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Acids and Bases

Table 1 shows pH values of different concentration of hydrochloric acid, HCl


solutions.
Jadual 3 menunjukkan nilai-nilai pH bagi larutan asid hidroklorik, HCl yang berbeza
kepekatan.
Type of solution
Jenis larutan

Solution I
Larutan I

Solution II
Larutan II

Solution III
Larutan III

Concentration
Kepekatan

0.1 mol dm-3

0.01 mol dm-3

0.001 mol dm-3

pH value
Nilai pH

Table 1
Jadual 1
(a)

(i)

Which of the solutions in Table 1 has the highest concentration of


hydrogen ions?
Larutan yang manakah dalam Jadual 1 mempunyai kepekatan ion
hidrogen yang paling tinggi?
..........................................................................................................
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(ii)

Calculate the number of hydrogen ions in 25 cm3 of Solution II.


[Avogadro Constant = 6 x 1023 mol-1 ]
Hitungkan bilangan ion hidrogen dalam 25 cm3 Larutan II.
[Nombor Avogadro = 6 x 1023 mol -1 ]

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

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Acids and Bases


(iii)

Name an indicator that can be used to measure the pH values of the


solutions I, II and III.
Namakan satu penunjuk yang boleh digunakan untuk mengukur nilai pH
larutan-larutan I, II dan III.
...
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(b)

Solution I is used to neutralise 25 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 of sodium hydroxide,


NaOH solution.
Larutan I digunakan untuk meneutralkan 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida,
NaOH 0.1 mol dm-3.
(i)

Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide, NaOH in the


solution.
Hitungkan bilangan mol natrium hidroksida, NaOH dalam larutan.

[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii)

Calculate the volume of Solution I used to neutralise sodium hydroxide,


NaOH solution in cm3.
Hitungkan isipadu Larutan I yang digunakan untuk meneutralkan larutan
natrium hidroksida, NaOH dalam cm3.

[3 marks]
[3 markah]

(iii)

Draw an apparatus set-up for the titration of sodium hydroxide solution

5 SC STRIVE FOR EXCELLENT

Acids and Bases


with solution I.
Lukis susunan radas untuk pentitratan larutan natrium hidroksida
dengan Larutan I

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

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Acids and Bases

Question
No.
1 (a) (i) Solution I // I
(ii)

Explanation

Number of mole = 25 x 0.01 = 0.00025


1000
= 0.00025 // 2.5 x 10-4 mol
Number of H+ = 0.00025 x 6.02 x 1023
= 1.5 x 1020

(iii)
(b) (i)

(ii)

Universal indicator // pH paper // pH meter.


Number of mole of NaOH = 25 x 0.1
1000
= 0.0025 mol
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
From the equation,
1 mol of NaOH react with 1 mol of HCl
0.0025 mol of NaOH react with 0.0025 mol of HCl//
No. of mole of HCl = 0.0025 mol
Volume of HCl = 0.0025 x 1000
0.1
= 25 cm3

(iii)

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Acids and Bases

Correct diagram of apparatus set-up.


Correct label.

Hydrochloric acid / HCl//


Solution I

Sodium hydroxide / NaOH


solution

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2

Diagram 1 shows the information about two types of solutions A and B which are used to carry
out titration with hydrochloric acid.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan maklumat tentang dua jenis larutan A dan B yang digunakan untuk
menjalankan pentitratan dengan asid hidroklorik.
Solution A : 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH
Larutan A : 50 cm3 natrium hidroksida, NaOH 1.0 mol dm-3
Solution A : 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH
Larutan B : 50 cm3 ammonium hidroksida,NH4OH 1.0 mol dm-3
Diagram 1
Rajah 1
(a)

(i) What are the types of solutions A and B.


Apakah jenis larutan A dan B.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) State the formula of ion that present in both solutions?
Nyatakan formula ion yang hadir di dalam kedua-dua larutan?.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(iii) Predict the pH value of Solution B, if the pH value of Solution A is 14.
Ramalkan nilai pH bagi Larutan B jika nilai pH Larutan A adalah 14.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(iv) Why there is different in pH value of Solution A and B?


Mengapakah terdapat perbezaan nilai pH di antara Larutan A dan B?.

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Acids and Bases

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(b) Write the chemical equation between Solution A and hydrochloric acid.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia antara Larutan A dengan asid hidroklorik.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(c) Calculate the volume of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, HCl solution needed to neutralise
Solution A.
Hitungkan isipadu larutan asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 yang diperlukan untuk
meneutralkan Larutan A.

[3 marks]
[3 markah]

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Acids and Bases

(a)

(b)
(c)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Alkali
OH7 < pH <12
The concentration of hydroxide ions in Solution A is higher.
The higher the concentration of OH- ions the higher the pH value.
HCl
+
NaOH NaCl + H2O
Correct reactant
Correct product
MaVa = 1 (mole ratio 1:1)
MbVb = 1
Va =
0.3 x 50
0.1
= 150 cm3

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Acids and Bases


3

Diagram 4 shows Experiments I and II in the preparation of a salt.


Rajah 4 menunjukkan Eksperimen 1 dan II dalam penyediaan garam.

Experiment
Eksperimen

Method
Kaedah
0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid
0.1 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik

25.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide +


phenolphthalein
25.0 cm3 natrium hidroksida 0.2 mol dm-3 +
fenolftalein

II

10 cm3 of 1.0
mol dm-3
lead(II) nitrate
solution
10 cm3 larutan
plumbum(II)
nitrat
1.0 mol dm-3

Excess potassium
iodide solution
Larutan kalium iodida
berlebihan
Precipitate X
Mendakan X

Diagram 4
Rajah 4
(a) Based on Experiment I:
Berdasarkan Eksperimen I :
(i) State the name for the reaction.
Nyatakan nama bagi tindak balas itu.
................................................................................................................................
......
[1 mark]

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Acids and Bases


(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction that occurs in the conical flask.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindakbalas yang berlaku di dalam kelalang
kon.
..............................................................................................................................
......
[1 mark]
(iii) State the colour change in the conical flask at the end point.
Nyatakan perubahan warna di dalam kelalang kon pada takat akhir.
..............................................................................................................................
......
[1 mark]

(iv) Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid used to neutralise the sodium
hydroxide solution.
Hitungkan isi padu asid hidroklorik yang digunakan untuk
meneutralkan larutan natrium hidroksida.

[2 marks]

(b) Based on Experiment II:

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Acids and Bases


Berdasarkan Eksperimen II :
(i) State the name of the reaction.
Nyatakan nama bagi tindak balas itu.
....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) State the name of precipitate X.
Nyatakan nama bagi mendakan X.
....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction.
Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas itu.
....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iv) Calculate the maximum mass of precipitate X formed.
[Relative atomic mass ; Pb=207, I=127]
Hitungkan jisim maksimum mendakan X yang terbentuk.
[Jisim atom relatif ; Pb=207, I=127]

(a)

(i)

Neutralization

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Acids and Bases

(b)

(c)

(ii)

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

(iii)
(iv)

Pink turns colourless

(i)
(ii)

Double decomposition/ Precipitate reaction


Lead(II) iodide

(iii)

Pb2+ + 2I- PbI2

MaVa 1 0.1 Va 1
,
, Va = 50 cm3
MbVb 1 0.2 Vb 1

Number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 =

1.0 10
= 0.01
1000

Mass of PbI2 = 0.01 461 = 4.61 g

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