Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)



Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion,
releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or
digestion are not included by this definition.
The flame is the visible portion of the fire. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized
to produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color
of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different.
Fire in its most common foam can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause
physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process that affects ecological systems
across the globe. The positive effects of fire include stimulating growth and maintaining
various ecological systems. Fire has been used by humans for cooking, generating heat,
signaling, and propulsion purposes. The negative effects of fire include water contamination,
soil erosion, atmospheric pollution and hazard to life and property.


Source of Fire
The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the necessary
ingredients for most fires. The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite:
heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). A fire naturally occurs when the elements
are present and combined in the right mixture, and a fire can be prevented or extinguished by
removing any one of the elements in the fire triangle. For example, covering a fire with a fire
blanket removes the "oxygen" part of the triangle and can extinguish a fire.

Figure 2.1: Fire triangle

Figure 2.2: Fire tetrahedron

Fires start when a flammable a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient

quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound, is exposed to a
source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel mix, and is able to
sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction. This is commonly called the
fire tetrahedron.
Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions. For
example, a flammable liquid will start burning only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right
proportions. Some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, a substance that is not directly
involved in any chemical reaction during combustion, but which enables the reactants to
combust more readily.
Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat
by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate,
provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel.
If the oxidizer is oxygen from the surrounding air, the presence of a force of gravity, or of
some similar force caused by acceleration, is necessary to produce convection, which
removes combustion products and brings a supply of oxygen to the fire. Without gravity, a fire
rapidly surrounds itself with its own combustion products and non-oxidizing gases from the
air, which exclude oxygen and extinguish it. Because of this, the risk of fire in a spacecraft is
Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

small when it is coasting in inertial flight. Of course, this does not apply if oxygen is supplied
to the fire by some process other than thermal convection.
Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire tetrahedron.
Consider a natural gas flame, such as from a stovetop burner. The fire can be extinguished
by any of the following:
i. Turning off the gas supply, which removes the fuel source.
ii. Covering the flame completely, which smothers the flame as the combustion both
uses the available oxidizer (the oxygen in the air) and displaces it from the area
around the flame with CO2.
iii. Application of water, which removes heat from the fire faster than the fire can produce
iv. Application of a retardant chemical such as Halon to the flame, which retards the
chemical reaction itself until the rate of combustion is too slow to maintain the chain


Stages of Fire Development


Pre-flashover Stage
Fire remains limited in size initially, and can be easily extinguished using a portable
fire extinguisher at first. Detection may not occur until flames become visible or when
heat is produced.


Flashover Stage
Heat becomes intense and high enough to ignite common combustible materials
within the room, leading to a fully developed fire. This can happen within minutes of
the pre-flashover stage when the proper conditions are in place.

iii. Post-flashover Stage

Fully developed phase of a fire, whereby all exposed combustibles in the room are
involved. This may result in total loss of collections within the room; the entire building
is threatened. Flames may spread to other rooms through hallways and ceiling voids.
Fire will eventually burn out when all combustibles are consumed. Because fire can
grow and spread rapidly, it is important to detect and extinguish it at the earliest stage
possible in order to reduce the risk of serious damage, injury or loss.

Figure 2.3: Fire development stages

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Source of Fire Fuel

Anything that burns is fuel for a fire. To look for the things that will burn reasonably easily
and are in enough quantity to provide fuel for a fire or cause it to spread to another fuel
Some of the most common 'fuels' found in factories and warehouses are:
i. Flammable liquid-based products, such as paints and varnishes
ii. Flammable chemicals, such as certain cleaning products and photocopier chemicals
iii. Flammable gases such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and flammable refrigerants
iv. Stored goods and high piled or racked storage
v. Foodstuffs containing sugar and oils, such as sugar-coated cereal and butter
vi. Plastics and rubber, such as video tapes, polyurethane foam-filled furniture
vii. Paper products, such as stationery, advertising material and decorations;
viii. Packaging materials
ix. Plastic and timber storage aids both in use and idle, such as pallets and palletizers
x. Combustible insulation, such as panels constructed with combustible cores;
xi. Textiles and soft furnishings, such as hanging curtains and clothing displays
xii. Waste products, particularly finely divided items such as shredded paper and wood
shavings, offcuts, dust and litter/rubbish.


Source of Fire Ignition/Heat

Some typical sources of ignition include:
i. Exterior and natural sources such as lightning
ii. Electrical sources such as faulty or overloaded wiring, electrical panels, electrical
equipment and appliances, and HVAC (heating/ventilation/air conditioning) systems
iii. Proximity of combustible materials to a heat source such as portable heaters
iv. Open flames such as candles and food warmers used during catered events
v. "interpretive fires" such as fireplaces, cook stoves, candles, blacksmith shops
vi. Construction and renovation activities such as hot work example welding and paint
vii. Improper use, storage, and/or disposal of flammable liquids such as paint thinners
viii. Smoking materials
ix. Gas leaks


The Spreading of The Fire

Most fires start in the contents of a
building. But if the flames are not quickly
extinguished while in the content phase; they
will extend to, and throughout the structure. It
spreads throughout concealed spaces, poke
through walls, common roof or attic spaces.
Sometimes even along the outside of the
building. Its cause of heat transfer.
Heat transfer is a major factor in the
ignition, growth, spread, decay and extinction
of a fire. It is important to note that heat is
always transferred from the hotter object to
the cooler object - heat energy transferred to
and object increases the object's
temperature, and heat energy transferred
from and object decreases the object's

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

Figure 2.4: Fire spreading

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Fires can spread by four method:


Direct ignition
The ignition system for the fire combustion creates such as a lightning spark that
ignites the fuel. Example of direct ignition was open flames, lightning, lighted cigarette
butts and hot ashes.

Figure 2.5: The fire ignition


Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic waves. It is the type of heat one feels
when sitting in front of a fireplace or around a campfire. It travels in straight lines at
the speed of light. This is the reason that when facing the fire, only the front is
warmed. The backside is not warmed until the person turns around. The earth is
heated by the sun through radiation. Sunburns are a fact of life when people are
exposed to the sun very long. Most of the preheating of fuels ahead of a fire is by
radiation of heat from the fire. As the fire front gets closer, the amount of radiant heat
received is increased.

Figure 2.6: The fire radiation

iii. Convection
Convection is heat transfer by the movement of liquids or gasses. Convection is the
transfer of heat by the physical movement of hot masses of air. As air is heated, it
expands (as do all objects). As it expands, it becomes lighter than the surrounding
air and it rises. This is why the air near the ceiling of a heated room is warmer than
that near the floor. The cooler air rushes in from the sides. It is heated in turn and it
also rises. Soon a convection column is foamed above the fire which can be seen by
the smoke that is carried aloft in it. This in-draft of cooler air from the side helps to
supply additional oxygen for the combustion process to continue.

Figure 2.7: The fire convection

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

iv. Conduction
Conduction is heat transfer within solids material or between contacting solids. Most
metals are good heat conductors. Wood is a very poor conductor so it transmits heat
very slowly. This can be illustrated by the fact that a wooden handle on a hot frying
pan remains cool enough to be held by the bare hands. Conduction is not an
important factor in the spread of forest fires. Example situation of that were heating
elements, hot metals

Figure 2.8: The fire conduction


The Basic Concept of Fire Control

The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite: heat, fuel, and an
oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). A fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and
combined in the right mixture and a fire can be prevented or extinguished by removing any
one of the elements in the fire triangle.
To stop a combustion reaction, one of the three elements of the fire-triangle has to be
removed. There are a few basic concepts used for fire control, its:
i. Removing Heat
Heat can be removed by the application of a substance which reduces the amount of
heat available to the fire reaction. This is often water, which requires heat for phase
change from water to steam. Introducing sufficient quantities and types of powder or
gas in the flame reduces the amount of heat available for the fire reaction in the same
manner. Scraping embers from a burning structure also removes the heat source.
Water can be used to lower the temperature of the fuel below the ignition point or to
remove or disperse the fuel.

Removing Fuel
Without fuel, a fire will stop. Fuel can be removed naturally, as where the fire has
consumed all the burnable fuel, or manually, by mechanically or chemically removing
the fuel from the fire. Fuel separation is an important factor in fire suppression, and is
the basis for most major tactics, such as controlled burns. The fire stops because a
lower concentration of fuel vapor in the flame leads to a decrease in energy release
and a lower temperature. Removing the fuel thereby decreases the heat.

iii. Reducing Oxygen

Without sufficient oxygen, a fire cannot begin, and it cannot continue. With a
decreased oxygen concentration, the combustion process slows. Oxygen can be
denied to a fire using a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher or a fire blanket. For example,
covering a fire with a fire blanket removes the "oxygen" part of the triangle and can
extinguish a fire.
iv. Cut-off The Chain Reaction
The fire tetrahedron represents the addition of a component, the chemical chain
reaction, to the three already present in the fire triangle. Once a fire has started, the
resulting exothermic chain reaction sustains the fire and allows it to continue until or
unless at least one of the elements of the fire is blocked. Combustion is the chemical
reaction that feeds a fire more heat and allows it to continue. Inert agents must be
used to break the chain reaction. In the same way, as soon as one of the four
elements of the tetrahedron is removed, combustion stops.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Fire Prevention System In A Building

The objective of fire prevention system in the building has to take precautions to prevent
potentially harmful fires, and be educated about surviving them. It is a proactive method of
reducing emergencies and the damage caused by them. There are two types of preventing
system, its:
i. Active Fire Protection
ii. Passive Fire Protection


Active Fire Protection (AFP)

Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterized by
items and/or systems, which require a certain amount of motion and response in order to
work, contrary to passive fire protection.
There are four categories of AFP, its:
i. Fire Suppression
Fire can be controlled or extinguished, either manually (firefighting) or automatically.
Manual includes the use of a fire extinguisher or a standpipe system. Automatic
means can include a fire sprinkler system, a gaseous clean agent, or firefighting foam
system. Automatic suppression systems would usually be found in large commercial
kitchens or other high-risk area. Types of fire suppression were:
a. Fire Extinguisher
b. Flame Extinguisher
c. Fire Hydrant
d. Fire Hose reel
e. Fire Bucket
f. Firefighting Foam System
g. Standpipe (Dry and Wet)
h. Fire Blanket

Sprinkler Systems
Fire sprinkler systems are installed in all types of buildings, commercial and
residential. They are usually located at ceiling level and are connected to a reliable
water source, most commonly city water. A typical sprinkler system operates when
heat at the site of a fire causes a glass component in the sprinkler head to fail,
thereby releasing the water from the sprinkler head. This means that only the
sprinkler head at the fire location operates - not all the sprinklers on a floor or in a
building. Sprinkler systems help to reduce the growth of a fire, thereby increasing life
safety and limiting structural damage. The types of sprinkler system were:
a. Quick Response
b. Standard Response
c. Control Mode Specific application (CMSA)
d. Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR)

iii. Fire Detection

Fire is detected either by locating the smoke, flame or heat, and an alarm is
sounded to enable emergency evacuation as well as to dispatch the local fire
department. An introduction to fire detection and suppression can be found here.
Where a detection system is activated, it can be programmed to carry out other
actions. These include de-energizing magnetic hold open devices on fire doors and
opening servo-actuated vents in stairways. Types of fire detection were:
a. Smoke Detector System
b. Heat Detector System
c. Fire Alarm System
d. Smash Glass

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

iv. Hypoxic Air Fire Prevention

Fire can be prevented by hypoxic air. Hypoxic air fire prevention systems, also
known as oxygen reduction systems are new automatic fire prevention systems that
reduce permanently the oxygen concentration inside the protected volumes so that
ignition or fire spreading cannot occur. Unlike traditional fire suppression systems that
usually extinguish fire after it is detected, hypoxic air is able to prevent fires.
a. Carbon Dioxide Gas System


Passive Fire Protection (PFP)

Passive fire protection (PFP) is an integral component of the three components of
structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the
spread, through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP
systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order to
provide the effectiveness expected by building codes. Examples of PFP component were:
i. Fire-Resistance Rated Wall/Door
ii. Firewall
iii. Fire-resistant glass
iv. Fire-resistance rated floors
v. Occupancy separations
vi. Closures
vii. Fire stops
viii. Grease ducts
ix. Cable coating
x. Spray fireproofing
xi. Fireproofing
xii. Enclosures


Classes of The Fire

In firefighting, fires are identified according to one or more fire classes. Each class
designates the fuel involved in the fire, and thus the most appropriate extinguishing agent.
The classifications allow selection of extinguishing agents along lines of effectiveness at
putting the type of fire out, as well as avoiding unwanted side-effects. For example, nonconductive extinguishing agents are rated for electrical fires, so to avoid electrocuting the
firefighter. There are six classes of fire to refer in Asian country, its seeing on table 2.1.



Table 2.1: Class and types of fuel source

Fuel/Heat source
Ordinary combustibles
Flammable liquids
Flammable gases
Combustible metals
Electrical equipment
Cooking oil or fat

The Fire Extinguisher

A fire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply an extinguisher, is an active fire
protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is
not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling,
endangers the user example no escape route, smoke and explosion hazard or otherwise
requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a handheld cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a
Portable fire extinguishers apply an extinguishing agent that will cool burning fuel,
displace or remove oxygen, or stop the chemical reaction so a fire cannot continue to burn.
When the handle of an extinguisher is compressed, agent is expelled out the nozzle. A fire
extinguisher works much like a can of hair spray.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Figure 2.9: The fire extinguisher

component and operation

There are two operation types of fire extinguishers:

i. Stored pressure
ii. Cartridge-operated

Stored Pressure
In stored pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the firefighting
agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical
extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air.
Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. These extinguishers use
compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used on low
temperature (-60 rated) models.


Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is
punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is
not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive
higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing
an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable
amount of time. Cartridge operated extinguishers are available in dry chemical and dry
powder types in the U.S. and in water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes ABC and
B.C.), and dry powder (class D) types in the rest of the world.


Types of Agent Fire Extinguishers

Handheld extinguishers, which are commonly sold at hardware stores for use in the
kitchen or garage, are pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2) to propel a stream of
fire-squelching agent to the fire. The active material may be a powder such as potassium
bicarbonate (KHCO3), liquid water, an evaporating fluorocarbon or the propelling agent itself.
Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different types of fire. The three
most common types of fire extinguishers are: air pressurized water, CO2 (carbon dioxide),
and dry chemical. Its is:

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Water Fire Extinguisher

APW (Air pressurized water) cools burning material by absorbing heat from burning
material. Effective on class A fires, it has the advantage of being inexpensive,
harmless, and relatively easy to clean up. APW units contain from 6 to 9 liters of
water in a tall, stainless steel cylinder. Water mist uses a fine misting nozzle to break
up a stream of deionized water to the point of not conducting electricity back to the
operator. Class A and C rated. It is used widely in hospitals for the reason that, unlike
other clean-agent suppressants, it is harmless and non-contaminant.


Foam Fire Extinguisher

Applied to fuel fires as either an aspirated (mixed & expanded with air in a branch
pipe) or non-aspirated foam to foam a frothy blanket or seal over the fuel, preventing
oxygen reaching it. Unlike powder, foam can be used to progressively extinguish fires
without flashback. More expensive than water, but more versatile. Use for class A
and B fires. Foam spray extinguishers are not recommended for fires involving
electricity, but are safer than water if inadvertently sprayed onto live electrical
apparatus. There are four types of foam used:
a. Aqueous Film Foaming Foam (AFFF)
Used on A and B fires and for vapor suppression. The most common type in
portable foam extinguishers. It contains fluoro tensides which can be
accumulated in the human body. The long-term effects of this on the human body
and environment are unclear at this time.
b. Alcohol-resistant Aqueous Film Foaming Foam ( AR-AFFF)
Used on fuel fires containing alcohol. Foams a membrane between the fuel and
the foam preventing the alcohol from breaking down the foam blanket.

Film Foaming Fluoro Protein (FFFP)

Contains naturally occurring proteins from animal by-products and synthetic filmfoaming agents to create a foam blanket that is more heat resistant than the
strictly synthetic AFFF foams. FFFP works well on alcohol-based liquids and is
used widely in motorsports.

d. Compressed Air Foam System (CAFS)

Extinguisher that is charged with a foam solution and pressurized with
compressed air. Generally used to extend a water supply in wild land operations.
Used on class A fires and with very dry foam on class B for vapor suppression.
iii. Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher
This is a powder based agent that extinguishes by separating the four parts of the fire
tetrahedron. It prevents the chemical reactions involving heat, fuel, and oxygen and
halts the production of fire sustaining "free-radicals", thus extinguishing the fire. There
are seven types or dry powder agent:
a. Mono-ammonium Phosphate
Also known as "tri-class", "multipurpose" or "ABC" dry chemical, used on class A,
B, and C fires. It receives its class A rating from the agent's ability to melt and
flow at 177 C (350 F) to smother the fire. More corrosive than other dry
chemical agents. Pale yellow in color.
b. Sodium Bicarbonate
"regular" or "ordinary" used on class B and C fires, was the first of the dry
chemical agents developed. In the heat of a fire, it releases a cloud of carbon
dioxide that smothers the fire. That is, the gas drives oxygen away from the fire,
thus stopping the chemical reaction. This agent is not generally effective on class
A fires because the agent is expended and the cloud of gas dissipates quickly,
and if the fuel is still sufficiently hot, the fire starts up again. While liquid and gas
fires don't usually store much heat in their fuel source, solid fires do.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services

PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Potassium Bicarbonate (Purple-K)

Used on class B and C fires. About two times as effective on class B fires as
sodium bicarbonate, it is the preferred dry chemical agent of the oil and gas
industry. The only dry chemical agent certified for use in ARFF by the NFPA.
Violet in color.

d. Potassium Bicarbonate & Urea Complex (Monnex/Powerex)

Used on class B and C fires. More effective than all other powders due to its
ability to decrepitate (where the powder breaks up into smaller particles) in the
flame zone creating a larger surface area for free radical inhibition. Grey in color.
e. Potassium Chloride or Super-K
Dry chemical was developed in an effort to create a high efficiency, protein-foam
compatible dry chemical. Developed in the 60s, prior to Purple-K, it was never as
popular as other agents since, being a salt, it was quite corrosive. For B and C
fires, white in color.

Which is a sodium bicarbonate (BC) based dry chemical, was developed for use
with protein foams for fighting class B fires. Most dry chemicals contain metal
stearates to waterproof them, but these will tend to destroy the foam blanket
created by protein (animal) based foams. Foam compatible type uses silicone as
a waterproofing agent, which does not harm foam. Effectiveness is identical to
regular dry chemical, and it is light green in color. This agent is generally no
longer used since most modern dry chemicals are considered compatible with
synthetic foams such as AFFF.

Specialty variation of sodium bicarbonate for fighting pyrophoric liquid fires (ignite
on contact with air). In addition to sodium bicarbonate, it also contains silica gel
particles. The sodium bicarbonate interrupts the chain reaction of the fuel and the
silica soaks up any unburned fuel, preventing contact with air. It is effective on
other class B fuels as well. Blue/Red in color.
iv. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fire Extinguisher
A clean gaseous agent which displaces oxygen. Not intended for class A fires, as the
high-pressure cloud of gas can scatter burning materials. CO2 is not suitable for use
on fires containing their own oxygen source, metals or cooking media. Although it can
be rather successful on a person on fire, its use should be avoided where possible as
it can cause frostbite and is dangerous to use as it may displace the oxygen needed
for breathing, causing suffocation.
The following table provides information regarding the type of fire and which fire
extinguisher should be used.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Table 2.2: Types of extinguisher justification

Classes of

Types of Fires

Wood, paper,
textiles, etc


Foam Spray
ABC Dry Powder


ABC Dry Powder


Class D Powder


ABC Dry Powder

Carbon Dioxide

Cooking oil and

fat fires

Picture Symbol

Extinguisher Color/Label and

Extinguishing Agent

Foam Spray
ABC Dry Powder
Class F Wet Chemical

Class F Wet Chemical


Rules of The Fire Prevention By The Malaysian Fire Department and Building by Law
In Malaysia, the government organization that is responsible towards fire and life safety is
the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM). The fire safety standards implemented
are in accordance with the regulations in the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL) 1984, NFPA
codes and standards, Fire Services Act 1988 and the Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) code
and guide.


Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL) 1984

UBBL is a published document, which is used as a required safety standard and is
emphasized by the government. The FRDM strives to discharge its responsibilities in its
prevention and safety programs, and also to increase its enforcement in relation to
inspections of buildings and business licensing activities, in accordance to UBBL especially in
relation to Part 7 (Fire Requirements) and Part 8 (Fire Alarm, Fire Detection, Fire
Extinguishment and Fire Fighting Access).


National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards

NFPA is an international non-profit organization which is authorized on fire, electrical and
building safety. The NFPA was established in 1896 and it serves as the worlds leading
advocate in fire prevention and is an authoritative source for information on fire safety. The
Building Code and Regional Fire Code Development Committees provide representative input
to the NFPAs codes and standards and have helped develop about 300 codes and standards
which are used in every building, process, service, design and installation in many countries.
It has earned accreditation from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Apart from
that, NFPA 1600, the National Standard on Disaster / Emergency Management and Business
Continuity Programs provides a total program approach to the challenge of integrating
disaster and emergency management with business continuity planning.


Fire Services Act 1988

The Fire Services Act 1988 is implemented to make necessary provision for the effective
and efficient functioning of the Fire Services Department, and also for the protection of

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

persons and property from fire risks and other purposes connected therewith. Generally, this
Act explains the duties of the Fire Service Department and consists of implementing fire
prevention, fire safety inspection and fire hazard abatement, investigation and prosecution.

Hazardous material (HAZMZAT) Code and Guide

Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) code and guide is actually conforming to National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) recommended standards.


Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Subpart F-Fire Protection and
Prevention 1926.150: Fire Protection
i. 1926.150(a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the
development of a fire protection program to be followed throughout all phases of the
construction and demolition work, and he shall provide for the firefighting equipment
as specified in this subpart. As fire hazards occur, there shall be no delay in providing
the necessary equipment.

1926.150(a)(2) Access to all available firefighting equipment shall be maintained at

all times.

iii. 1926.150(a)(3) All firefighting equipment, provided by the employer, shall be

conspicuously located.
iv. 1926.150(c) Portable firefighting equipment-(1) Fire extinguishers and small hose
lines. (i) A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided for each 3,000
square feet of the protected building area, or major fraction thereof. Travel distance
from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed
100 feet.

1926.150(c)(1)(ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be
substituted for a fire extinguisher having a 2A rating.

vi. 1926.150(c)(1)(v) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be

protected from freezing.
vii. 1926.150(c)(1)(vii) Carbon tetrachloride and other toxic vaporizing liquid fire
extinguishers are prohibited.
viii. 1926.150(c)(1)(viii) Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically and
maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers,
NFPA No. 10A-1970.
ix. 1926.150(d)(2) Standpipes. In all structures in which standpipes are required, or
where standpipes exist in structures being altered, they shall be brought up as soon
as applicable laws permit, and shall be maintained as construction progresses in
such a manner that they are always ready for fire protection use. The standpipes
shall be provided with Siamese fire department connections on the outside of the
structure, at the street level, which shall be conspicuously marked. There shall be at
least one standard hose outlet at each floor.

1926.150(e) Fire alarm devices. (1) An alarm system e.g., telephone system, siren,
etc., shall be established by the employer whereby employees on the site and the
local fire department can be alerted for an emergency.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


General Fire Prevention Procedure

The purpose of the fire prevention plan is to prevent a fire from occurring in a workplace.
It describes the fuel sources (hazardous or other materials) on site that could initiate or
contribute both to the spread of a fire, as well as the building systems, such as fixed fire
extinguishing systems and alarm systems, in place to control the ignition or spread of a fire.
For the requirement, a fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace,
and be made available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer
employees may communicate the plan orally to employees. At a minimum, fire prevention
plan must include:
i. A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous
materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection
equipment necessary to control each major hazard.
ii. Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials.
iii. Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing
equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of combustible materials.
iv. The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent
or control sources of ignition or fires.
v. The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.
An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to
which they are exposed. An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the
fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.
The procedure related policy to maintain high standards of fire safety were:
i. A fire risk assessment has been undertaken which will be reviewed annually.
ii. More frequent reviews will occur if there are changes that will impact on its
iii. These may include alterations to the premises or new work processes.
iv. The fire evacuation procedures will be practiced at least annually.
v. Training will be provided, as necessary, to any staff given extra fire safety
responsibilities, such as fire marshals.
vi. All new members of staff and temporary employees will be provided with induction
training on how to raise the alarm and the available escape routes.
vii. All escape routes will be clearly signposted and kept free of obstructions at all times.
viii. All fire-related equipment will be regularly serviced and maintained, if any employee
notices defective or missing equipment, they must report it to a manager.
ix. Alarm systems will be tested regularly, staff will be told when a test is scheduled.
x. Any other safety systems will be checked regularly to ensure correct operation, where
necessary, e.g. emergency lighting.
xi. This policy foams part of employees conditions of employment and failure to comply
may be treated as a disciplinary matter.


Marking Sign For A Building

Marking sign should consist of signs of similar size design and format. Their location
should be consistent throughout the vessel. Emergency signs, including escape route
markings, are rectangular or square with an IMO approved photo luminescent pictogram on a
green background. The sign must be at least 50% green/red/yellow/blue depend to function.
There are a few types of sign in a building, its:
i. Escape Route Sign
ii. Fire Fighting Equipment and Location Sign
iii. Escape Equipment Sign
iv. Mandatory Fire Action Sign
v. Mandatory Door Instruction Sign
vi. Prohibition Sign
vii. Hazard waning Sign

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Escape Route Signage

For an escape route signing system to be effective, it is recommended that from any
place within the building occupants should have sight of a sign or series of signs (Exit or Fire
Exit), which leads them to a place of safety. This recommendation is laid down to fulfill the
obligations of employers, managers or occupiers, to ensure that personnel and visitors are
aware of their immediate escape route. This obligation is a requirement under Fire Precaution
and Health and Safety at Work Regulations and Legislation.

Table 2.3: Escape route sign and location


Meaning as viewed from in front of the sign

1. Progress down to the right (indicating change
of level).
1. Progress up to the right (indicating change of
2. Progress forward and across to the right from
here (when suspended within an open area).
1. Progress down to the left (indicating change of
1. Progress up to the left (indicating change of
2. Progress forward and across to the left from
here (when suspended within an open area).
1. Progress forward from here (indicating
direction of travel).
2. Progress forward and through from here;
when sign is sited above a door (indicating
direction of travel).
3. Progress forward and up from here (indicating
change of level).
1. Progress to the right from here (indicating
direction of travel).

1. Progress to the left from here (indicating

direction of travel).
1. Progress down from here (indicating change
of level).

Examples of location
1. On wall or suspended at head of
stairs or ramp.
2. On half landing wall of stairs.
3. Suspended at change of level.
1. On wall or suspended at foot of
stairs or ramp.
2. On half landing wall of stairs.
3. Suspended at change of level.
4. Suspended in open areas.
1. On wall or suspended at head of
2. On half landing wall of stairs.
3. Suspended at change of level.
1. On wall or suspended at foot of
stairs or ramp.
2. On half landing wall of stairs.
3. Suspended at change of level.
4. Suspended in open areas.
1. Suspended in corridor leading to
2. Suspended in front of door.
3. Positioned above door.
4. Suspended in open areas.
5. Suspended at foot of stairs or
1. On corridor walls.
2. Suspended adjacent and left of
the exit.
3. Suspended at change of direction.
1. On corridor walls.
2. Suspended adjacent and right of
the exit.
3. Suspended at change of direction.
1. Suspended at head of stairs or
2. Suspended at change of level.

A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a
building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. It provides a
method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells inside a
building inaccessible.
When determining whether the premises have adequate escape routes, we need to
consider a number of factors, including:
i. The type and number of people using the premises
ii. Escape time
iii. The age and construction of the premises
iv. The number and complexity of escape routes and exits
v. Whether lifts can or need to be used
vi. The use of phased or delayed alarm evacuation
vii. Assisted means of escape/personal evacuation plans

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Figure 2.10: Standardize size of escape route


Fire Fighting Equipment and Location Sign

Part of a formal risk assessment is ensuring that all firefighting equipment can be easily
located, when required. The risk assessment should also ensure that the equipment located
displays the correct classes of fire for safe and effective use. The use of appropriately
displayed signs at the fire point will make a positive contribution to the framework of Fire
Safety Management.

Figure 2.11: Example of fire equipment sign

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Escape Equipment Sign

To ensure a safe, efficient and effective escape from a building, it is recommended that all
doors within a means of escape containing emergency devices, are clearly marked with the
appropriate operating instructions.

Figure 2.12: Example of escape equipment sign


Mandatory Fire Action Sign

It is recommended that the actions to be taken in the event of a fire are displayed in
conspicuous locations throughout the building. An example of this is at fire alarm call points,
as the primary action in the event of a fire is to raise the alarm and summon the Fire Brigade.

Figure 2.13: Example of

mandatory fire action

Figure 2.14: Example of

mandatory door instruction

Mandatory Door Instruction Sign

The use of mandatory door instruction signs is recommended to support the principles of
good fire safety management and emergency planning procedures. The protection of escape
routes from the influx of smoke, or the spread of fire, is almost totally dependent upon the
quality of confinement.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Prohibition Sign
The prevention of a fire, and the safety of personnel, is fundamental in supporting good fire
safety management. The display of prohibition signs can assist in the prevention of any
activity which is likely to cause risk or injury. It is recommended that these signs are displayed
in conspicuous positions throughout the building.

Figure 2.15: Example of prohibition


Figure 2.16: Example of hazard

warning sign


Hazard Warning Sign

The identification of risk to personnel is fundamental to the fire risk assessment. The
display of appropriate prohibition or mandatory signs will endorse the best practice in Fire
Safety Management.


Fire Escape Route

A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a
building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. It provides a
method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells inside a
building inaccessible. Fire escapes are most often found on multiple-story residential
buildings, such as apartment buildings. At one time, they were a very important aspect of fire
safety for all new construction in urban areas; more recently, however, they have fallen out of
common use.
A fire escape consists of a number of horizontal platforms, one at each story of a building,
with ladders or stairs connecting them. The platform and stairs are usually open steel
gratings, to prevent the buildup of ice, snow, and leaves. Railings are usually provided on
each of the levels, but as fire escapes are designed for emergency use only, these railings
often do not need to meet the same standards as railings in other contexts. The ladder from
the lowest level of the fire escape to the ground may be fixed, but more commonly it swings
down on a hinge or slides down along a track. The moveable designs allow occupants to
safely reach the ground in the event of a fire but prevent persons from accessing the fire
escape from the ground at other times (such as to perpetrate a burglary or vandalism).
Exit from the interior of a building to the fire escape may be provided by a fire exit door,
but in some cases the only exit is through a window. When there is a door, it is often fitted
with a fire alarm to prevent other uses of the fire escape, and to prevent unauthorized entry.
As many fire escapes were built before the advent of electronic fire alarms, fire escapes in
older buildings have often needed to be retrofitted with alarms for this purpose.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Figure 2.17: Example of escape route map

Figure 2.18: Example of emergency evacuation map

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Losses Caused By Fire

The positive effects of fire include stimulating growth and maintaining various ecological
systems. Fire has been used by humans for cooking, generating heat, signaling, and
propulsion purposes. The negative effects of fire include water contamination, soil erosion,
atmospheric pollution and hazard to life and property. Fire is a significant impact on the
victims and the environment. It is directly affect the quality of life over a fire.

Effect Hazard to Life

Most fire deaths are not caused by burns, but by smoke inhalation. Often smoke
incapacitates so quickly that people are overcome and cant make it to an otherwise
accessible exit. The synthetic materials commonplace in todays homes produces
especially dangerous substances. As a fire grows inside a building, it will often
consume most of the available oxygen, slowing the burning process. This incomplete
combustion results in toxic gases.


Effect Fire to Property

Fires cause tremendous wastage of property. Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department
to assess the losses due to fire and residential buildings during 2012 worth RM761
million and involving 89 deaths. Loss is seen directly but in terms of economic loss
suffered is far greater as job loss, business, customer, injury, disability and death

iii. Atmosphere Pollution

Unburned, partially burned, and completely burned substances can be so small they
penetrate the respiratory systems protective filters, and lodge in the lungs. Some are
actively toxic; others are irritating to the eyes and digestive system. Fog like droplets
of liquid can poison if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
The most common, carbon monoxide (CO), can be deadly, even in small quantities,
as it replaced oxygen in the bloodstream. Hydrogen cyanide results from the burning
of plastics, such as PVC pipe, and interferes with cellular respiration. Phosgene is
foamed when household products, such as vinyl materials, are burned. At low levels,
phosgene can cause itchy eyes and a sore throat; at higher levels it can cause
pulmonary edema and death.
iv. Effect of Fire Heat And Flame
Air temperature has a direct influence on fire behavior because of the heat
requirements for ignition and continuing the combustion process. During fires,
enormous amounts of heat are often liberated. The flame is the visible portion of the
fire. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending on
the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's
intensity will be different. Heat also potential to cause physical damage through
A flame is a mixture of reacting gases and solids emitting visible, infrared, and
sometimes ultraviolet light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical
composition of the burning material and intermediate reaction products. Burning
chemical product can make a toxicity smoke. Following smoke inhalation, toxicity
may result either from thermal injury, or from the toxic effects of substances present.

Soil Erosion
Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected
by fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak
temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the
burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can
even be permanent.
Low to moderate severity fires, such as most of those prescribed in management,
promote renovation of the dominant vegetation through elimination of undesired
species and transient increase of pH and available nutrients. No irreversible

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

ecosystem change occurs, but the enhancement of hydrophobicity can render the soil
less able to soak up water and more prone to erosion.
Severe fires, such as wildfire, generally have several negative effects on soil. They
cause significant removal of organic matter, deterioration of both structure and
porosity, considerable loss of nutrients through volatilization, ash entrapment in
smoke columns, leaching and erosion, and marked alteration of both quantity and
specific composition of microbial and soil-dwelling invertebrate communities.
vi. Water Contamination
In many firefighting situations, large quantities of water remain after the fire has been
extinguished. The water contains materials present in the building and also contains
dissolved and particulate materials from combustion processes and materials
generated through quenching. Fire water can be particularly polluting when the
building or site being extinguished itself contains potentially polluting materials such
as pesticides, organic and inorganic chemical reagents, fertilizers, etc.
Certain types of premises including farms and the chemical industry pose special
risks because of the types of materials present. Premises containing quantities of
plastics can also cause severe problems because of the taste and odor imparted to
the fire water. Releasing contaminated fire water into a river or other water source
subsequently used to supply drinking water may render the untreated water supply
unsuitable for drinking or food preparation.


Fire Preventive Measurement By The Society

Preventive management is defined as an agent or device intended to prevent conception.
Preventive management includes education and training, electrical inspection, renovation
inspection, pest control programmed and good housekeeping practice, signage, operation
and maintenance of fire equipment and fire drill procedures.
Fire safety to community is a process where a local authority and other organizations in
partnership plan, provide and promote the wellbeing of their communities. It allows the active
involvement of communities in the decisions on local services, which affect people's lives
public fire safety education. It becomes part of the interest against fire safety awareness in
the community. The program includes:
i. Education and Training
ii. Inspection of Electrical Installation
iii. Renovation Precaution and Inspection
iv. Pest Control program and Good Housekeeping Practices
v. Fire Signage
vi. Inspection, Operation and Maintenance of Fire Safety Equipment
vii. Fire and Evacuation Drill Procedure
viii. Building Emergency Procedure Manual
ix. Emergency Response Team
x. Fire Identification and Notification
xi. Emergency Evacuation and Relocation
xii. House Hazardous
All programs tend to mix messages of general injury prevention, safety, fire prevention,
and escape in case of fire. In most cases the fire department representative is regarded as
the expert and is expected to present information in a manner that is appropriate for each age

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Egan M David (1986). The Building Fire Safety Concept. University Technology Malaysia,
Fullerton R. L. (1979). Building Construction in Warm Climates. Volume 1, 2, 3. Oxford
University Press, United Kingdom.
Hall F. (2000). Building Services & Equipment. Pearson Limited, England.
MS EN 81-1:2012. Malaysian Standard. Safety Rules for the Construction and Installation of
Lift- Part1: electric Lifts (first revision). Department of Standards Malaysia.
Nor Rizman (2010). Risk Assessment for Demolition Works In Malaysia. Faculy of Civil
Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Undergraduate
Prashant A/L Tharmarajan (2007(. The Essential Aspects of Fire Safety Management In HihgRise Buildings. University Teknologi Malaysia. Degree of master science thesis.
Riger W. Haines, Douglas C. Hittle (2006). Control System for Heating, Ventilating and Air
Conditioning. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Stein, Benjamin, Reynolds, John S., Grondzik, Walter T., and Alison G. Kwok, (2006).
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. 10th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006.
Tan, C. W. and Hiew, B.K., (2004), Effective Management of Fire Safety in a High-Rise
Building, Buletin Ingenieur vol. 204, 12-19.

N.H. Salleh and A.G. Ahmad. (2009). Fire Safety Management In Heritage Buildings: The
Current Scenario In Malaysia. CIPA Symposium Kyoto Japan. UIAM and USM.

Code of Practices
Approved Code Of Practice For Demolition: Health And Safety In Employment Act 1992.
Issued And Approved By The Minister Of Labour September 1994.
Code of Practice for Lift Works and Escalator Works. (2002 ed).
Code Of Practice For Demolition Of Buildings 2004. Published by the Building Department.
Printed by Taiwan Government Logistics Department.
Code Of Practice For Demolition Of Buildings (2009). Malaysia Standard Supersede Ms 282
Part 1: 1975. Technical Committee For Construction Practices Under The
Supervision Of Construction Industry Development Board, Malaysia.
Demolition Work Code Of Practice (July 2012). Australian Government.
Work Health and Safety (Demolition Work Code of Practice) Approval 2012. Australian
Capital Territory. By Dr Chris Bourke, Minister for Industrial Relations.

Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)

Others Publishing
Coby Frampton. Benchmarking World-class maintenance. CMC Charles Brooks Associates,
Electrical Installation and Systems (2006). Training Package UEE06. Industry Skills Council,
Fire Safety Manual (2002). Florida Atlantic University USA.
Garis panduan Pendawaian Elektrik di bangunan Kediaman (2008). Suruhanjaya Tenaga
Malaysia. Jabatan Keselamatan Elektrik.
Laws of Malaysia. Act 341: Fire Services Act 1988. Publish by The Commissioner Of Law
Revision, Malaysia Under The Authority Of The Revision Of Laws Act 1968 In
Collaboration With Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Bhd 2006.
Operations & Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.
(August 2010). Release 3.0.
Principles of Home Inspection: Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps. (2010). Educational Course
Routine Maintenance Modules. Part II.
Uniform Building By Law 1984. (1996). MDC Legal Advisers: MDC Publishers Printers

Guidelines For Applicants For A Demolition Licence Issued Under The Occupational Safety
And Health Regulations 1996. Occupational Safety And Health Act 198. The
Government of Commerce, Western Autralia.


Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services


PSMZA Course Note (Chapter 2)


Ver. 1 (MSH-Jun213): CC608 Building Services