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Laboratory Determination

of Fluid Saturations

Conventional Core Analysis

Two common methods will be discussed

Retort Distillation
Solvent Extraction

Retort Distillation Method


Using this technique, the water and oil saturation can be measured directly.

Heat small sample of rock


Water vaporizes first at lower temperature
(212F), The sample temperature remains at
212 F until all pore water is vaporized.
212
After Water is vaporized, the retort
temperature increases to 1000-1100 F
vaporizing
p
g oil.
Both water and oil are condensed into a graduated
cylinder
Record volumes of water and oil vs time
Correct volume of oil for coking and cracking
effects
Determine volume of water from pores (not
counting water of crystallization from clays)
Determine saturations volumetrically

Retort
RetortDistillation
DistillationApparatus
Apparatus

Heating
element
l
t
1000-1100 F

Core
sample

Cooling
water in
Cooling
water out

Condenser

Graduated Cylinder

Retort Distillation Method

Advantages
Rapid (less than one hour)
Direct measurement of both oil and water
volumes recovered
Adequate accuracy

Retort Distillation Method

Disadvantages
High temperatures (1,000 - 1,100 F):

destroys
y core sample
p
water of crystallization in clays may vaporize
and must be accounted for
cracking and coking of oil

cracking is breaking of long chain hydrocarbons into


smaller
ll chain
h i hydrocarbons,
h d
b
which
hi h may nott be
b
recondensed
coke is impure
p
carbon residue formed from oil

Determining Water of Crystallization

Water from pores is recovered first

If flattening of curve is not


apparent then estimating water
recovered from pore space can be
inaccurate

Later, water of crystallization is


recovered
d at higher
hi h temperatures

This destroys the core sample

Effects of Coking and Cracking of Oil


Retort Distillation: Scaling Factor for Recovered Oil

Coking and cracking tend to


cause only part of oil from
pores to be recovered

We must scale up the


volume of recovered oil to
reflect
fl t th
the volume
l
off oilil
originally in the pores

Scaling
g factor depends
p
on
API gravity of oil

Coke formation destroys


core sample

Retort Distillation Calculations

Sw =

(Vw )measured
Vp

Vo = Fcorrection (Vo )measured

Vp = Vb ( )from another source

Vo
So =
Vp

Sg = 1 S w So
Fcorrection = Volume
V l
correction
ti ffactor,
t
dimensionless

Solvent Extraction Method


Using
g this technique
q
the water content is measured directly
y
and oil content is measured indirectly from the change in
weight

Solvent Extraction Method


Solvent Extraction Apparatus
Weigh fresh core sample.
Apply heat - water in pore space of
core vaporizes, then condenses in
the condenser and falls into the trap
where water volume is measured.
Boiling point of solvent must be
higher than the boiling point of
formation water
Heating rate must be high
enough to ensure that
condensation of water occurs in
th condenser,
the
d
so th
thatt water
t
falls into the trap.
Solvent leaches hydrocarbons from
the pore space and oil remains
dissolved in the solvent.
D

i h

Condenser

Graduate tube
Thimble and core
Solvent
Electric Heater

Solvent Extraction Method

Advantages
accurate determination of water saturation
non
non-destructive
destructive to core samples

determination of water saturation by solvent


extraction can be made p
part of the core sample
p
cleaning process for small incremental cost

Solvent Extraction Method

Disadvantages
slow (can take several days)
oil volume not directly measured

oil remains in solvent

Solvent Extraction Calculations

Vw
Sw =
Vp

Vo
So =
Vp
Sg = 1 S w So

Vo

(
W W ) V
=
i

dry

Wi

= Initial core weight, gm

Wdry

= Core weight after leaching, gm

Vw

= Volume of water collected, cm3

Vo

= Volume of oil, cm3

Vp

= Pore volume, cm3

= Density of water, gm/cm3

= Density of oil
oil, gm/cm3

= Density of gas is assumed negligible

Factors affecting fluid saturation lab


measurements

Mud Filtrate

Hydrostatic Pressure (gas Expansion)

Factors affecting fluid saturation lab


measurements

Mud Filtrate

Hydrostatic Pressure (gas Expansion)


Water base mud

Oil base mud

Saturation

Saturation

Water
Coring
Trip
T ip to S
Surface
face
At surface

Oil

Gas

Water

Oil

Gas

REFERENCES:

Ahmed, Tarek : Reservoir Engineering Handbook-Ch.4:


Fundamentals of Rock Properties
Properties, Second Edition
Edition, Gulf
Professional Publishing, 2001.
Amyx, James : Petroleum Reservoir Engineering-Ch.2:
Fundamental Properties of Fluid Permeated Rocks, 1960