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The Cooper Union

Department of Chemical Engineering


Heat and Mass Transfer

Practice Problem Set V

Pure helium gas is stored at 20C in the cylindrical Pyrex tank of 2 m in
length with an inner diameter of 12 cm and a wall thickness of 2.5 mm. A
helium detector situated beside the tank has detected a steady leakage of
helium at 1.8 x 10-6g over the duration of an hour. Assume that both ends of
the tank are impermeable surfaces, and the concentration of helium at the
tank outer surface is negligible. What is the concentration of helium at the
inner surface of the tank. Take diffusion coefficient to be 4.5 x 10-15m2/s.
(0.0902 kmol/m3)
The roof of a house is 15 m x 8 m and is made of a 20-cm-thick concrete
layer. The interior of the house is maintained at 25C and 50 percent relative
humidity and the
local atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Determine the amount of water vapor
that will migrate through the roof in 24 h if the average outside conditions
during that period are 3C and 30 percent relative humidity. The permeability
of concrete to water vapor is 24.7 x 10-12 kg/smPa. (1.73 kg).
Consider a piece of steel undergoing a decarburization process at 925C. The
mass diffusivity of carbon in steel at 925C is 1 x 10-7 cm2/s. Determine the
depth below the
surface of the steel at which the concentration of carbon is reduced to 40%
from its initial value as a result of the decarburization process for (a) an hour
and (b) ten hours. Assume the concentration of carbon at the surface is zero
throughout the decarburization process (0.0141 cm; 0.0445 cm)
When handling corrosive and toxic substances, chemical resistant gloves
should be worn. When selecting gloves to handle a substance, the suitability
of the gloves should be considered. Depending on the material of the gloves,
they could be easily permeable by some substances.An employee is handling
tetrachloroethylene solution for a metal-cleaning process. Dermal exposure
to tetrachloroethylene can cause skin irritation, and long-term exposure to it
can have adverse neurological effects on humans. As a protective measure,
the employee wears rubber-blend gloves while handling the
tetrachloroethylene solution. The average thickness of the gloves is 0.67

mm, and the mass diffusivity of tetrachloroethylene in the gloves is 3 x 10-8

m2/s. Estimate how long
can the employees hand be in contact with the tetrachloroethylene solution
before the concentration of the solution at the inner glove surface reaches
1% of the concentration at the outer surface. Is this type of glove suitable for
handling tetrachloroethylene
solution? (1.13 s, not suitable)
A long nickel bar with a diameter of 5 cm has been stored in a hydrogen-rich
environment at 358 K and 300 kPa for a long time, and thus it contains
hydrogen gas throughout uniformly. Now the bar is taken into a wellventilated area so that the hydrogen concentration at the outer surface
remains at almost zero at all times. Determine how long it will take for the
hydrogen concentration at the center of the bar to drop by half. The diffusion
coefficient of hydrogen in the nickel bar at the room temperature of 298 K
can be taken to be DAB =1.2 x 10-12 m2/s. (3.3 years)
A heated piece of steel, with a uniform initial carbon concentration of 0.20%
by mass, was exposed to a carburizing atmosphere for an hour. Throughout
the entire process, the carbon concentration on the surface was 0.70%. If the
mass diffusivity
of carbon in steel in this process was uniform at 1 x10-11 m2/s, determine the
percentage of mass concentration of carbon at 0.2 mm and 0.4 mm below
the surface after the process (0.428%; 0.268%)