingtoanimagein
graphicseditors(likePhotoshop)

# CRT'sarealsousedwithlightpenstoallowdrawingstobecreatedonscreen.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofCRTMonitors:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Canbeusedwithlightpenstocreate
drawingsonscreen.

Theyareverylargeandbulkywhich
meanstheytakeuplargeamountsofdesk
space.

Note:lightpensandCRT'sarealsoused
withCADsoftware(computeraideddesign).

Note:theirlargesizeandweightalsomake
themdifficult(anddangerous)tomove.

Producealargerrangeofcoloursthan
TFTmonitors.

Theycreatealotofheatandhavebeen
knowntocausefires.

ThescreenangleisbetterthanwithTFT's.

Screenglarewhenindirectlightmakes
viewingdifficult.

(youdonothavetostanddirectlyinfrontof
theCRTscreeninordertoseewhatisonit)

CheapertobuythanTFTscreens.

ScreenglarecanbeaproblemwithCRT's.

Note:theyarealsoproneto'screen
flicker'whichcancauseheadachesandeye
strain.
TheyalsoneedmorepowerthanTFT'sto
operate(moreexpensivetorun).

CRTmonitorscangetveryhot.

TFTMonitors(thinfilmtransistor)
Information:

Examples:

# TFTstandsfor'thinfilmresistor'.
# Thesearethinflatscreenedmonitorsthatarecommonlyseentoday.
# Astheybecomecheaper,thesehavetakenoverfromCRTmonitorsasthemostpopular
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computerscreens.

# TFT'sareusedwiththenewerdesktopPC's,laptopsandmobilephones.

TFTscreensaremadeupofthousandsof
tinypixels.Eachpixelhas3transistors
red,greenandblueandeachtransistorcan
producedifferentintensities.
Thisallowshugeamountsofcoloursto
beproduced(16.7million).

TFTmonitorsaremuchthinnerthanCRT's.

Abacklightisusedtoshinelightontothese
pixelsinorderforthecolourstobeproduced.
Inordertolightasinglepixel,tinywindows
canbeopenedandclosedtoallowthelight
topassthroughandontothepixel.

TFTscreensarelightandareperfectasdisplaysfor
portabledevicessuchaslaptops.

UsesofTFTMonitors:

# TFTMonitorsallowuserstoinstantlyseeoutputsfromthecomputer.
# Theyareusedasscreensinlaptopsandalsomobilephones.

Theirthinandlightdesignhelpsthelaptopremainportable
(lightandeasytotransport)

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Advantages/DisadvantagesofTFTMonitors:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Lightweightsotheyareperfectfor
portablelaptopsandwallmounting.

Imagescanappearunclearwhenviewed
fromanangle.

Theyareverythinanddonottakeupas
muchdeskspaceasaCRTmonitor.

(youneedtolookstraightatthescreenfor
thebestimage)

TheyproducemuchlessglarethanCRTs
andsoarefriendlytotheeye.

Lowerpicturequality(definition)
comparedtoaCRTmonitor.

TheyuselesspowerthanCRTmonitors
(cheapertorun).

CannotbeusedwithLightPensyet.
(ComputerAidedDrawingsarenotyet
possibleonTFTmonitors)

TFT'sarealsousedasdisplaysinmobilephones.

TheyemitlessradiationthanCRT
monitors.
TheyproducelessheatthanCRT's.

TheirlightweightmakesTFT'seasyto
mountonwalls.

LaserPrinter
Information:

Examples:

# Theseproducehighqualityhardcopyoutputs(onpaper).

# LaserprintersuseTonerpressedonapagetoproduceprinteddocuments.

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# Theycanprintlargeamountsofpagesataveryquickrate.

# Youcanbuybothblackandwhiteandcolourlaserprinters.

# Theyuseabuffermemorywhichstorestheinformationforthewholedocumentbefore
thepagescanbeprintedout.

Forexample:

Onceyoupressprint,thedocumentissenttotheprintersmemory
(RAM)andstoredthere.Theprinterwillthenoutputwhateverisinthe
memorywhenitisreadytodoso.
ThinkoftheBufferMemoryasakindofwaitingroom

Laserprintersarepopularforenvironmentsthat
requirefasthighqualityprintouts.

Laserprintersworkbyusingalaserbeamto
'draw'ontoadrum.
Thelaserleavesapositiveelectric
chargeonthedrumintheplaceswhereit
drew.

Laserprinterscanhandleverylarge
printjobs.

Aspecialpowerknownas'toner'issprayed
ontothedrumanditstickstothepartsthat
containthepositiveelectriccharge.
Thedrumisthenpressedontoasheetof
paperandthepaperisheated(fused)sothat
thetonerisboundtothepaper.

UsesofLaserPrinters:
# Veryusefulforprintingwherenoiselevelsneedtobekeptlow(Likeinanofficewhere
peopleneedtoconcentrateorusetelephonesetc).

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# Goodatproducinghighqualityprintoutsveryfast.

# Goodforenvironmentswherehighvolumeofprintingisrequired(lotsofprintouts).
Thisisbecausetheyhavealowprintingcostperpage.

Theirfastprintingspeed/lowprintingcostperpagemakesthemtheprinterof
choiceonnetworks.Thisisbecausetheyneedtobeabletokeepupwiththeprinting
demandsofmanycomputers.
Popularwith:

Colourlaserprintersareexpensivetobuyandrun.

Schools
Businesses
Offices.

Tonercartridge(thesecontaintonerpower).

Advantages/DisadvantagesofLaserPrinters:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Veryfastatprintingdocuments.

Environmentallyunfriendly(produceozone).
Theyalsousemorepowerthaninkjets.

Tonercartridgeslastalongtimeanddon'tneedtobereplaced
often.

Laserprintersaremoreexpensivetobuy(butcheaptorun).

Laserprinterscanhandlehighvolumesofprinting.

Colourlaserprintersaremuchmoreexpensivetobuyandrun
thaninkjets.

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Veryquietwhenprinting.

Theyarelargerinsizecomparedtoothertypesofprinters.

Veryhighqualityprintouts.
Reliabledon'tbreakdownaseasilyasinkjetprinters.
Cheapertorunthaninkjets(lowcostperpage).

InkjetPrinter
Information:

Examples:

# Theseareusedtoproducehighqualityhardcopies(onpaper).
# AlthoughthequalityofInkjetprintoutsisnotasgoodasLaserprinters,itisfarbetter
thanDotMatrixprinters.
# Inkisstoredinanddeliveredtothepaperviaaninkcartridge.
# Inkjet'scanprintinbothblackandwhiteandcolour.
# Inkjetprintershavesmallamountsofinternalmemory(RAM)tostoreprintjobsso
printingisdoneabitatatime.
ThewholedocumentcannotbestoredinprintersRAMsothereisoftenapausewhile
thecomputersendstherestofthedata

Inkjetscanproducephotoquality
colourprintouts.

Inkjetprintersworkbysprayinginkontoa
pageofpaper.
Theinkisheldin'inkcartridges'andthere
are4differentcoloursblack,cyan,
magentaandyellow.
Thesemixtoformavastamountof
othercolours.

Inkjetsrequire4separateinkcartridges
Black,Cyan,Magenta,Yellow.

Motorsareusedtopositiontheink
cartridgesoverthecorrectpositionofthe
pageandtodragthepaperthroughthe
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printer.

Clickimagetozoom

UsesofInkjetPrinters:
# Goodwherefewprintoutsareneeded(lowvolume).
# Idealforsinglepage,veryhighqualityprinting.(Photoqualityimages).
Inkjetprintoutswillsmudgeifnotle todry
beforehandling.

# Oftenusedtoprintphotographs.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofInkjetPrinters:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Outputisveryhighquality(Especiallygoodforcolour
photographprinting).

Slowprintingrates,especiallyifseveralcopiesareneeded.

Muchcheapertobuythanlaserprinters.

Inkcartridgesdontlastlongandsoarenotsuitableforlarge
printjobs.

Smallerthanlaserprinterssotakeuplessspace.

Theycanbeexpensivetorunasnewinkcartridgesarenot
cheaptobuy.

Donotproduceozoneorotherharmfulcompounds.

Printoutscaneasilysmudgeifdocumentisnotlefttodry
properly.

Veryquietwhilstprinting.

DotMatrixPrinter
Information:

Examples:

# OftencalledanImpactPrinterwherepinsarepressedagainstaninkedribbonwhich
producesanimprintonpaper.

# Theyareveryslow,noisyandproducepoorqualityoutputs(clickhereforvideo).
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Theyareveryslow,noisyandproducepoorqualityoutputs(clickhereforvideo).

# ArestillusefulwhereContinuousPaperneedstobeused.Forexample,printingoffall
ofabusiness'semployeepayslips.

Continuouspaperisthenamegiventohundredsofsheetsofpaperthatarejoined
togetherand'continuously'fedthroughtheprinter.

Thepapersheetscanbeseparatedafterprintingiscomplete.

Dotmatrixprintersarenoisyandslow.

# Dotmatrixprintersarestillusedinenvironmentswhereprintspeedandnoiseisnot
anissue(likeincargaragesandfactories).

Theseprintersworkbyusingasetofpinstopress
aninkedribbonagainstpaper.
Whenthepin/ribbonhitsthepaperaprinteddot
isleftbehind.
Thedotscanbearrangedtoformbasictextand
images.
Differentcolouredinkribbonscanbeusedto
producecolourprintouts.

Dotmatrixprintersuseinkribbons.

UsesofDotMatrixPrinters:
# Dotmatrixprintersareveryrobustandcanbeusedinnoisyanddirtyenvironments
(likegaragesandwarehouses).

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# CanmakeCarbonCopiesofadocumentusingspecialCarbonPaperunderneath
normalprinterpaper.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofDotMatrixPrinters:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Workjustfineindustyanddirty
environmentswherelaserorinkjet
printerscouldeasilybedamaged.

Verynoisysonotsuitableforanoffice
environment

Carboncopiescanbeproducedusing
carbonatedpaper.

Veryslowtoprint(slowestofallthetypes
ofprinters)

Verycheaptobuyandmaintain.

Verypoorprintquality.

Dotmatrixprintoutqualityisverylow.

(Inkedribbonsareverycheap)

Goodforcontinuousprinting.
(e.g.longprintjobslikewageslips)

Dotmatrixprintoutsaremadeupofarrangeddots.

Plotter
Information:

Examples:

# Thereare2differenttypesofplottersdrumandflatbed.
# Producehardcopiesbutarecapableofprintingonverylargepiecesofpaper(e.g.3
footwideby10footlong).

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# Theprintqualityofplottersinveryhigh.
# Plotterscanalsoproduceverylargeandaccuratedocumentssuchasblueprints
(plans)forbuildings

# Plottersdrawimagesonthepageusingcolouredpenswhicharemovedaroundthe
paperbyacomputer.

UsesofPlotters:
# Usedtoproducelarge,accuratedrawings.Someexamplesarelistedbelow:
Blueprintsofbuildings(plans/designs)
Maps
Giantpostersandadverts(likethoseweseeonbillboards).

Adrumplo er.

# Penscanbereplacedwithcuttingtoolstoproducelargesigns.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofPlotters:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Theycanproducemuchlargerprintouts
thanotherprinters.

Theirprinttimesareveryslow.

Theprintqualityisextremelyhigh.

Theyareveryexpensivetobuyand
maintain.

Aatbedplo er.

Plotterscanalso'cutout'designsforusein
signmaking.

Plo erscanproduceverylargeprintoutslikethose
seenonadver singboards.

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Speakers
Information:

Examples:

# Manyeverydayusesofacomputerrequiretheusertolistentodifferenttypesofsounds.
Forexample:
Listeningtoamusicalbum
Watchingamovie.
BrowsingvideosonYouTube
Multimediaencyclopedias.
Inorderforthecomputertooutputthesesoundsitrequiressomesort
ofspeakersystem!

# Speakerscanbeconnecteddirectlytoacomputerorarebuiltintothemonitororcasing.
Note:

Mostcomputershavesmallbuiltinspeakerstoalertuserswhentheydo
somethingwrongbutthesecanonlyproduceverybasicsoundslike'beeps'.

Speakersallowustolistentosoundcomingout
ofacomputersystem.

Speakersareanalogueandcannotoutputdigital
'computerised'sounds.
Digitaldatafromthecomputermustfirstbe
convertedintoanaloguesoundusingasound
card.
Theanaloguesoundcanthenbeoutputviathe
speakersandwecanlistentoit.
Speakerscanalsobeusedtoalterthe
volumeofthesounds.

EBookreaders(liketheAmazonKindle)havespecial
so warecalled'screenreaders'thatcannarratethe
wordsonthescreen.

UsesofSpeakers:
# Usedtooutputsoundfrommultimediapresentations(likefamousspeechesetc).
# Usedinhomeentertainment(surroundsoundetc).
Speakersareanimportantpartofhomeentertainment
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systems.

# Canbeusedbyblindpeopletolistentowordsonthescreeninsteadofreading.
Note:

Specialsoftwarecalled'screenreaders'arealsoneededinordertoconvert
theprintedwordsintosound.

# Canbeusedtoplaydownloadedmusicfiles.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofSpeakers:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Everyoneintheroomcanhearthesound.

Outputfromspeakerscandisturbpeopletryingtowork.

Theycanhelpblindpeopleuseacomputerbecausetextcanbe
turnedintosound.

Highqualityspeakerscanbeexpensive.

MultimediaProjectors
Information:

Examples:

# Theseprojectwhateverappearsonacomputermonitorontoaverylargescreenso
thatlargenumbersofpeoplecanviewit.
# MultimediaProjectorsareusuallycontrolledusingaremotecontrol.
# Theremotecontrolmakesitpossibletodirectthepresentationswithouttheneedtobeat
thecomputer.
# Multimediaprojectorsareoftenhungfromtheroofonspecialbrackets.

Amul mediaprojector.

UsesofMultimediaProjectors:
# Canbeusedfortrainingpresentationstoallowthewholeaudiencetoseeimagesfrom
asinglecomputer.
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# Alsousedforlargescaleadvertisingofnewproducts.

Forexample:thefamousAppleTechnologyInnovationspresentationswithSteveJobs
(clickheretowatch)

# HomecinemasystemswhereimagesfromDVDsortelevisionsareprojectedtoalarge
screen.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofMultimediaProjectors:

Mul mediaprojectorscanbeusedtoprojectimages
ontoaverylargescreen.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Manypeopletoclearlyviewthesamepresentation.

Lowerimagequalitycomparedtoacomputerscreen.

Enhancetheviewersexperience.

Veryexpensivetobuy.

Forexample:watchingmoviesonalargescreenisbetterthana
smallTVscreen.

Coolingfansintheprojectorarenoisy.

PreviousSensors

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/output_devices.htm

NextControlDevices

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LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section2.5:
ControlDevices

Inthisunitwehavediscussedbothinputandoutputdevices,including
thedifferentwaysdataisputintocomputersandhowtheresulting
informationissentout.

KeyConceptsofthissection:

Thelasttopiccoveredinthisunitis'controldevices'.Youwillseehow
theseareusedinconjunctionwithsensorsto'makesomething
happen'.

# Knowwhatthemaincontroldevicesare.
# Understandtheroleofsensorsandactuatorswithin
controldevices.
# Beabletodiscussusesofdifferenttypesofcontrol
devices.

ControlDevices(whatarethey?)
Definition:

"Outputdevicesthatworkinconjunctionwithsensorinputdevices
andcommandsfromcomputersinordertocontrolaprocess."

OverviewofControlDevices:

KeyWords:
Input,Process,Output,
Sensor,ControlDevice,
Actuator

Examples:

# Controldevicesareoutputdeviceswhichworktogetherwithsensors.
Remember

Sensorsgather'measurable'datafromtheenvironmentandinputit
intoacomputer.Theydonotneedanyhumaninvolvement.
Sensorstypicallygatherdatasuchastemperature,pressure,pHetc.

# Datagatheredbyasensorisinputintoacomputerwhichthendecideswhattodowith
thedata(processesit).
# Oncethecomputerhasdecidedwhattodowiththedataitsendsinstructionstothe
controldevice.
# Thecontroldevicethenphysicallychangessomethinginresponsetocommands
receivedfromthecomputer.

INPUTBurglarbreakslightsensorandthisdatais
senttothecomputer.

Considerthisexample:
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INPUT
Aburglarbreakstheinfraredlightsensoronasecuritysystem.
PROCESS Thisdataissenttoasmallcomputerinsideasecuritylight.
Thecomputersendsinstructionstoan'actuator'tellingittoswitchon
thesecuritylight.
OUTPUT

Theactuatorswitchesonthesecuritylight.

Note:Seebelowforadescriptionofwhatanactuatoris.

PROCESSComputerlooksatthedataandinstructs
anactuatortoswitchonthesecuritylight.

Actuatorswhatarethey?
# Actuatorstakeinstructionsfromthecomputerandthenmakethe'physical'partof
theprocesshappen.
Forexample Inoursecuritysystemexampleabove,thecomputerhasdecidedthatit
isnecessarytoswitchonthesecuritylightbutitcannotdothisbyitself.
Insteadthecomputerinstructstheactuatortoswitchthelighton.

OUTPUTTheactuatorswitchesonthesecuritylight

# Thinkofactuatorsaskindoflikemuscles.

Wecannotmoveourlimbswithoutusingourmusclesin
muchthesamewayasalightinacontroldevicecannot
turnonwithoutanactuator.

andtheburglarisscaredaway.

NOTE:
Sensorsandcontroldevicesare
discussedinmoredetailinalater
unit(linkhere).

Actuatorsrespondtoinstructionssentbyacomputer.
Ourmusclesrespondtoinstructionssentbyourbrain.
# Actuatorscanalsophysicallyoperatedevicessuchas
motors,pumps,switchesandvalves.

ExamplesofControlDevices

KeyWords:
Motor,Buzzer,Heater,Lights

# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofcontroldevices:
Motor

Buzzer

Heater

Light/Lamp

REMEMBER!

Controldevices
requireinputsfrom
sensorsand
instructionsfroma
computerinorderto
producethecorrect
output.
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output.

UsesofControlDevices

# Thetablebelowsummarisesthemainusesofdifferentcontroldevices:
Remember

Examples:

eachofthesecontroldevicesareswitchedonandoffbyanactuator

Typeof
Sensor:

UsedIn:

Motor

Households:
Automaticwashingmachines(tomakedrumspin)
DVDplayer(tomakediscspin)
Airconditioners(tomakefansspin)
Industry:
Controllingrobotarms
Computersystems:

Motorsinwashingmachinesmakethedrumspin.

Spinningdisksinharddiskdrives
Spinningcoolingfans

Buzzer

Heater

Light/Lamp

Microwaveovens(tosignalthatthefoodiscooked)
Alarmsystems(loudsirentowarnofintruders)

Centralheatingsystems(tokeeproomscorrecttemperature)
Washingmachines(Tokeepwaterthecorrecttemperature)
Automaticgreenhouses(ensuresairiscorrecttemperaturefor
plants)

Imageofaharddiskdriveshowingtheactuatorthat
makesthediskspin(clicktozoom).

Securitylights
Automaticgreenhouse(togiveplantscorrectamountoflight)

PreviousOutputDevices
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/control_devices.htm

NextStorageDevicesandMedia
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LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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IGCSEICTDataStorageandBackingupData

TheICTLounge
Section3.1:
DataStorageandBackingupData

Inthissectionyouwillseewhatismeantbytheterms'datastorage'
and'backingupdata'.
Wealsodiscusswhyitisveryimportantthatdataisbackedupand
brieflylookatsomecircumstansesthatcandestroyourdata.

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowwhatismeantby'DataStorage'.
# Understandthedifferencebetweentemporary
storageandpermanentstorage.
# Beabletodiscusswhyitisimportanttobackup
data.

DataStorage(whatisit?)
Definition:

"DataStorageiswhereweputdatainaknownplace(Save)which
wecancomebacktolaterandgetthedatabackagain(Read)"

OverviewofDataStorage:

KeyWords:
Data,Storage,Save/Write,
Open/Read,RAM,Permanent,
Volatile,NonVolatile

Examples:

# Therearesometermsthatyouneedtobeawareofwhenwetalkaboutdatastorage:

Writingofdata=
Readingdata=

Storingdata(alsoknownassaving)
Gettingourdataback(alsoknownasopening)

# Datacaneitherbestoredtemporaryorpermanent.
RAM(computermemory)isusedtostoredatatemporarily
BackingStorageDevicesareusedtostoredatapermanently.
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Thedifferencebetweentheseareexplainedbelow:

RAM(computermemory)

BackingStorageDevice

Dataistemporarilystored.

Dataispermanentlystored.

Volatiledataiserasedwhencomputeris
switchoff.

NonVolatiledataisnoterasedwhen
computerlosespower.

Usedtoonlystoredatathatiscurrentlyin
use.

Usedtostoredatalongterm.

(e.g.openprogramsandunsavedfiles)

(dataisonlyerasedwhenwemanually
choosetodeleteit)

Veryfastreading/writingofdata.

Slowerreading/writingofdata.

Examplesofpermanentstoragedevices
includeharddiskdrives,DVD'sandflash
memorysticks.

Storagedevicescanbesavedonandreadfrom.

# Theimagebelowshowswherestoragedevicesfitintoacomputersystem:

RAMcanonlystoredatawhilstcomputerhaspower.
USBscksstoredatapermanently.

Thisdiagram
showswhere
storagedevicesfit
intoacomputer
system.

Withoutstoragedeviceswecouldnotrunoperang
systems,programsorsaveourwork.
Ourcomputerswouldbebecompletelyuseless!

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IGCSEICTDataStorageandBackingupData

BackingupData
Definition:

KeyWords:
Backup,Copy,Medium

"Backingupistheprocessofusingastoragedevicetocopyfilesand
datatoadifferentstoragemediumincaseofaproblemwiththe
originalcopy"

OverviewofDataBackups:

Examples:

# Backingupofdataissimplytheprocessofmakingcopiesofyourfiles.
# Tobackupdatayouneed2piecesofequipment:
StorageDeviceThehardwarethatsaves(writes)orreadsthedatafromthe
storagemedium.(DVDPlayerforexample)
StorageMediumThehardwarethatactuallyholdsthedata(MemorySticks,Hard
DiskDrives,DVDDisksetc)
# Backingupisconsidered'goodpractice'andhelpspreventusfromlosingourworkand
files.

Note:

Therearemanywayswecanlosecomputerfiles.Wecouldaccidentallydelete
them,filescouldbeinfectedwithavirusorsomeonecouldevendeliberately
eraseourfiles!

Backingupdatajustmeansto'makecopies'ofles.

# Backupsoffilesshouldbestoredinadifferentlocationtotheoriginal.
Thisistoensurewehavesafecopiesintheeventthattheoriginalsaredestroyedby
fireorfloodsetc.

Ifthebackupswereinthesamelocationastheoriginalsthenthefirewoulddestroythe
backupsaswell!

DVDdrivesare'StorageDevices'thatareusedto
read/writedataontoDVDdiscs.

WhyBackupData?
# Therearemanyreasonswhybackupsaremade.Someofthecommonreasonsare
summarisedbelow:
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1.

Originaldatacouldbeaccidentallycopiedoverordeleted.

2.

Datacouldbelostduetodamagetotheoriginalstoragedevice.
Forexample:Youharddiskdrivecouldstopspinning.

3.

Youcouldloseyouroriginalstoragedevice.
Forexample:Yourlaptopcouldgetstolenoryoucouldmisplaceamemorystick.

4.

Hackerscouldaccessourdataanddeleteit(orchangeit)

5.

Originalstoragedevicecouldbedestroyedinafire.

Note:Backupsdon'thelppreventdatalossintheeventofviruses.iftheoriginalfilehad
avirusBEFOREtheitwasbackedupthenthecopywillalsobeinfected.

DVDdiscsareexampleof'StorageMedium'andthese
holdthedata.

PreviousStorageDevicesandMedia
MainMenu

NextWaysinwhichDataisStored
andRead

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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IGCSEICTSerialandDirectDataAccess

TheICTLounge
Section3.2:
WaysinwhichDataisStoredandRead

Inthissectionwewilllookatthe2mainwaysinwhichdatais
accessed,storedandread:
SerialAccess(alsoknownas'sequentialaccess)
DirectAccess(alsoknownas'randomaccess)

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowthedifferencebetween'Serial'and'Direct'data
access.
# Understandhowbothserialanddirectaccesswork.
# Beabletostatethedifferentusesofserialanddirect
dataaccessstoragemethods.

SerialAccess

KeyWords:
Serial,Sequential,Sequence,
MagneticTape

Overview:
# Thismethodisalsosometimescalled'SequentialAccess'.

Examples:

# Dataisaccessedbystartingatthebeginningandthensearchedthrough,in
order/sequence,untiltherequiredinformationisfound.
Kindoflikeanoldfilmreelwherethemoviestartsatthebeginninganddataisread
inorderuntilthemovieisfinished
# Theneedtosearchfromthebeginningofthestoragemediummakesthistypeofdata
accessveryslow.
Serialdataaccessreadsdatain'sequence'.

WhereSerialAccessisused:
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Serialaccessisusedonoldmagnetictapes.
Theseareusedwhereitisnecessarytostorealotof
databutwherespeedofaccessisunimportant.
MagneticTapesarestillusedforbackingup
largeamountsofdatainorganisationslike
schoolsandbusiness.

# Serialaccessmedium(likemagnetictapes)arealsousedinbatchprocessingsystems
likepayrollandinthepreparationofutilitybills.
Thewaythatserialaccessworksmeansthatallofthedatahastobereadandthereis
nodangerofmissingoutsomeone'swagepaymentorbillinvoice.
Remember:

Oldlmreelsaccessthemovie'sscenesin'sequence'.
E.g.fromstarttonish.

Serialaccessworksbyaccessingthedataatthebeginningandthen
workingthroughitbitbybituntiltheend.
Thisiswhythereisnodangerofmissinganythingoutduringthebatch
processingexamplesabove.

# Examplesofstoragemediumthatuseserialaccessare:
Videocassettes
Musiccassettes
Backuptapecartridges(holdlotsoftapeforbackinguplargeamountsofdata).

DirectAccess

Magnectapecanstorealotofdatabutit
isslowtoaccessit.

KeyWords:
Direct,Random

Overview:
# Thismethodisalsosometimescalled'RandomAccess'.

Examples:

# Thecomputercancalculateexactlywherethedatahasbeenstoredandcango
straighttoitdirectly(instantaccess).
Thecomputerknowswhereallofthedataonthestoragemediumisandsoitcan
accessitveryquickly.
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Itisnotforcedtostartaccessingthedataatthebeginningandthenworkingthrough
bitbybitlikewithserialaccess.
Agoodcomparisonastohowdirectaccessdifferstoserialaccessistothinkofhow
DVDmoviesworkcomparedtooldfilmreelmovies.

InaDVDmovieyoucan'jump'directlytoanysceneyouwantbutinafilmreelyou
havetomovethrougheverysceneuntilyoucometooneyouwant.

# This'direct'methodofaccessingdataismuchfasterthanserialaccess.

Directaccesscangostraighttotherequired
data'directly'.

WhereDirectAccessisused:
#

Thismethodisusedwithstoragemediumsuchas:
HardDiskDrives
CD'sandDVD's
Directaccessisusedonmostmodernstorage
deviceswherespeedofaccessisimportant.

Note:Thelargesizeofmodernfilesmakesdirect
accessevenmoreuseful.

DVDmoviesallowyoutojumptoscenes.Thisis
possiblethroughdirectaccess.

# Directaccessmediumareusedinsituationswherefastaccesstodataisimportantlikein
onlinebookingsystemsandpointofsale(POS)terminalsinshops.
Forexample:

Youwouldn'twanttowaitaroundatashopcheckoutwhilethesystem
wastryingtoaccessthepriceofbeans!

# Otherexamplesofstoragemediumthatusedirectaccessare:
USBmemorysticks
Flashmemory(likeindigitalcamerasandmobilephones)
Bluraydiscs

Flashmemorycardsareanexampleofstoragemedium
thatusedirectaccess.

PreviousDataStorageandBacking
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/serial_and_direct_data_access.htm

NextStorageMediaIntroduction
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upData

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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IGCSEICTStorageMedia

TheICTLounge
Section3.3:
StorageMediaIntroduction

Inthissectionyouwillbeintroducedtothe3maintypesofstorage
media:

KeyConceptsofthissection:

Magneticstoragemedia
Opticalstoragemedia
Solidstatestoragemedia
Wealsodiscussstoragemediacapacity,includingkilobytes,
megabytes,gigabytesandterabytes.

# Knowthedifferencebetweenstoragedevicesand
storagemedia.
# Beabletonamethedifferentstoragecapacityunits
(fromsmallesttolargest).

StorageMedia(aquickintroduction)

KeyWords:
Storagedevice,Storage
media,Internal,External,
Magnetic,Optical,SolidState

# Storagemediaisthetermgiventothedevicesthatareusedtoholddata.
Note:

Examples:

StoragemediaisNOTthesamethingasastoragedevice.
Storagemedia=thepartthatholdsthedata
Storagedevice=themachinethatreads/writesdatatoandfromthe
media

# Storagemediais'permanentstorage'andwillholddataevenwhenthecomputeris
poweredoff.
Remember:

Permanentstoragedevices:
Devicesthatholddatawithoutpowerandareknownas'nonvolatile'
Temporarystoragedevices:
Devicesthatlosedatawithoutpowerandareknownas'volatile'.

TheCDisthe'media'(wheredataisheld)
TheCDDriveisthe'device'(readsdataonmedia).

# Storagemediacaneitherbe:
Internalinsidethecomputer
Externalpluggedintothecomputerfromoutside(e.g.usbstick)
# Thereare3differenttypesofstoragemediaandtheyallstoredataindifferentways.
Thesearesummarisedbelow:
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StorageMedia

Summary

1.Magneticmedia

2.Opticalmedia

3.Solidstatemedia

Holdsdatamagnetically
Surfaceareaofthemediaaremagnetisedsothatthey
canhold'bits'ofdata
Thedevicethatreadsthemediacanalsoreadthebits
heldonthesurfacearea.

Holdsdatabyburning'dots'ontothesurfacewitha
highpoweredlaser
Thedevicethatreadsthemediacanreadthedataby
shiningalowerpoweredlaseroverthedots.

Thereare2typesofcomputerstorage
PermanentandTemporary.

NOTE:
All3typesofmediaarecoveredin
moredetailinthenext3sectionsof
thisunit.

Holdsdataondevicesthathavenomovingparts.

StorageCapacity

KeyWords:
Bit,Byte,Kilobyte,Megabyte,
Gigabyte,Terabyte

# Storagecapacityisthetermgiventothemaximumamountofdatathatcanbestored
onthemedia.
# Storageamountsaremeasuredin'bytes'andthereare8bitsin1byte.

Examples:

Bitsareshortfor'binarydigits'.Thisisthesmallestunitofdatathatcanbestored.Each
'bit'isrepresentedasabinarynumber,either1or0.
Asingleletteronakeyboardtakesup1byteofstorage(8bits).
Computersreadandprocesseverythingintheformofbinarynumbers.Eachbinary
numbertakesup1bitofstorage.

Forexample: TheletterClookslike01000011toacomputer.Thereare8binary
numbers....so'C'takesup8bitsor1byteofstorage.

Thereare8bits(binarydigits)in1byteofdata.
(clicktozoom)

# Clickhereforatexttobinaryconvertertoseewhatotherkeyboardcharacterslooklikein
binary.

StorageCapacityUnits:
# Werefertothestoragecapacitiesofdifferentmediainthefollowingunits:
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/storage_media_intro.htm

Thereare16bitsin2bytesofdata.
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Unit

Abbreviation

Information

Bit

Smallestunitofdata(eithera1ora0)

Byte

1byte=8bits

Kilobyte

KB

1KB=1024bytes

Megabyte

MB

1MB=1024Kilobytes

Gigabyte

GB

1GB=1024Megabytes

Terabyte

TB

1TB=1024Gigabytes

Floppydiskscan'tstoreverymuchdata
(about1.44MB).

# Storagemediaallhavedifferentstoragecapacities.
Forexample:

Harddiskdriveshavecapacitiesintheterabytes.
Floppydiskdrivescanonlyhold1.44MBofdata.

StorageCapacityExamples:
# Thetablebelowgivesyousomerealworldexamplesofapproximatelyhowmuchdatawe
couldstoreonstoragemediawithdifferentcapacities:

StorageMediaCapacity

HowmuchDatacouldbeStored

1kilobyte

1thousandcharacters(halfapageoftext)

1megabyte

1millioncharacters(500pagesoftext)

1Gigabyte

1billioncharacters(500,000pagesoftext)

1Terabyte

1trillioncharacters(1,000,000thickbooks)

CD'scanholdabout800MBofdata.

Harddiskdrivescanstoreterabytesofdata.Thisisthe
equivalentofmanylibrariesfullofbooks.

PreviousWaysinwhichDatais
StoredandRead

NextMagneticStorageMedia

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

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LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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IGCSEICTMagneticStorageDevicesandMedia

TheICTLounge
Section3.4:
MagneticStorageMedia

Inthissectionyouwillseethe4differenttypesofmagneticstoragemedia.

KeyConceptsofthissection:

Fixedharddiskdrive
Portableharddiskdrive
Floppydisk
Magnetictape

# Knowthe4differenttypesofmagneticstorage
media.
# Understandtheusesofeachmagneticmedia.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesand
disadvantagesofeachmagneticmedia.

Foreachwewilldiscussfeatures,uses,advantages/disadvantages.

ExamplesofMagnetic
StorageMedia

KeyWords:
FixedHardDiskDrive,PortableHardDiskDrive,Floppy
Disk,MagneticTape

# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofmagneticstoragemedia.Clickeachofthemediatomovetomoreinformation:
FixedHardDisk
Drive

PortableHardDisk
Drive

FloppyDisk

MagneticTape

REMEMBER!
Magneticstoragemediausesa
magnatisedsurfaceareain
ordertoholdbitsof
information.

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/magnetic_storage_media.htm

(DirectAccess)

(SerialAccess)

NOTE:
Clicktheimagestotheleftto
movetomoreinformation
abouteachone.
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Breakdownofeachoutputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachofthe4differentmagneticstoragemedia.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthemedia
Usesofthemedia
Advantagesofthemedia
Disadvantagesofthemedia

FixedHardDiskDrive
Information:

Examples:

# Usedonallcomputersandarethemainmethodofstoringdata.Thisisbecausethey
arecapableofveryfastdirectaccessoffilesandhaveverylargestoragecapacities.
# Thediscsurface(Platter)iscoatedinamagneticfilmwhichiswherethedataisstored.
Thesehaveread/writeheads which allow data to be written to (saved) or read (used)
fromthedisc.
Theread/writeheads(alongwithdirectdataaccess)allowfor
veryfastdataaccessspeeds.

# HardDiscsareusedtostoreoperatingsystems,softwareapplicationsandallother
files.

Asummaryofaxedharddiskdrive.
(Clicktozoom)

# Typicalstoragespacesare250gigabytesupto4terabytes(4,096gigabytes).

UsesofFixedHardDiskDrives:
# Usedtostoretheoperatingsystemandapplicationssoftware(Windows,Word,Excel
etc).
# Usedforstoringfilesanddocuments(musicandhomeworkforexample).
# Realtimesystems(robots,chemicalplantcontrolsystems)andonlinesystems
(bookingairlineticketsetc)useharddiscdrivestostoredata.
Fixedharddiskdrivesaredesignedtobe'xed'into
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Thisisbecauserealtime/onlinesystemsrequiredatatobeprocessedvery
quickly.Fixedharddiskdriveshaveveryfastdataaccessspeedsandsocanhandlethis.

thecomputerandnotremoved.

# Usedinfileserversoncomputernetworkstostorefiles
(Likethestudent:driveinyourschoolisusedtostoreyourwork).

Advantages/DisadvantagesofFixedHardDiskDrives:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Fastread/writetimes(Savesdatato
diskandreadsbackfromitquickly).

Canbedamagedeasilywhencomputeris
notshutdownproperly(Disccrash!).

Hugecapacities(Canstorethousandsof
moviesandmusicfiles).

Notportableastheyaredesignedtobe
fixedintocomputerandnotremoved

Fixedharddiskdrivesstoredataonmagnecally
coateddisks(knownasplaers).

Veryeasytoupdate/deletefiles

PortableHardDiskDrive
Information:

Examples:

# Worksinasimilarwaytofixedharddiscsbutareconnectedtothecomputer
externallyviaaUniversalSerialBus(USB)port.
# Theyusedirectdataaccessmethodswhichmakesreading/writingofdataveryfast.
# PortableDiscDrivesaredesignedtobetransportable.
# TheycomewithaUSBCabletoallowforeasyattachmenttoothercomputerswhich
allowsforeasybackingup/sharingoffiles.
# Becausetheyareusedoutsideofthecomputertheycomewithprotectivecasingto
avoidphysicaldamagetothediscdrive.

Asummaryofaportableharddiskdrive.
(Clicktozoom)

# Typicalstoragespacesare250gigabytesupto3terabytes(3,072gigabytes).

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UsesofPortableHardDiskDrives:
# Likefixedharddrives,theyareusedtostorelargefiles(suchasvideo).
# Canbeusedasportablebackupsystemstoavoidlossofdata.
# Usedtotransferdata,filesandsoftwarebetweencomputersviaUSBconnectivity.
Portableharddiskdrivesareprotectedfromdamage
byatoughoutercasing.

Theirprotectivecasingmakesthemhardertodamagewhilstintransport.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofPortableHardDiskDrives:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Fastread/writetimes(directdata
access).

Smallsizemakesthemeasytomisplace
orhavestolen.

Hugecapacities.(Thousandsofmovies
andmusicfiles)

Moreexpensivethanotherformsof
storage

Smallandlightwithprotectivecasing.
(Makesthemveryportable)

Protectivecasingwillonlyprotectagainst
minorbumps.Ifthedeviceisdroppedit
canstillbecomedamaged.

Designedtoplugintoalmostany
computerviaUSBports.

Note:Thisisalwaysariskwhen
transportingdataexternally!

Portableharddiskdrivesaresmallandlight.

Portableharddiskdrivesconnecttoalmostanyother
computerviausb..

FloppyDisk
Information:

Examples:

# Oldmethodofportabledatastoragewhereinformationisheldonathinplasticdisc.
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# Dataonafloppydiskisread/writtenbyafloppydiskdrivewhichrotatesthedisk.
# Asthediscrotates,aread/writeheadisusedtoaddorreaddata.
Thedataisread/writtenusingdirectdataaccessmethods.

Eventhoughfloppydisksusedirectdataaccess,theirdatatransferratesarevery
slow.Goodjobtheycanonlystore1.44MB!!

Asummaryofaoppydisk.
(Clicktozoom)

# Thediscofplasticisprotectedbyaretractablemetalsleeveandhardplasticcasing.
Asmallnotchprovideswriteprotection(preventsaccidentallycopyingoverwork).
# Maximumstorageonafloppydiscisonlyabout1.44MB(700pagesoftext).

Floppydisksdonothavehighenoughcapacitiestostorelargemodernfiles.This
hasmadethemobsolete(useless)andcomputersnolongerhavefloppydiskdrives
installed.

Themagnecplascdiskisprotectedbyplasccasing
andametalsleeve.

UsesofFloppyDisks:
# Canstillbeusedwhereverysmallfilesneedtobetransferred/stored(e.g.smallword
processeddocuments).
# Writeprotectfacilityisusefultopreventaccidentaloverwritingofdata.
Floppydisksareread/wrientousingoppydisk
drives.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofFloppyDisks:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Costverylittletobuy.

Verylowstoragecapacitywhen
comparedtoothermedia(1.44Mb).

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comparedtoothermedia(1.44Mb).
Canbewriteprotectedeasilywhich
protectsagainstaccidentallycopyingover
files.

Veryfewmoderncomputershavefloppy
discdrives(deviceusedtoreadthedisk).

Verysmall,lightandeasytocarry
(portable).

Floppydiscsareverydelicateandeasyto
damage(Notrobust).
Slowdatatransferrate(Takesalong
timetosave/readfromthedisk).

Floppydisksarenowdoomed!

MagneticTape
Information:

Examples:

# Thisisoneoftheoldestformsofcomputerdatastorage.
# Magnetictapeisathinstripofmagneticcoatedplasticwhichiswrappedontoa
reel.
# Dataisstoredonthemagneticplasticintheformof1sand0s(binarynumbers).
# Dataiswrittentoandreadfrominsequence(i.e.inorder)whichisalsoknownas
'serialaccess'.
Remember:

SerialAccessworksabitlikeavideotape.Toaccesssomethinginthe
middleofthetapeyouneedtostartatthebeginningthenfastforward
untilyougettothepartyouneed.

Asummaryofmagnectape.
(Clicktozoom)

# Thistypeofstoragemediahasaveryslowdataaccessrate.
Becauseitissoslow,Itisuselessforrealtimeapplications(wherewhatisstoredis
constantlybeingupdated).
Theslowaccessspeedsmakesituselessforholdingdataduringrealtimeapplications
(e.g.alarmsystems).Thisisbecauseinrealtimeapplications,storeddataneedstobe
constantlyandquicklyupdated.
Magnectapeisamagneccoatedplasc
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# Sonyhavedevelopedmagnetictapecapableofstoringahuge185TBofdata.

wrappedontoareel.

UsesofMagneticTape:
# Usedwhereextremelylargeamountsofdataneedtobebackedup.
# Usedwherespeedofreading/writingofdataisNOTapriority.
For
Example:

Magnetictapeisusedtoholddatainbatchprocessingapplicationssuch
asclearingbankchequesandproducingpayslips.
Itcanbeusedherebecausespeedisnotimportant.Thesejobsareusually
leftrunningatnightwheneveryonehasgonehome.

Usedforbackupsofcomputernetworksinschoolsandbusiness.

ForExample:

Magnectapeusesserial(sequenal)accessto
read/writedata.Itworksmuchlikeamovielmreel.

Yourschoolfilesarefrequentlybackedupontheschool'snetwork.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofMagneticTape:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Lessexpensivethantheequivalent
capacityharddiskdrive.

Veryslowdataaccess/transfer(Reading
databackfromthetapeisslow).

Veryrobust(Noteasilydamaged).
Verylargestoragecapacities(Upto185
terabytesor185trillioncharacters).

Needsanothertapetoupdatedata
Forexample:originaltape+tapewiththe
changes=updatedtape.

PreviousStorageMediaIntroduction

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/magnetic_storage_media.htm

Magnectapeisoneoftheoldestformsofcomputer
datastoragemediaanditcanstorevastamountsof
data.

NextOpticalStorageDevices

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LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section3.5:
OpticalStorageMedia

Inthissectionyouwillseethe8differenttypesofopticalstoragemedia.
CDROM
DVDROM
CDR
DVDR

KeyConceptsofthissection:

CDRW
DVDRW
BluRayDisc
DVDRAM

# Knowthedifferenttypesofopticalstoragemedia.
# Understandtheusesofeachopticalmedia.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
eachopticalmedia.

Foreachwewilldiscussfeatures,uses,advantages/disadvantages.

OpticalStorageMedia(anoverview)
Definition:

"Allthemediumsthatusealightsourcetoread/writedataontoa
disc."

OverviewofOpticalStorageMedia:

KeyWords:
DataDots,Disc,Laser,Burn,
DiscDrive

Examples:

# Opticalstoragemediastoresdataonadiscasanumberofdatadotsthatcanberead
usinglight(usuallyalaserbeam).
Eachdotrepresents1sand0s(Bitsofinformation).
# Dataisreadbyshiningthelaserbeamontothesurfaceofthedisc.

Loadingzoom..

Ifthelighthitsoneofthedotsitisreflectedbackdifferentlythanitwouldbeifthere
wasnodot.Thisdifferenceisreadasdatabythecomputer.

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Dataisstoredonopcalmediaintheformofny
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IGCSEICTOpticalStorageDevicesandMedia

bumpsknownas'datadots'.(Clicktozoom)

# SomeOpticalDisks(suchasCDRs)allowyoutowritedatatothediscaswellasreadit.

Thisworksbyusingthelaserbeamtoburndotsontothesurfaceofthedisk(creating
thedata)andthenreadingthembackagain.Thisprocessisknownasburning.
#

Inordertoread/writedataonadiscyouneeda
'discdrive'.
Forexample: CDDrive,DVDDrive,
BluRayDrive
ADVDdiscdriveisusedtoreadandadddatatoDVD
opcaldisc.

Thedrivecontainsthefollowing:

Amountforthedisc
Alaser(toread/writethedatabumps)
Amotor(tospinthediscacrossthelaser)

Alltheexamplesofopticalstorage
mediaonthispageusedirectdata
access.

ExamplesofOpticalMedia
# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofopticalstorage
media.Clickeachofthemediatomovetomoreinformation:
CDROM

(DirectAccess)

CDRW

DVDROM

(DirectAccess)

DVDRW

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/optical_storage_media.htm

NOTE:

AnimaonshowinghowDiscDriveswork.

CDR

(DirectAccess)

DVDRAM

KeyWords:
CDROM,DVDROM,CDR,DVDR,CDRWR,DVDRW,
DVDRAM,BluRayDisc

DVDR

REMEMBER!

Opticalstoragemediastores
dataontinybumpscalleddata
dots.

NOTE:

Clicktheimagestotheleftto
movetomoreinformation

(DirectAccess)

BlurayDisc

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abouteachone.

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

Breakdownofeachoutputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachoftheopticalstoragemedia.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthemedia
Usesofthemedia
Advantagesofthemedia
Disadvantagesofthemedia

CDROMandDVDROM
Information:

Examples:

# ROMstandsfor'readonlymemory'.
Thismeansthatthedatacannotbewrittenover(addedto)andcanonlyberead.
# CDROM'sandDVDROM'sareboughtwithpreloadeddataalreadyonthem.
Usuallypreloadedwithsoftware,music,moviesandgames.

# WhateverisalreadyloadedontotheROMcannotberemovedorchanged.
Remember:

ThisisbecauseROMdiscsare'readonly'.
SoifyoupurchaseamusicCD,youcanlistentothetracksonthediscbut
youcan'tcan'taddmoresongsofyourown.
CDROMsstoreupto800MBandwereusedto
distributepreloadedsoware,musicetc.

# CDROMshaveamaximumcapacityofabout800MB(about400,000pagesoftext)

DVDROMshaveamaximumcapacityofabout4.7GB(about2.4millionpagesoftext)
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UsesofCDROMsandDVDROMs:
# CDROMSareusedbymanufacturerstostoresmallerfiles(upto800MB)suchas:
Musictracks
Software(suchaswordprocessors,spreadsheetsetc)
Audibooks
etc
# DVDROMShavemuchlargerstoragecapacities(upto4.7GB)thanCDROMSand
areusedtostorebiggerfilessuchas:
Movies
Moderngames(likegrandtheftauto,callofdutyetc)
Multimediaenclyclopedias
etc

DVDROMsareusedtodistributelargerles
suchasmovies.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofCDROMsandDVDROMs:

Advantages

Disadvantages

HoldfarmoredatathanFloppyDiscs.

Holdfarlessdatathanharddiskdrivesormemorysticks.

LessexpensivethanHardDiscDrives.

Veryslowdatatransferandaccessrateswhencomparedto
harddriskdrives.
(Readingbackfromthedicsisslow)

Datastoredonthemis'readonly'whichmeansyoucannot
accidentallyerasethefiles.

Youcannotaddyourownfilestothediscsbecausetheyare
bothreadonly.

Veryportableastheyaresmallandlight.

CDRandDVDR
Information:

Examples:

# TheletterRmeansthatthediscisrecordableonceonly.

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# OncethedischasdatarecordedonitbecomesaCD/DVDROM(readonly).
# Datacanbeaddedtothedisc(once)butNOTerasedwhenitisonthere.
# Dataisburntontothediscsusingadiscburner.
Note:

Adiscburnerworksinthesamewayasaregulardiscdrivebutisusesamore
powerfullasertoburndataontoaCD/DVDRdisc.
Adiscburnercanalsoreadthedataheldonthediscusingalesspowerful
laserthatisnotstrongenoughtoburn.
CDR'scanhaveabout700MBofdataburntontoa
specialmetallicdye.

Thinlayerofmetallicdyeisusedtorecord
thedataonto.
WhenCDRsandDVDRsareburnt,thelaser
makespermanentmarks(dotsofdatawhich
represent1sand0s)ontothemetallicdye.
Thesemarkscannotbeerased(whichiswhy
whatyouaddtothediscispermanent).
DVDR'suseadyethatallowsformore
dotstobeburntontothedisc'ssurface.

Adischasdata'burnt'ontoit'ssurfaceusing
amorepowerfullaser.

ThisiswhyDVDR'scanholdmoredata
thatCDR's

DVDR'suseadierenttypeofmetallicdyethatallows
formoredatatobeheldonthedisc.

# CDRhaveamaximumcapacityofabout700MB(about80minutesofaudio)
DVDRhaveamaximumcapacityofabout4.7GB(over2hoursofvideo)

Note:

DVDR'sarealsoavailablein'duallayer'.
Thismeanstheyhavetwolayersofrecordablesurfaceswhichmeanstheycan
storemoredata(about8.5GB)thanaregularDVDR.

ADVDburneradddataontoadiscand
readitbacko.

UsesofCDRandDVDR:
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# CDR'susedtocreatepersonalisedplaylistsofmusic.
# DVDR'susedtostorehomerecordingsofvideoshotondigitalcameras.
# Theycanbeusedtobackupimportantdatasothattherearecopiesincasetheoriginals
geterasedordeleted.
# Theycanbeusedtotransferdatafromonecomputertoanother.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofCDRandDVDR:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Onceburned,dataisimpossibleto
accidentallydeletebecausethedisc
becomesreadonly.

Onlyrecordableonce.Thismeans
updatingthediscisimpossible.

CheaperthanRWdiscsandHardDisk
Drives.

Ifanerroroccursduringburningthe
discisdamagedandmustbethrownaway
(wasted)

Easytotransportinformationfromone
computertoanother

Veryslowdatatransferrate.

(Cantakethediscoutofonemachineand
useinanother)

DualLayerDVD'sallowformoredatatobe
heldonthedisc.

(Burningdataontoadisccantakeupto15
minutes)
NotallCD/DVDplayerscanreadCDRand
DVDRdiscs

DataisburntontoCDR/DVDRdiscsusingalaser.
Oncethedataisonthediscitcannotberemoved.

CDRWandDVDRW
Information:

Examples:

# ThelettersRWstandforReWriteable.Thismeansthatthedisccanberecordedon
overandoveragain.
# UnlikeCD/DVDRsthesediscsDONOTbecomeROMS(notreadonly)onceburned.
# RWdrivesareusedtoburndataontodyeontheRWdisc(andalsoreadfromit).
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# Thedyeusedtorecorddataiscalled'phasechangingdye'anditallowsthebumpsof
datatobeundone.
Thebumpsofdataarereallyjustflattenedagainwhicheffectivelyerases
anystoreddata.

# Datacanbeaddedtothediscandcanalsobeerased.
CDRW'sandDVDRW'scanbereusedaround1000times.

# CDRWhaveamaximumcapacityofabout700MB

CDRWcanstoreupto700MBofdataandbereused
overandover.

DVDRWhaveamaximumcapacityofabout4.7GB

UsesofCDRWandDVDRW:
# CDRW'sareusedtocreatepersonalisedplaylistsofmusicandthenadd/remove
songsasyouwish.
# DVDRW'sareusedtorecordtelevisionprogrammesandcanberecordedovermany
times.
DVDRW'sarealsousedtorecordvideocontentofclosedcircuittelevision(CCTV)to
allowsecuritytokeepaneyeonbusinessesandwhatishappeningonthestreets

# Theycanbothalsobeusedtomakebackupsofcomputerfiles.

DVDRWcanstoreupto4.7GBofdataandbereused
overandover.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofCDRWandDVDRW:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Canbereusedmanytimes.

MoreexpensivetobuythanCD/DVDRdiscs

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Datastoredonthediscscanbeupdated.

Itispossibletoaccidentallyoverwritedata(sinceRWdiscs
canbeupdated).

NotaswastefulastheRformat.

Datatransfertothediscsisveryslowcomparedtoaharddisk
drive.

(Evenifburningfails,thediskcanstillberecordedonlaterand
notthrownaway)

(Dependingonthespeedofyourdiscburneritcantakeupto15
minutestoburnanentireDVDRW)

DVDRAM(DVDRandomAccessMemory)
Information:

Examples:

# WithDVDRAMwritingandreadingofdatacanhappenatthesametime.
Thismeansthatyoucouldwatchaprogrammeatthesametimethatanotheroneis
beingrecorded(Readandwriteatthesametime)

# TheyuseasimilarPhaseChangingRecordingDyetoCD/DVDRWswhichallows
DVDRAMdiscstoberecordedovermanytimes.
Note:

DVDRAMismuchfasterandeasierthanCD/DVDRWatoverwritingdata.

# DVDRAMdiscscanberewrittenovermanymanytimes(over100,000).
# DatacanbereliablystoredonDVDRAMformanyyearsduetotheirhighquality.
# DVDRAMhasacapacityof4.7GB(or9.4GBwithwithdoublesideddiscs).

UsesofDVDRAM:

DVDRAMisaveryhighqualitymethodofstoring
data.Discscanlastforyearsandyears.

# BecauseDVDRAMdiscslastsolongtheyareusedinvideoanddataarchiving(Safe
storeforimportantfilesandrecords).
# UsedinDVDrecorderstorecordTVprogrammes(ondigitalandsattelite)toallow
simultaneousrecordingandplayback.
# Usedincamcorderstostorevideo(Reliablyandformanyyears).
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/optical_storage_media.htm

DVDRAMisusedinDVDrecorderstorecord
TVprogrammes.
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Advantages/DisadvantagesofDVDRAM:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Longlifelastatleast30years.

ExpensivecomparedtoDVDandCDrecordablediscs.

Canbewrittenover100,000times(RWDisksonlyallow1,000
rewrites).

DontworkinasmanydevicesastheRorRWdiscs.

Veryfastaccesstostoredfiles.

OfferverylargestoragecapacitycomparedtoCDs
(Upto9.4Gbwithdoublesideddiscs).
Canreaddataatthesametimeitisbeingwritten.

BlurayDisc
Information:

Examples:

# WorkinasimilarwaytoDVDROMSbutthelaserusedtoreadthedataisbluerather
thanred(Redlasersusedtoreadtheotherdisctypes).

ThisbluelasercolouriswhythenameBluraywasused

# Bluelasersarecapableofreadingdatadotsthatarepositionedclosertogetheron
thedisksurface.
Asaresult,moredatadots(1'sand0's)canbestoredandread.

ABluraydiscanddrive.

Remember:

Moredatadots=highercapacity.(upto50millionpagesoftext)

# BlurayRWdiscscanberewrittentoinmuchthesamewayasRWdisks.
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Bluray'shavecapacitiesof25GB,50Gband100GB(dependingonthedisc).

UsesofBlurayDiscs:
# Usedtostorehighdefinitionvideo(Likehighqualitymovies).

One25GBBluraydisccanstore2hoursofHDTV.

# Usedinsomehomevideoconsoles(LikePlaystation3).
# UsedtobackupharddiskdrivesinPCs.

Bluraydiscshavehugestoragecapacies.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofBluray:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Hugestoragecapacity.Perfectforhigh
definitionmovies.

Veryexpensivecomparedtootheroptical
media.

Datacanberead/transferredveryfast
whencomparedtootheropticalmedia.

OnlyworkinBluRaydrives/players
whichareexpensive.
(Noteveryonehasthesedriveswhichlimits
theuseofthedisks)

PreviousMagneticStorageMedia

Bluraydiscsarereadwithabluelaser.Thislasercan
readdatadotsthatareclosertogether..

NextSolidStateStorageMedia

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

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IGCSEICTOpticalStorageDevicesandMedia

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section3.6:
SolidStateStorageMedia

Inthissectionyouwillseethe4differenttypesofsolidstatestorage
media.

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowthedifferenttypesofsolidstatestoragemedia.
# Understandtheusesofeachsolidstatemedia.
# Beabletodiscussadvantagesanddisadvantagesof
eachsolidstatemedia.

SolidStateHardDrive
Memorystick
Flashmemory
Microflashmemory
Foreachwewilldiscussfeatures,uses,advantages/disadvantages.

SolidStateMedia(anoverview)
Definition:

KeyWords:
Flashmemory,Nomoving
parts,Electroniccircuits

"Anymemorydevicewithnomovingpartsandarebasedon
electroniccircuits."

OverviewofSolidStateMedia:

Examples:

# SolidStateDriveshavenomovingparts.

Noreelsoftape,nospinningdisks,nomovinglaserbeamsetc.

# SSDtechnologyisknownas'flashmemory'andthisisthesmallestformofdata
storage.
Summaryofsolidstatedrives.
(Clicktozoom)

Examplesincludememorysticks,memorycardsetc.

Theystoredataas1sand0swithinmillionsof
electricaltransistorsinsteadofonfilmsof
magneticsubstanceorasdotsondiscs.

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Ifthetransistorconductsanelectric
current,thisequatesa1.
Ifitdoesnotconductacurrent,this
equatesa0
Animaonshowinghowashmemoryworks.

# TheyholdseveraladvantagesoverMagneticDiscDrives:

Solidstateharddrivesaremuchsmallerthanmagnec
harddisks.

Muchsmaller
Uselesspower(nomovingpartsmeanslesspowerneeded)
Fasterdataaccessandtransfertimes
Muchmorerobust(hardertodamage)

NOTE:
Alltheexamplesofsolidstate
storagemediaonthispageuse
directdataaccess.

ExamplesofSolidState
Media

KeyWords:
Solidstateharddrive,Memorystick,Pendrive,Flash
memory,Microflashmemory,SDcard,MicroSDcard

# Thetablebelowshowsyousomeexamplesofsolidstatestoragemedia.Clickeachofthe
mediatomovetomoreinformation:
SolidStateHard
Drives

MemoryStick/
PenDrive

FlashMemory
Cards

MicroFlash
MemoryCards

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

(DirectAccess)

REMEMBER!

Solidstatemediahaveno
movingparts.

NOTE:
Clicktheimagestotheleftto
movetomoreinformation
abouteachone.

Breakdownofeachoutputdevice:
# Thefollowingsectionswillhelpsummariseeachofthemanualinputdevices.Foreachoneyouwillsee:
Informationaboutthemedia
Usesofthemedia
Advantagesofthemedia
Disadvantagesofthemedia

SolidStateHardDrives(SSD's)
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Information:

Examples:

# UsedindesktopPC'sandlaptopsinplaceofmagneticharddiskdrives.
# Theyarealsoknownas'SSD's'.
# Theyofferadvantagesovermagneticharddrivessuchas:
Runsilently(magneticharddiskdrivesspinproducingwhirringsound)
Longerlifespan
Fasterdataaccessandtransfertimes
Uselesspower
Producelessheat
# Theyusesolidstatetechnologybasedonelectricalcircuitswhichmeanstheyhaveno
movingparts.
Nomovingparts=lesschanceofthembreakingdown.

SSD'sareusedinplaceofmagnecharddisksin
laptopsandPC's.

Magneticharddiskshavemovingpartssuchasspinningdisksandread/writeheads.

Eventuallythesepartsstopfunctioning.

# Thesestorefilespermanently(nonvolatilestorage).
# Theyhaveacurrentcapacityofabout1TB(approx1millionthickbooksworthoftext)

UsesofSolidStateHardDrives:
# UsedindesktopPC'sandlaptopstopermanentlystoredatasuchas:
Operatingsystems
Softwareapplications(suchaswordprocessors,spreadsheetsetc)
Music/Videofiles
Schoolwork,photos

Advantages/DisadvantagesofSolidStateHardDrives:

SSD'scomparedtomagnecharddiskdrives.
(Clicktozoom)

Advantages

Disadvantages

Lastlongerthanmagneticharddisks(nomovingparts).

Smallerstoragecapacitythanmagneticharddisks.

Fasterdataaccess/transfertimes.

Moreexpensivethanmagneticharddisks.

Note:Computersevenbootupfasterusingsolidstatehard
drives.
Uselesspowerandproducelessheat.
Runsilently.

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MemorySticks/PenDrives
Information:

Examples:

# Memorysticksaresmall,portableexternalstoragedevices.
# Theyareusedtoeasilytransferdatabetweencomputers.
# Memorysticksusesolidstatetechnologyandareusuallyconnectedtothecomputer
viaUSBports.
Note:

Memorysticksaremakingotherformsofportablestorage(likeCDsandDVDs)
redundantastheyaremucheasierandquickertotransferdata.

Summaryofmemoryscks.
(Clicktozoom)

# Dataaccessandtransferisveryfast.

# Memorysticksareverycheaptobuy.
Youcancurrentlyget32GBofstorageforlessthan10!

# Currentcapacitiesofmemorysticksareupto512GB(about500,000thickbooks)

UsesofMemorySticks:
# Usedforeasilytransportingfiles/databetweencomputers.
# Usedforbackingupdataquicklyandeasily.

Memoryscksareverysmallandconnectto
computersviaUSB.

Advantages/DisadvantagesofMemorySticks:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Verysmallandlightweight(portable).

Nowriteprotectfeature.Thismeans
thatitispossibletoaccidentallycopyover
data

Robustnomovingpartsmeanstheyare
lesslikelytobecomedamaged.

Smallphysicalsizemeansthattheyare
easytomisplaceorlose

Forexample:CD'sandDVD'scanget
scratched.
Compatiblewithalmostanycomputer.
(mostcomputershaveUSBports)
Largestoragecapacities(upto512GB)
http://www.ictlounge.com/html/solid_state_storage_media.htm

MoreexpensiveperGBthanmagnetic
harddisks.

Memorysckshavelargecapacies.

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FlashMemoryCards(andMicroFlashMemoryCards)
Information:

Examples:

# Flashmemorycardsarealsoknownas'SecureDigitalCards'(orSDCards).
# SDcardsaresmallandrectangularinshape.
# TheseareaformofElectronicallyErasableProgrammableReadOnlyMemory
(EEPROM).
# SDcardsusesolidstatetechnology(theyhavenomovingparts).

Note:

Microflashmemorycardsarejustsmallerversionsoftheregularflash
memorycards.

Summaryofmemoryscks.
(Clicktozoom)

Microflashmemorycardsaresometimesalsocalled'MicroSDCards'.

# Awiderangeofdeviceshaveslotstoreadflashmemorycardsincludinglaptops,mobile
phones,tabletsandmp3players.
# SDcardreaderscanbeusedtotransferdatafromthecardsontoadesktopPC.
# SDCardshaveamaximumcapacityofabout256GB
MicroSDCardshaveamaximumcapacityofabout128GB

SDcardsandMicroSDcardsarereallythe
samethingexceptforthesize.

UsesofFlashMemoryCards:
# SDcardsareusedtostorephotosondigitalcameras.

Note:

ManystoresthatofferprintingserviceshaveSDcardreadersthataccess
dataonyourcards.
Thismeansyoucangetyourphotographsprintedwithoutevenhavingtotake
yourdigitalcamerawithyoutothestore.

MicroSDcardshaveaverysmallphysicalsize.

# SDcardsareusedinhandhelddevices(likePDAsandpalmtop's)tostorefilesand
data.
# MicroSDcardsareusedinmobilephonesasmemorycardstostorephotosand
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musicetc.
# MicroSDcardscanbeusedbyMP3playerstostoremusicfiles

Advantages/DisadvantagesofFlashMemoryCards:
Advantages

Disadvantages

Verysmallsotheyareeasytotransport
filesfromonedevicetoanother(Camerato
Cameraforexample).

MoreexpensiveperGBthanmagnetic
harddiskdrives.

Robustandnoteasilydamaged(No
movingparts).
Easytoconnecttomobiledevicesthrough
SDSlots

Lowerstoragecapacitythanmagnetic
harddisks.

Flashmemoryisusedasstorageindevices
suchasmp3players.

Smallsizemakesthemeasytohave
stolenorlose.
DesktopPC'sdon'tusuallycomewith
builtinmemorycardreaders.Toconnectto
adesktopPCyouneedtobuyanSDcard
reader.

FlashcardreaderscanconnectashcardstoPC's

PreviousOpticalStorageMedia

NextComparisonofStorageMedia

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

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TheICTLounge
Section3.7:
ComparisonofStorageMedia

Inthissectionwewillcomparethestoragemediaintermsof:
Amountofdatastored(capacity)
Speedofdataaccess
Poratability
Cost

KeyConceptsofthissection:
# Knowthatstoragemediacanbecompared.
# Beabletocompareeachofthestoragemediainterms
ofthe4areashighlighted.

Note:Thedataonthispagecouldchange.

SolidStateMediaComparisonTables
Comparingtheamountofdatastored(storagecapacity)
Lowstoragecapacity
1.44MB800MB
MediumStorage
Capacity
4.7GB512GB
Highstorage
capacity
1TB185TB

#Floppydisk
#CDROM,CDR,CDRW
#DVDROM,DVDR,DVDRW
#DVDRAM
#Bluraydiscs
#MicroSDcard,SDcard
#Memorystick
#Solidstateharddrives
#Fixedharddisk,Portableharddisk
#Magnetictape

Comparingthespeedtoaccessdata
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Comparingthespeedtoaccessdata

IGCSEICTComparisonofStorageMedia

Slowaccessspeed

#Magnetictape
#Floppydisk

Mediumaccessspeed

#CDROM,CDR,CDRW
#DVDROM,DVDR,DVDRW
#DVDRAM
#Bluray
#Fixedharddisks,Portableharddisk

Fastaccessspeed

#Memorystick
#Solidstateharddrive
#MicroSDcard,SDcard

Comparinghowportableeachstoragemediais
Notportableatall

#Fixedharddisk

Quiteportable

#Solidstateharddrive
#Magnetictape
#Portableharddisk

Veryportable

#CDROM,CDR.CDRW
#DVDROM,DVDR,DVDRW,DVDRAM
#Floppydisk
#MicroSDcard,SDcard
#Memorystick

Comparingthecost
Verycheap
410forpacks

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/comparison_of_storage_media.htm

#Floppydisks
#CDR,CDRW
#DVDR,DVDRW,DVDRAM

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3/17/2016

IGCSEICTComparisonofStorageMedia

Fairlycheap
1550for64Gb
andabove
Expensive
50300for1TB
andabove

#Memorystick
#MicroSDcard,SDcard
#Portableharddisk
#Fixedharddisk,Portableharddisk
#Magnetictape
#Solidstateharddrive

PreviousSolidStateStorageMedia

NextPracticeTest

LinkstoTheoryUnits:
Section1:TypesandComponentsofComputerSystems

Section2:InputandOutputDevices

Section3:StorageDevicesandMedia

Section4:ComputerNetworks

Section5:DataTypes

Section6:TheEffectsofUsingICT

Section7:TheWaysinwhichICTisused

Section7:Part2

Section8:SystemsAnalysisandDesign

LinkstoPracticalUnits:
Section9:Communication

Section10:DocumentProduction

Section11:DataManipulation

Section12:Integration

Section13:OutputData

Section14:DataAnalysis

Section15:WebsiteAuthoring

Section16:PresentationAuthoring

Backtotop

http://www.ictlounge.com/html/comparison_of_storage_media.htm

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