Creep1, Material, Materials, Models, Failure

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Creep1, Material, Materials, Models, Failure

© All Rights Reserved

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- r4
- UNIT-2.ppt

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CREEP 1

Creep is the time-dependent deformation which occurs at elevated temperature

when materials are subjected to stress.

Most engineering components are designed on the basis that strength has a constant

value for a particular material, and that the strain is instantaneous and remains

constant with time on the application of a given load. As operating temperature

increases, the tensile properties (ultimate tensile strength and yield strength)

generally decrease but strain continues to be essentially instantaneous when load is

applied. At higher temperatures materials show an additional strain the creep strain

- which gradually increases with time even under constant load. Ultimately, the creep

deformation will lead to fracture of the component. A related phenomenon is stress

relaxation. This is the reduction in load which occurs with time when the strain of

certain components is kept constant. An example is bolts holding together high

temperature components which need to be periodically retightened because of load

relaxation.

Main engineering areas where creep can be significant are fossil-fuel and nuclear

power plant (boilers, pipework and steam turbines), chemical plant, and aero-engines.

Since thermodynamic efficiencies increase with increasing temperature, technological

advances in these and other areas often involve higher operating temperatures.

Furthermore, operating lifetimes are continually being increased. Detailed knowledge

of creep behaviour is therefore essential for safe and economic design of critical

components and structures.

Comparison of metals

Creep behaviour is categorised according to the temperature relative to the melting

point of a metal: Th = T / Tm (in K) - the homologous temperature.

Material

Melting temp, Tm

C

0.3 TmC

0.5 TmC

Th (=T/Tm) achieved

in alloys

lead (Pb)

320

600

- 93

27

aluminium (Al)

660

933

194

copper (Cu)

1083

1356

134

405

steels

~1400

~1673

229

564

stainless steels

~1450

~1723

244

589

nickel (Ni)

1453

1726

245

590

titanium (Ti)

1668

1941

309

698

~0.4

50

tungsten (W)

3380

3653

823

1554

Different metals have similar creep characteristics when tested at the same Th.

general, creep deformation is not significant at temperatures below ~0.3 Tm.

In

Plastics also exhibit creep, which may be significant at ambient temperatures. Creep

of plastics is not covered in this module.

Types of creep failures

excessive deformation - pipework, gas or steam turbine blades;

creep buckling - deformation under compressive load;

creep cracking - pipework and pipework welds;

creep rupture - rupture of tungsten filament in an incandescent light bulb;

interactions - between creep and fatigue;

- between creep and environmental degradation; etc

Creep and stress-rupture testing

In metals, the majority of creep data are

collected

using

tensile

specimens

Usually

constant

load

tests

(dead-

lever arrangement. In stress-rupture or

creep-rupture

testing

the

only

data

and the strain at failure, f, at a fixed

load and temperature.

In standard

precisely to ridges at either end of the

gauge length, to enable strain values to

be recorded throughout the test.

It should be noted that the popular constant-load test does not give precisely

constant-stress conditions, and for the most detailed understanding and verification of

creep theories truly constant-stress equipment is used. These use devices (e.g.

profiled cam) to adjust the load on the specimen as a function of measured strain,

assuming uniform deformation and constant volume. However, provided the creep

51

ductility of the material is low, say, only a few percent total creep strain, the results

from constant-load and constant-stress test methods are practically identical.

A typical creep curve of strain against time (linear scales) can be divided into three

regions:

III

D

II

I

c

B

t

A

After the initial immediate elastic extension i, there is primary creep BC (or transient

creep) in which the strain rate decreases with time. This is followed by secondary

creep CD in which the creep rate is constant with time. This is the steady-state strain

rate. Finally there may be tertiary, or accelerating, creep leading to fracture at E,

otherwise known as creep rupture or stress rupture. The total strain at rupture is

typically only a small fraction of the elongation to fracture in a tensile test at the same

temperature. The strain due to creep is c. If the specimen is unloaded at any point on

the curve there is an immediate recovery of strain, according to Hookes Law, but

negligible subsequent recovery.

The details of the c vs t curve are sensitive to alloying composition, including trace

elements in some cases; grain size; heat treatment; previous stress history; and

environment as well as temperature; applied stress and stress state.

1 < 2 < 3

= Fracture

3

2

2

1

(a)

(b)

52

The atoms (or molecules) in a solid vibrate; the crystal lattice defines the mean

position. The amplitude of vibration increases as temperature increases. As they

vibrate, the atoms collide. The result of the collisions is to increase the energy, and

hence the amplitude of vibration, of some atoms at the expense of others. The

Vacancy

increased amplitude of vibration can result in the possibility

of an atom being able to

diffusion

move from one atomic site to another ie diffusion can occur. Examples of diffusion

in a typical metal include:(a)

Interstitial diffusion

Small atoms (e.g. C and N in steel)

can diffuse by squeezing through

the space between larger atoms.

Vacancy diffusion

Interstitial

diffusion

(b)

atoms of similar size, such as the one

in the figure, diffusion occurs by atoms

moving into vacancies. Self-diffusion

refers to the movement of atoms of a

(a)

single species by means of vacancies.

Vacancy

diffusion

Interstitial

diffusion

(b)

53

Diffusion at grain boundaries or down the core of a dislocation is much easier than

within a crystal; it may be 106 times as fast. This is because of the larger and / or

irregular atomic spacings present in these regions.

The activation energies for these processes are about half the magnitude of those for

diffusion through the lattice bulk.

Gra

in

bou

nda

Diagrammatic representation

ry

grains of a metal. Grain

boundary acts as both source

Gra

in

bo u

n da

ry

In the absence of stress, the direction in which atoms (or vacancies) diffuse is

governed by their concentration. They move from the more concentrated regions to

the less concentrated regions, or may be chemically attracted by other species to form

precipitates (e.g. Ti + C). The stress system also influences the direction of the

movement of the atoms or vacancies. Time dependent deformation (i.e. creep)

therefore occurs.

This is called diffusion creep and it is the dominant creep

mechanism at high temperatures (T/Tm > 0.4) and low stresses.

There are two main categories of diffusion creep: at the highest temperatures

diffusion in the bulk of the lattice, known as Nabarro-Herring creep, is rapid and

diffusion along the grain boundaries and dislocations makes negligible contribution.

However, as temperatures decrease towards 0.4Tm, diffusion along the easy paths

becomes progressively more significant because of their lower activation energies.

Dominance by grain boundary diffusion is called Coble creep.

Dislocation creep

At any temperature, creep also occurs by the movement of

dislocations provided the stresses are sufficiently high. This can be by the same

mechanism that plastic flow occurs under high load at ambient temperature (see

sketch). Other processes of dislocation movement are also activated at elevated

temperature.

54

(a)

(b)

(c)

function of homologous temperature.

Note: the three regions of the typical creep curve do not represent three different

mechanisms, but rather the result of competing effects:

Strain hardening caused by dislocation movement results in strain hardening

(multiplication and tangling of dislocations which make subsequent dislocation

movement more difficult);

Recovery enabled by diffusion processes (loss of dislocations making subsequent

deformation easier).

55

The high temperature creep curve thus shows a linear portion where rates of

hardening and recovery balance.

At low temperatures, the creep curve may show a continuously decreasing gradient,

because of strain hardening which is not removed by recovery. This is also called

logarithmic creep.

Creep resistant alloys

For a material to withstand creep at high temperatures, a high melting point is

desired. Ceramics are sometimes used for this reason, but some of the most

refractory metals (e.g. tungsten and niobium) have limited use because they are

manufactured by a powder route. Oxidation resistance is another requirement.

The most commonly used creep resistant alloys are based on iron or nickel. Increases

to creep resistance are achieved by alloying additions and heat treatments to provide

extra strengthening: in particular fine dispersions of precipitates are effective in

restricting dislocation movement.

The precipitates must be stable at high

temperature, with minimal tendency to coarsen. The Nimonic alloys are some of the

most advanced creep-resisting alloys they contain chromium for oxidation

resistance, and complex precipitates based on Ni3 (Ti, Al).

Further improvements to creep resistance are achieved by using directional

solidification or single crystal components, to minimise the number of grain

boundaries lying normal to the load. This reduces the degree of grain boundary creep.

For example: Ni-based gas turbine blades.

Representations of creep behaviour

high , high T

Low , high T

t

56

For design purposes, predictions of the long-term creep strain under the operating

conditions of stress and temperature are required. A typical design standard requires

the stress to give minimum creep rates of 1% strain in 10,000 hours, or 1% strain in

100,000 hours. It is impractical to derive direct data from all possible combinations of

loading parameters, and to carry out numerous tests lasting these times. In other

applications predictions at even greater times are needed for example 300,000

hours for parts of power station boilers, pipework and steam turbines. Accelerated

tests at either higher stress or higher temperature must therefore be performed and

the results extrapolated to longer times. This must be done with caution!

For low-temperature creep, occurring at <0.3Tm, it is found that the transient creep

strain vs time can be expressed by

c 1 ln( 2 t 1) ,

c 1 2

2t 1

For high temperature, high stress conditions the material fails rapidly by stress

rupture where the applied stress approaches the high temperature yield stress.

The most attention is paid to high temperature, low stress regimes exhibiting the

three-stage creep curve, concentrating on the secondary creep regime which takes up

the majority of the creep life.

The first step is to find mathematical expressions

which describe the experimentally measured behaviour.

It is assumed that creep strain c = f1 ().f2 (T).f3 (t), where the three functions are

separate.

Temperature dependence

Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence show that the temperature

dependence of the creep strain rate follows a form of Arrhenius Law:

Q

f 2 (T) exp

RT

where

R is universal gas constant

T is absolute temperature

57

For T >> 0.4Tm, Q is found experimentally to be close to the activation energy for

lattice self-diffusion expected.

Time dependence

The time dependence of strain has been represented by many mathematical models.

For example:

f3 (t) = t

(steady-state creep)

f3 (t) = b tm

(Bailey)

f3 (t) = (1 + b t1/3)ekt -1

(Andrade)

mj

f3 (t) = a j t

A combination of the Bailey model and steady state is also often used, i.e.

f3 (t) = t + b tm

this being capable of representing primary and steady-state creep.

NB: Primary creep is sometimes included as part of the initial strain.

Stress dependence

By plotting a series of creep curves at the same temperature but with different

stresses, the relationship between strain rate and stress can be explored. Various

equations have been used to represent the stress dependence, f1 (), of the secondary

creep behaviour.

SS

= An

(Norton)

SS

= B sinh ()

(Prandtl)

SS

= C [sinh ()]p

(Garofalo)

SS

= D ( o)q

(friction stress)

58

Because of its simplicity in mathematical analysis, the Norton equation is the most

commonly used.

SS

= An

(Norton)

It can be rewritten:

log (

SS

) = log A + n log ()

Nortons Law provides the basis for the power law relationships which have been

widely used to describe high-temperature creep behaviour. The stress exponent, n, is

an important creep property.

To obtain n values, creep curves are recorded at the same temperature but at

ss

different stresses. The secondary creep rates, , are plotted against on a log-log

scale. This can be repeated for tests at different temperatures. It is found that n

varies between 3 and 10 under the most common conditions used for creep tests but

at low stress n ~ 1.

A simple overall equation for the rate of steady state (secondary) creep can therefore

be of the form:

d css

d ( f 3 (t ))

f1 ( ). f 2 (T ).

dt

dt

For example, the power law expression often fits experimental data quite well and is

commonly used:

SS = C. n. exp[ Q ]

RT

This is likely to be valid within limited ranges of stress and temperature when n and Q

are constant i.e. the same physical mechanisms are occurring.

Tertiary creep and fracture

Creep at low temperatures very rarely leads to failure, and little change in

microstructure is evident apart from plastic strain. Creep at high temperatures almost

always leads to fracture, and the onset of fracture is indicated by the acceleration of

creep strain rate in the tertiary region.

Creep fracture data are usually presented as log () vs. log (tf) and

f vs log (tf).

59

Ductility usually tends to decrease with increasing test duration (although this is not

always the case). The log () vs log (tf) and f vs log (tf) data are usually of the form:

Log

Ductile failure

Load

Intergranular crack

Brittle failure

Material

Grain

Grain boundary

Log tf

(a)

Transgranular means the fracture path runs across

the bulk of grains; intergranular

means it runs along grain boundaries.

Load

Load

Intergranular crack

Grain boundary

Grain boundary

Material

Grain

Material

Grain

Transgranular crack

(b)

(a)

Mechanisms of failure

Load

In ductile rupture, as the tensile specimen elongates, the cross-sectional area

Grain boundary

decreases; creep deformation occurs

at constant volume. As the cross-sectional area

decreases, the stress increases because the load is constant, hence the elongation will

increase at an ever increasing rate.

Material

Grain

Transgranular crack

60

(b)

o,

lo , l

Ao, A

F

Failure life for ductile creep

0 0

Constant volume:

= =

Equilibrium:

= =

Nortons law:

0 0

0 0

= = (

(1)

= (

0 0

= (

) =

(2)

(1) = (2)

1

1

0

= , so

1 = 0

0

0 0

1

0

= (

]

[

1(

(3)

when 0, , So

=

i.e.

(4)

0

1

= ( ) (slope = - 1/n)

61

Failure mechanisms:

Transgranular cracking;

Necking (area reduction);

Voids nucleation is weak.

(ii) Brittle-failure

Brittle creep fracture occurs because voids nucleate and grow (mainly at the grain

boundaries), and grain boundaries crack and slide due to the increases in stress in

those regions as creep occurs.

of wedge-cracks at grain triple points.

(cavities) on grain boundaries

Voids and cracks tend to grow on boundaries which, are perpendicular to the stress

axis. These effectively reduce the load-bearing cross-sectional area.

The damage, , is defined as the ratio of the area of voids, Av, at any cross sectional

area to the overall cross-sectional area, Ao, i.e.

Av

A

or 1

Ao

Ao

creep test, increases and hence the creep strain rate increases (tertiary creep).

Most commonly used creep damage constitutive equations are (Kachanov). Assume

creep strain rate and damage rate are:

= (

= (

)

1

)

1

(1)

(2)

62

Av (voids)

0 (1 ) = 0

i.e.

Ao

(1)+1

+1

] = ,

0

(1 ) = [1 ( + 1) ]+1

(3)

when 1,

therefore,

(4)

(+1)

Creep strain

Substituting (3) (1)

0 = 0 [1 ( + 1) ]

()

(+1)

{1 [1 ( + 1)

+1

+1

] +1

From (4)

) (slope = - 1/)

(+1)

= (

63

Inspection during the lifetime of a component, using surface replication techniques,

can reveal changes in microstructure such as changes in precipitate size and shape,

the presence of voids along grain boundaries, and microcracks.

After creep failure has occurred, fracture surfaces often show grain facets, sometimes

with dimples, and they may be oxidised from exposure to high temperature.

Despite their inherent uncertainties, extrapolation methods are used to predict both

rupture and creep strain at much longer times, and lower stresses and temperatures.

The prediction of rupture have received more attention because the consequences of

brittle rupture are generally more catastrophic than is excess strain, and because of

the larger amount of rupture data available.

64

SS . t f = constant (over a limited stress range)

For more accurate predictions, one of the most used is the Larson-Miller method. Their

theory is derived from the Arrhenius equation but it is found to hold empirically. They

showed that families of creep rupture curves all showed a similar shape, and that by

using a time-temperature equivalence parameter they could be superimposed.

Log

A1

A3

A2

600oC

550oC

500oC

Log tf

Log

Master Curve

600oC

550oC

PLM (T, tf)

PLM

T

C

tf

is

is

is

is

PLM ()

absolute temperature (K)

constant, usually = 20; sometimes in range 17 23

time in hours to rupture (or to reach a given value of creep strain)

Service conditions

time, h

temp, C

10 000

400

Test conditions

time, h

temp, C

8

500

PLM

~ 16152

65

10 000

1 000

400

500

219

40

450

550

~ 16152

~ 17779

A variation of the Larson-Miller parameter (putting C = 23.3 for better fit) employed to

superimpose results for a low alloy steel used for steam pipework (from Evans &

Wilshire Introduction to Creep). Test temperatures from 500 to 600C are

superimposed.

Use of the Larson-Miller parameter to compare qualitatively the performance of

different materials.

66

The development of multi-axial creep models is usually a compromise between trying

to fit the complex behaviour observed in experimental tests and in producing relatively

simple mathematical models. The models are usually developed to fit the main

experimental observations. Only one model is developed here. However, this is the

most commonly used model and has been shown to fit (reasonably well) most

experimental data.

2

2

normals to its faces set up in the principal stress

directions (i.e. 1, 2 and 3 directions).

3

Firstly, experimental results indicate that creep is a constant volume process, i.e.

1c 2c 3c 0

The condition also implies that hydrostatic stress states (i.e. 1 = 2 = 3) do not

cause any creep strains to occur. If 1 = 2 = 3 , from symmetry and assuming the

material is isotropic,

1c 2c 3c ,

1c 0 , hence 2c 3c 0

1c 2c 3c 0 ,

and since,

then 3 1

0,

i.e.

too.

The results of experimental tests also indicate that the superposition of a hydrostatic

stress state onto any other stress state does not influence the creep behaviour.

(1, 2, 3) or represented by

O (Hydrostatic

axis)

P (, , )

hydrostatic stress states, and 00''

O (m, m, m)

hydrostatic component (m , m ,

O

(deviatoric) stress which governs

the creep behaviour.

2

m

m

67

hydrostatic stress, m

and effective stress,

( 1 2 3 )

3

eff K1 ( 1 2 ) 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 3 1 ) 2

The value of K1 can be determined by considering the uniaxial stress state, i.e. 1 0,

2 = 3 = 0. Under these conditions, 1 = eff

Therefore, K1 ( 1 0) 0 (0 1 )

2

Thus K1

K1 2. 1 = eff

1

2

eff

1

2

( 1 2 ) 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 3 1 ) 2

ceff K 2 ( 1c c2 ) 2 ( c2 3c ) 2 ( 3c 1c ) 2

This must also reduce to the uniaxial form, i.e.

K 2 ( (

c

1

c

1

1c

2

)) 0 (

2

1c

2

c

eff

1c when 1 0 but 2 = 3 = 0.

2c 3c 1c / 2

when 2 = 3 = 0,

1c ) 2

ie K2 = 2/3

ceff

2

( 1c c2 ) 2 ( c2 3c ) 2 ( 3c 1c ) 2

3

then under multiaxial conditions we have

= f1 () f2 (t),

68

c

It is also necessary to define a flow rule, ie we need to be able to split eff into its

component parts. The flow rule must contain the constant volume condition and the

fact that the hydrostatic stress component does not affect creep behaviour.

If we subtract the hydrostatic stress components from each of the stress components

(1, 2 and 3) we obtain the components of 0''P in the 1, 2 and 3 directions, ie ( 1m), (2- m) and (3- m). If the creep strain rates in the 1, 2 and 3 directions are

proportional to these components of 0''P, the sum of the components must be zero, ie

K3 (1- m) + K3 (2- m) + K3 (3- m) must be zero.

Now , m

(1 2 3 )

3

= K3 (1 + 2 + 3 - 3m)

=0

Therefore the sum of the creep strain rate components obtained using the above flow

rule satisfies the constant volume conditions.

and

= K3 (1- m)

= K3 (2- m)

= K3 (3- m)

Again the value of K3 can be obtained by considering the behaviour under a uniaxial

stress condition: 1 0 but 2 = 3 =0, hence eff = 1 and eff

eff

= 1 . So,

c

1

2

1) =

K3 1

3

3

69

K3 =

3 ceff

.

2 eff

1

2

3 ceff

ceff

1

( 1 m ) =

(1 (2 3 ))

=

2 eff

eff

2

ceff

1

(

(3 1 ))

=

2

eff

2

ceff

1

(

(1 2 ))

=

3

eff

2

c

eff

Substituting

where eff

f1 ( eff )

eff

( 1

f1 ( eff )

eff

1

( 2 ( 3 1 )). f 2 (t )

2

f1 ( eff )

eff

1

2

1

( 2 3 )). f 2 (t )

2

1

( 3 ( 1 2 )). f 2 (t )

2

( 1 2 ) 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 3 1 ) 2

The multiaxial creep law can be further generalised to include shear stresses and

strains.

f1 ( eff )

1

( x ( y z )).f 2 ( t )

eff

2

f1 ( eff )

eff

f1 ( eff )

eff

( y

1

( z x )). f 2 (t )

2

( z

1

( x y )). f 2 (t )

2

70

f1 ( eff )

xz 3

.

yz

( eff )

xy 3

f1 ( eff )

( eff )

f1 ( eff )

( eff )

. xz . f 2 (t )

. yz . f 2 (t )

. xy . f 2 (t )

where

eff

1

2

zz

zy

zx

xz

yz

xy

yy

yx

xx

71

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