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Introduction to the

15 MVA Grid Simulator:


Challenges in Fault Ride-Through Testing
Energy Systems Innovation Center
Workshop
11/20/2013
J. Curtiss Fox jfox@clemson.edu

Transforming the electrical grid into


an energy efficient network requires:

new technologies that must play a significant role in power system stability.
the ability to replicate a complex dynamic system like the electrical grid for testing
purposes.
extensive testing of hardware and software to meet safety and quality assurance
requirements through fully integrated system testing.
parallel model verification and validation of physical hardware to ensure higher
reliability and stability once deployed on the electrical grid.

Advanced Testing Lowers the Risks and Costs of


New Technology Introduction into the Market
Development

Demonstration

Verification

Total Costs

Time to Market

Deployment Risks

Grid Integration Evaluations


Power Set Points
Voltage and Frequency Variations
Controls Evaluation

Power Quality Evaluations

Voltage Flicker
Harmonic Evaluations
Anti-Islanding (Software)

Ancillary Services
Grid Fault
Ride-Through Testing
Open Loop Testing
Hardware-In-the-Loop
Testing

Frequency Response
Active Volt-VAR Control
Active Frequency Regulation
Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT)
Unsymmetrical Fault Ride-Through
High Voltage Ride-Through (HVRT)

Recreation of field events with


captured waveform data

Simulated dynamic behavior and


interaction between grid and the
device under test

Increasing level of difficulty

Steady State and Envelope


Evaluations

Energy Systems Innovation Center


23.9 kV Utility Bus

7.5MW Test Stand


15 MVA HIL
Grid Simulator
Graduate Education Center
500 kW Solar Array

15MW Test Stand

4.16 kV 5 MVA Test Bus

23.9 kV 20 MVA Test Bus

Up to three independent
grid integration tests can run
simultaneously in each of
the three experimental bays

Experimental Bay #3

Experimental Bay #2

Experimental Bay #1

Energy Systems Innovation Center


MV Single Line Diagram
Main Facility Electrical Bus (23.9 kV)

Variable 23.9 kV (50/60 Hz)

Electrical Capabilities
Three Independent Test Bays
Overall Electrical Capabilities
Main Test Bay
Nominal Voltage
Nominal Power
Frequency Range
Sequence Capabilities
Overvoltage capabilities
Fault Simulation
Hardware-In-the-Loop

24 kV (50/60 Hz)
15 MVA (7.5 MVA)
45 to 65 Hz
3 and 4 wire operation
133% Continuous Overvoltage
Yes (includes Reactive Divider)
Yes

Small Test Bay 1


Nominal Voltage
Nominal Power
Frequency Range
Sequence Capabilities
Overvoltage capabilities
Fault Simulation
Hardware-In-the-Loop

4160 V (50/60 Hz)


3.75 MVA (3 MW @ 0.8 PF)
0 to 800 Hz
3 and 4 wire operation
133% Continuous Overvoltage
Limited to Converter Only
Yes

Small Test Bay 2


Nominal Voltage
Nominal Power
Frequency Range
Sequence Capabilities
Overvoltage capabilities
Fault Simulation
Hardware-In-the-Loop

4160 V (50/60 Hz)


3.75 MVA (3 MW @ 0.8 PF)
0 to 800 Hz
3 and 4 wire operation
133% Continuous Overvoltage
Limited to Converter Only
Yes

TECO Westinghouse Motor


Company: Power Amplifier
Power Amplifier Specs
Installed Power
Rated Power
Cabinet Power Split
Rated Voltage
Overvoltage
Multilevel Operation
Frequency Range
Overload Capability

20 MVA (15 MW @ 0.8 PF)


15 MVA (12 MW @ 0.8 PF)
4 x 3.75 MVA or 2 x 7.5 MVA
0 - 4160 V
133 % Rated Output Voltage
7 - Levels (9 - Levels Overvoltage)
3 - 66 Hz
110% for 60 s (10 min duty cycle)

VA
VB
VC
N
Series Connected H-Bridge (SCHB) Topology

Full Power Amplifier Diagram with 8 parallel SCHBs

TECO Westinghouse Motor


Company: Power Amplifier

Phase Shifted Carrier PWM


High degree of harmonic cancelation
due to multilevel architecture
Increased reference sampling fidelity

Sampling fidelity is further increased


by using asymmetrical sampling of
each individual carrier
Power Amplifier Output Harmonic Spectrum (Fs = 2 kHz)

~260th
Harmonic

Synchronous Sampling up to 12 kHz

First noise mode is at 8 times


the switching frequency
Reference resolution also at
12 kHz using asymmetrical
sampling
Total Harmonic Distortion:
0.15% THD (0 50th)
0.24% THD (0 100th)
0.30% THD (0 150th)
0.34% THD (0 200th)
8

Fault-Ride Through (FRT)


Testing Methods and Requirements
Reactive Divider Network Method

World Wide FRT Withstand Curves

ABB Factory Testing (2009)


FGH Test Systems Field Testing (2006)
Voltage Source Converter Method
GE Power Conversion (Fr. Converteam)
Vestas V164 Test Bench (2013)
NAREC 15 MW Test Bench (Hybrid?) (2014?)
ABB Test Systems
NWTC at NREL (4Q-2013)
A Hybrid Method
Clemson University (1Q-2014)

Advantages and Challenges


with Existing FRT Technologies
Reactive Divider Network Method
Faults created at the PCC to allow for
true zero voltage faults
Real inductances provide a worst case
scenario for line connected machinery
Operates at the fixed frequency of
utility connection
Requires a sufficient fault duty from
the utility for voltage regulation
Voltage Source Converter Method
Faults created behind a step-up transformer
limit true zero voltage faults
Voltage regulation is straight forward given
close electrical coupling with the DUT
Step-up transformer flux management limits
sharp voltage transitions
Power electronics must handle the fault
current delivered by the DUT
10

Why a Hybrid Method?


Increased flexibility and accuracy of FRT evaluations

Faulted at the point of common coupling (PCC)


True zero voltage faults (ZVRT)
Magnetic flux decoupling between transformers
Real inductive loading for transient time constant analysis
Backwards compatible with existing methods
Power electronic switching for point-in-wave studies

11

The Hybrid Method:


Operation Cycle
The Operation Cycle
1. Open Series
Bypass Switch
2. Close Shunt
Fault Switch
3. Open Shunt
Fault Switch
4. Close Series
Bypass Switch

State 2

State 3

State 1

There are only three unique


system states in the operation
cycle.

State 2

12

The Time-Variant
Thevenin Equivalent Model
The three unique states of the single phase system
model can be compressed into a time-variant
Thevenin equivalent model.
The time-variant Thevenin equivalent model is then
only dependent upon the state of each switch.
The time-variant Thevenin equivalent model is:

where:

and

13

Development of the Control


Strategy
The basis of control is built using the Internal Model
Principle to control at the Point of Common Coupling

The voltage control signals are derived from two


components:
1.) The feed-forward, open-circuit voltage reference, K
2.) The feedback, closed-circuit voltage compensation, G

K is only dependent on the state of SF


G is only dependent on the state of SB

14

Equivalent Three Phase In-Fault


Vector Matrices
Three Phase Fault

+
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

+
0
0


+
0
0

Double Line to
Ground Fault

+
0
0


+
0
0

0
0

0
0

+
0
0

Single Line to
Ground Fault
0
0
1
0


+
0

0
0

0
1

+
0
0

+
0
0
+

0
0

0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0

= (, ) , (, )

0
1

0
1

Line to Line Fault


+
+ 2

+ 2
0

( + )
+ 2
2
+ 2
0

0
0

+ 2
+
+ 2
0

0
0

2
+ 2
( + )
+ 2
0

+ , ()

0
0

1
0
0

0
0
1

15

Reactive Divider Network

Safety Considerations

Voltage Isolation

Access controlled room


Automatic grounding system when not in service

35 kV insulation system
2500 A (100 MVA) DUT fault duty

Performance and Flexibility

Remote control of all elements allows for setup and


operation without the need for room access
Individual phase operation allows for thousands of three
phase impedance combinations
Table of Fixed Reactance Combinations

Fixed Switch Shunt Fixed Series Fixed


Positions
(mH)
(mH)
1-1-1-0
1-1-0-0
1-0-0-0
0-1-1-1
0-1-1-0
0-1-0-0
0-0-1-1
0-0-1-0
0-0-0-1

0
0
0
25
25
25
50
50
75

25
50
75
0
25
50
0
25
0

Total
Shunt (mH)

Total
Series (mH)

0-25
0-25
0-25
25-50
25-50
25-50
50-75
50-75
75-100

25-50
50-75
75-100
0-25
25-50
50-75
0-25
25-50
0-25

16

Reactive Divider Network

Safety Considerations

Voltage Isolation

Access controlled room


Automatic grounding system when not in service

35 kV insulation system
2500 A (100 MVA) DUT fault duty

Performance and Flexibility

Remote control of all elements allows for setup and


operation without the need for room access
Individual phase operation allows for thousands of three
phase impedance combinations
Table of Fixed Reactance Combinations

Fixed Switch Shunt Fixed Series Fixed


Positions
(mH)
(mH)
1-1-1-0
1-1-0-0
1-0-0-0
0-1-1-1
0-1-1-0
0-1-0-0
0-0-1-1
0-0-1-0
0-0-0-1

0
0
0
25
25
25
50
50
75

25
50
75
0
25
50
0
25
0

Total
Shunt (mH)

Total
Series (mH)

0-25
0-25
0-25
25-50
25-50
25-50
50-75
50-75
75-100

25-50
50-75
75-100
0-25
25-50
50-75
0-25
25-50
0-25

17

Controller Design Validation with


Controller Hardware-In-the-Loop Experiments

Controller Hardware-In-the-Loop (CHIL) experiments are designed to evaluate the


controllability and stability of performing fault ride-through evaluations with the Hybrid
Method
The RTDS system simulates the Grid Simulator physical system model and the DUT models
A scale version of the Interface Controller is used to validate the control algorithms

National Instruments
Interface Controller

Real Time Power


System Simulator
RTDS

Block Diagram of the CHIL experiments for the Hybrid Method

18

Example CHIL Results


10 MVA Synchronous Generator:
Three Phase Fault 0% Remaining Voltage

Magnetic Flux Decoupling During the Fault


Electrical distance created by the series impedance decouples the magnetic
flux between the two transformers.
The magnetic flux of the power amplifier step-up transformer is passively
controlled by the hybrid method vector controller.
10 MVA Sync. Gen 3PF 0%

20

Thank You