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Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has been serving enterprises and operators
for years, to the great satisfaction of its users. However, the new IP-based standard
developed by the IEEE 802.16 is likely to accelerate adoption of the technology. It
will expand the scope of usage thanks to: the possibility of operating in licensed and
unlicensed frequency bands, unique performance under Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS)
conditions, Quality of Service (QoS) awareness, extension to nomadicity, and more.
In parallel, the WiMAX forum, backed by industry leaders, will encourage the
widespread adoption of broadband wireless access by establishing a brand forthe
technology and pushing interoperability between products.

The purpose of this White Paper is to highlight and assess the value of WiMAX as
the right solution to:

extend the currently limited coverage of public WLAN (hotspots) to citywide

coverage (hot zones)

- the same technology being usable at home and on the move,

blanket metropolitan areas for mobile data-centric service delivery,

offer fixed broadband access in urban and suburban areas where copper quality is
poor or unbundling difficult,

bridge the digital divide in low-density areas where technical and economic factors
make broadband deployment very challenging. In addition to these uses, this paper

will highlight other potential applications, such as telephony or an effective point-to

multipoint backhauling solution for operators or enterprises.

WiMAX is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as
an alternative to wired broadband like cable and DSL. WiMAX provides fixed , nomadic, portable and,
soon, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight with a base
station. In a typical cell radius deployment of three to ten kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified
systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access

This is enough bandwidth to simultaneously support hundreds of businesses with T-1 speed connectivity
and thousands of residences with DSL speed connectivity. Mobile network deployments are expected to
provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to three kilometers. It is
expected that WiMAX technology will be incorporated in notebook computers and PDAs by 2007,
allowing for urban areas and cities to become "metro zones" for portable outdoor broadband wireless


The bandwidth and range of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications:

Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots with other parts of the Int

Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for "last mile broadband access.

Providing data and telecommunications services.

Providing a source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. That

is, if a business has a fixed and a wireless Internet connection, especially from
unrelated providers, they are unlikely to be affected by the same service outage.

2.1 Standards Associated With Wimax

2.1 Wireless Standards

IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and
metropolitan area networks. More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted
to networks carrying variable-size packets. (By contrast, in cell-based networks data
is transmitted in short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks,
where data is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of octets, at regular
time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.) The number 802 was
simply the next free number IEEE could assign, though 802 is sometimes
associated with the date the first meeting was held February 1980.

IEEE 802.16 : The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access
Standards, which was established by IEEE Standards Board in 1999, aims


prepare formal specifications for the global deployment of broadband Wireless

Metropolitan Area Networks. The Workgroup is a unit of the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN
Standards Committee. A related future technology Mobile Broadband Wireless
Access (MBWA) is under development in IEEE 802.20.

Although the 802.16 family of standards is officially

called Wireless MAN, it has been dubbed WiMAX (from "Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access") by an industry group called the WiMAX
Forum. The mission of the Forum is to promote and certify compatibility and
interoperability of broadband wireless products.

2.2 Types of 802.16

In January 2003, the IEEE approved 802.16a as an amendment to IEEE

802.16-2001, defining (Near) Line-Of- Sight capability.

In July 2004, IEEE 802.16REVd, now published under the name IEEE
802.16-2004,introduces support for indoor CPE (NLOS) through additional
radio capabilities such as antenna beam forming and OFDM sub-channeling.

Early 2005, an IEEE 802.16e variant will introduce support for mobility.
See Figure 2.2 for the applications associated with each of these standards The WiMAX
Forum intends to do for 802.16 what the Wi-Fi Alliance did for 802.11:

harmonize standards and certify interoperability between equipment from

different vendors. Standardized interoperable solutions will result in mass
mass volume and bring down cost

promote and establish a brand for the technology


WiMAX stands for wireless interoperatibility for microwave access. WiMAX is

expected to do more for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) and what Wi-Fi has
done for local area networks (LANs)? WiMAX is not projected to replace Wi-Fi, but
to complement it by connecting Wi-Fi networks to each other or the Internet through
high-speed wireless links. You can therefore use WiMAX technology to extend the
power and range of Wi-Fi and cellular networks. However, in developing countries,
WiMAX may become the only wireless technology because Wi-Fi and cellular have
not penetrated areas that can be reached with WiMAX technology.

The wide range of the WiMAX technology depends on the height of the antennas, if
they are installed at the suitable position from where there is no barrier between the
transmitter and receiver, and then we can get better range and service from it. Even
though the frequency for operation of WiMAX is not definite, the most likely band
at 3.5GHz is higher in frequency than the 3G bands at around 2.1 GHz. Range will,
as a result, be lower, perhaps somewhere between 50% and 75% of the range of 3G.
WiMAX can therefore support 30 to 50 kilometres distance with Line-of-Sight
(LOS) links. As far as Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in concerned WiMAX can
support the broad range from 3 to 10 kilometres using advanced modulation
algorithm that can overcome many interfering objects that Wi-Fi systems cannot
pass through.

Data Rates:

The technology used for WiMAX is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM), it is not appreciably more supernaturally efficient then the technology

commonly used for 3G that is Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

(WCDMA). However OFDM is coupled with a high channel bandwidth, that allows
greater data rates. So, on average, for an equivalent spectrum allocation, users will
see similar data rates. In specific simulations, where there are few users, it is
possible that WiMAX will provide a higher data rate than 3G. However, in
commercial systems, such simulations are likely rare.


It is normally believed that WiMAX will enter into the market some five years after
3G is well established. This drawback in time is likely to be important since without
a convincing advantage only a few service providers will choose to move from 3G to
WiMAX. However, those yet to deploy a system may find the choice balanced
between the two technologies.

The network costs of WiMAX will be likely to be higher than for 3G because of the
reduced range and hence the necessity to build more cells. The subscriber subsidy

costs may be lower if WiMAX is built into processor chips, although this may not
apply if users wish to have WiMAX handsets.

Quality of Service (QoS):

Excellent Quality Of service management donates from variety of WiMAX features.
Just as on a Wi-Fi network, WiMAX users share a data pipe and QoS can degrade as
more users are added to the network. Using the QoS features of WiMAX service
providers can guarantee certain users specific bandwidth amounts by limiting the
bandwidth consumption of other users.

Grant request mechanism for accessing to network is the first aspect of Quality of
Service. The WiMAX functioning of disagreement allocates only a fixed amount of
time to be given to these grant requests. Disagreement refers to the act of competing
for access to the network. Because of the limited amount of time available,
bandwidth cannot be consumed by contention requests. When a disagreement
request comes into the network, the system compares the request with a service
level agreement for the user making the request, and they are granted, or denied,
access accordingly.

Link by link modulation schemes is another benefit of WiMAX Quality of

Service. In other words, the base station can use different modulation schemes for
different links. The modulation scheme used is related directly to the distance of the
link. Rather than all users' links being downgraded by the user farthest away, link by
link modulation enables closer users to use higher data-rate modulation schemes


4.1Technological features:
Various advanced technologies will be developed to meet services above and
consequently WiMAX will support seamless mobility and technologies such as the
technique for minimized power consumption of the terminal, fast link adaptation,
and efficient MAC for broadband services will be developed for high data rate
transmission in mobile environments.


For the phase I standardization, PG302 decided several system parameters and
Radio access requirements. Major system parameters include duplex scheme (TDD)
and multiple access (OFDMA) and Channel bandwidth (10MHz) as well. Any

detailed contents could be shown in Table 2. For the radio access

requirements, some parameters have been determined as follows:

Frequency reuse factor is set as 1.

Maximum guaranteed speed of user is 60 Km/h.

Radius of service coverage can be a few Km.

Maximum of spectral efficiency should be 6 bits/Hz/cell for

downlink and 2 bits/Hz/cell for uplink, but the averages are
2 bits/Hz/cell for downlink and 1 bits/Hz/cell for uplink.

Handoff latency should be less than 150 ms.

Throughout per user should be 0.512 to 3 Mbps for downlink and

0.128 to 1 Mbps for uplink.

Table 4.1 shows the development contents in association with

system requirement. Requirements could be induced by
consideration on radio access requirements

Table 4.1 Deployment contents corresponding with system

System Requirements

Deployment contents

TDD to minimize required guard band

High spectrum efficiency

10 MHz broadband/OFDMA

To use AMC(Adaptive Modulation and

Coding) supporting 64 QAM modulation with
turbo code
Supporting frequency reuse factor 1

Using Reed Solomon sequence based subchannel to minimize

other RASs interference

Supporting wide coverage

In the cell edge with band SINR area, the operation guaranteed
with low rate FEC

Supporting safety channel in order to reduce interference of the

cell edge area
Employing H-ARQ to enhanced link performance

Guaranteeing mobility up to 60 km/h speed

Supporting mobility
Short OFDM symbol length can minimize the degradation due to
the mobility.

Employing variable duty rates of TDD DL/UL

1:1, 2:1, 5:1 DL/UL ratios are available

Flexible resource allocation
for multiple subscriber






management of the status of individual terminals and packet

scheduling algorithm are considered
Supporting various QoS

Best effort/Real-time polling/Non-real-time polling

Handheld support

Supporting sleep mode to reduce terminal power consumption




(optional feature)

To apply the Smart Antenna for low mobility user

4.1 Technology: WiMAX Design

The design of the WiMAX is ideal for challenges related with earlier
versions of wired and wireless access networks. At the same time the
backhaul connects the WiMAX system to the network, it is not an integrated
part of WiMAX system. Normally a WiMAX network consists of two parts, a
WiMAX Base Station (BS) and a WiMAX receiver also referred as Customer
Premise Equipment (CPE).

Backhaul is actually a connection system from the Access Point (AP) back
to the provider and to the connection from the provider to the network. A
backhaul can set out any technology and media provided; it connects the

system to the backbone. In most of the WiMAX deployments circumstances,

it is also possible to connect several base stations with one another by use of
high speed backhaul microware links. This would also allow for roaming by a
WiMAX subscriber from one base station coverage area to another, similar to
roaming enabled by cellular phone.

A WiMAX receiver, which is also referred as Customer Premise Equipment
(CPE), may have a separate antenna or could be a stand-alone box or a PCMCIA card
that inserted in a laptop or a desktop computer. Access to a WiMAX base station is
similar to accessing a wireless access point (AP) in a Wi-Fi network, but the coverage
is more.
So far one of the biggest restrictions to the widespread acceptance of WiMAX
has been the cost of CPE. This is not only the cost of CPE itself, but also that of
installation. In the past, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) have been predominantly
Line Of Sight (LOS), requiring highly skilled labour and a truck role to install and
provide a service to customer. The concept of a self-installed CPE has been difficult
for BWA from the beginning, but with the advent of WiMAX, this issue seems to be
getting resolvedBase Station (BS)
A WiMAX base station comprises of internal devices and a WiMAX tower. A
base station can normally covers the area of about 50 kilometres or 30 miles radius,
but some other and environmental issues bound the limits of WiMAX range to 10 km
or 6 miles. Any wireless user within the coverage area would be able to access the
WiMAX services (Fig: 2). The WiMAX base stations would use the media access
control layer defines in the standard and would allocate uplink and downlink
bandwidth to subscribers according to their requirements on real time basis.


4.2Types of WiMAX:
The WiMAX family of standards concentrate on two types of usage models a
fixed usage model and a mobile usage model. The basic element that differentiates
these systems is the ground speed at which the systems are designed to manage. Based
on mobility, wireless access systems are designed to operate on the move without any
disruption of service; wireless access can be divided into three classes; stationary,
pedestrian and vehicular.
A mobile wireless access system is one that can address the vehicular class,
whereas the fixed serves the stationary and pedestrian classes. This raises a question
about the nomadic wireless access system, which is referred to as a system that works
as a fixed wireless access system but can change its location

Fixed WiMAX
Service and consumer usage of WiMAX for fixed access is expected to reflect
that of fixed wire-line service, with many of the standards-based requirements being
confined to the air interface. Because communications takes place via wireless links
from Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) to a remote Non Line-of-sight (NLOS) base
station, requirements for link security are greater than those needed for a wireless
service. The security mechanisms within the IEEE 802.16 standards are sufficient for
fixed access service.
Another challenge for the fixed access air interface is the need to set up high
performance radio links capable of data rates comparable to wired broadband service,
using equipment that can be self installed indoors by users, as is the case for Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems. IEEE 802.16 standards provide advanced
physical (PHY) layer techniques to achieve link margins capable of supporting high
throughput in NLOS environments.

Mobile WiMAX
The 802.16a extension, refined in January 2003, uses a lower frequency of 2 to
11 GHz, enabling NLOS connections. The latest 802.16e task group is capitalizing on
the new capabilities this provides by working on developing a specification to enable
mobile WiMAX clients. These clients will be able to hand off between WiMAX base
stations, enabling users to roam between service areas.

WiMAX, more flexibility and security:
Unlike WLAN, WiMAX provides a media access control (MAC) layer that
uses a grant-request mechanism to authorize the exchange of data. This feature allows
better exploitation of the radio resources, in particular with smart antennas, and
independent management of the traffic of every user. This simplifies the support of
real-time and voice applications. One of the inhibitors to widespread deployment of
WLAN was the poor security feature of the first releases. WiMAX proposes the full
range of security features to ensure secured data exchange:
terminal authentication by exchanging certificates to prevent rogue devices,

user authentication using the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP),

data encryption using the Data Encryption Standard (DES) or Advanced

Encryption Standard (AES), both much more robust than the Wireless Equivalent
Privacy (WEP) initially used by WLAN. Furthermore, each service is encrypted
with its own security association and private keys.

WiMAX, a very efficient radio solution:

WiMAX must be able to provide a reliable service over long distances to
customers using indoor terminals or PC cards (like today's WLAN cards). These
requirements, with limited transmit power to comply with health requirements, will
limit the link budget. Subchannelling in uplink and smart antennas at the base station
has to overcome these constraints. The WiMAX system relies on a new radio
physical (PHY) layer and appropriate MAC layer to support all demands driven by the

target applications. The PHY layer modulation is based on OFDMA, in combination

with a centralized MAC layer for optimized resource allocation and support of QoS
for different types of services (VoIP, real-time and non real-time services, best effort).
The OFDMA PHY layer is well adapted to the NLOS propagation environment in the
2 - 11 GHz frequency range. It isinherently robust when it comes to handling the
significant delay spread caused by the typical NLOS reflections. Together with
adaptive modulation, which is applied to each subscriber individually according to the
radio channel capability, OFDMA can provide a high spectral efficiency of about 3 - 4
bit/s/Hz. However, in contrast to single carrier modulation, the OFDMA signal has an
increased peak: average ratio and increased frequency accuracy requirements.
Therefore, selection of appropriate power amplifiers and frequency recovery concepts
are crucial. WiMAX provides flexibility in terms of channelization, carrier frequency,
and duplex mode (TDD and FDD) to meet a variety of requirements for available
spectrum resources and targeted services. An important and very challenging function
of the WiMAX system is the support of various advancedantenna techniques, which
are essential to provide high spectral efficiency, capacity, system performance, and

beam forming using smart antennas provides additional gain to bridge long distances
or to increase indoor coverage; it reduces inter-cell interference and improves
frequency reuse,

transmit diversity and MIMO techniques using multiple antennas take advantage of
multipath reflections to improve reliability and capacity.
WiMAX technology can provide coverage in both LOS and NLOS conditions.
NLOS has many implementation advantages that enable operators to deliver
broadband data to a wide range of customers. WiMAX technology has many
advantages that allow it to provide NLOS solutions, with essential features such as
OFDM technology, adaptive modulation and error correction.

6.1 OFDM
OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; its a
technology that provides the operator to beat the challenges of Non-Line-of-Sight
(NLOS) transmission in the more efficient manner. OFDM waveform put forward the
advantage of functioning with the larger delay spread of the NLOS background. With
the excellent quality of OFDM functionality, time and use of a cyclic prefix and its
also removes the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) complications of adaptive
equalization. Multiple narrowband orthogonal carriers composed because of OFDM
waveform, localizing selective fading to a subset of carriers that are comparatively
simple to equalize. A comparison between an OFDM signal and a single carrier signal,
with the information being sent in parallel for OFDM and in series for single carrier
are shown in Fig: 6.1 (WiMAX Forum)

6.1 OFD

The facility to remove delay spread, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and multi-path in
a proficient manner allows for higher data rate throughput. It is simpler to equalize
the individual OFDM carriers than it is to equalize the broader single carrier signal.

For these entire reasons modern international standard such as those set by IEEE
802.16, have created OFDM as the ideal technology.

Antennas For Fixed WiMAX Applications:

Directional antennas enhance the fade margin by adding together extra gain.
This increases the link accessibility comparisons between directional and Omnidirectional antennas. Delay spread is further reduced by directional antennas at both
the Base Station and Customer Premise Equipment (CPE). The antenna pattern
restrains any multi-path signals that appear in the side lobes and back lobes. The
efficiency of these methods has been verified and demonstrated in booming
deployments, in which the service operates under considerable NLOS fading.

Adaptive Modulation
WiMAX system supports adaptive modulation to regulate the Signal
Modulation Scheme (SMC) depending on the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) state of the
radio link. When the radio link is soaring in quality, the peak modulation scheme is
used, offering the system additional capacity. During a signal fade, the WiMAX
system can move to a lower modulation scheme to keep the connection quality and
link permanence. This element allows the system to overcome time-selective fading.
The key element of adaptive modulation is that it enhances the range that a higher
modulation scheme can be used over, because the system can bend to the actual fading
circumstances, as opposed to having a fixed scheme that is planned for the worst case

Error Detection Techniques:

WiMAX have built-in error detection techniques to reduce the system Signal to
Noise Ratio (SNR) obligations. Convolutional Encoding, Strong Reed Solomon FEC,
and interleaving algorithms are used to identify and correct errors to enhance
throughput. These strong error correction techniques assist to recover corrupted frames
that may have been missing due to frequency selective fading or burst errors. To
remove the errors, Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is used that cannot be corrected
by the FEC by resending the error-ed information again. This notably improves the Bit
Error Rate (BER) performance for a similar maximum level.

WiMAX integrates perfectly into existing fixed and mobile networks,
complementing them when needed. This section gives a more detailed analysis of
WiMAX integration into fixed and the mobile markets.

WiMAX for fixed wireless access:

Nationwide broadband access has become a priority in many countries. In most
developed countries, the average broadband coverage will reach 90% in the coming
years. Still, in some rural areas of such countries, broadband coverage will not exceed
50%.The service gap can be categorized by two characteristics: the type of area (rural
or urban) and the level of national development (see Table 1). In developed countries,
DSL service deployment has been massive in urban and sub- urban deployments,
whereas coverage of remote areas - smaller towns and rural areas - is lagging behind.
Hurdles to overcome are the poor line quality of the installed copper base, the
large distances to the central offices or cabinets, or the low population density. In this
context, WiMAX, with its QoS support, longer reach, and data rates similar to DSL, is
naturally positioned as a viable first mile option to offer broadband access to
residential users.
In emerging countries, the main focus of broadband deployment is on urban
and suburbanareas, and will remain so in the near future. The low POTS penetration
and the low quality of the copper pair prevent mass scale DSL deployment and foster
the need for alternate broadband technologies. In this context, WiMAX is positioned
as an excellent option. Moreover, the possibility of offering broadband services in
combination with voice services will gradually lead to narrowband WLL
substitution. Parameters such as availability of the copper, distance to the remote
unit/central office, backhauling costs, and teledensity will drive the choice for one or
other of these solutions. For further details, refer to the article "Providing Always-on

Broadband Access to Under-served Areas" in the Alcatel Telecommunication

Review(Q4 2003).
WiMax is of interest for large enterprises with several locations in the same
metropolitan area. WiMax will permit Operator's bypass under license conditions:
building a metropolitan private network of IP lines at a very low cost (no civil works).
The comparison to leased lines rental fee is in favor of Wimax even for two sites only.

WiMAX, the natural complement to mobile and Wi-Fi networks:

Mobile networks offer full mobility, nation-wide coverage voice support and
moderate data rates. WiMAX can then be positioned as a complementary solution by
offering higher bandwidth when required, in particular in dense urban areas. Public
WLAN, while offering clear benefits, is limited in coverage and mobility
capabilities. WiMAX by-passes these limitations and offers broadband connectivity in
larger areas (hotzones). Wi-Fi and WiMAX solutions are also complementary, with
Wi-Fi being more adapted for short-range, indoor connections (in particular in the
enterprise and at home) and WiMAX for long- range outdoor connections.

From nomadicity to Portable Internet:

While nomadicity offers connectivity within the coverage area of a single base
station, Portable Internet implies session continuity throughout the network. In
addition a new generation of networks with multi-access (3G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, DSL,
FTTU, etc.) enable end-users to enjoy an "Always Best Connected" experience when
accessing their applications via the best available network at home, on the pause, or on
the move. See Figure 4. WiMAX becomes an additional radio access solution in the
global network architecture.


In most case, a simple plug and play terminal, similar to a DSL modem,
provides connectivity. For customers located several kilometers from the WiMAX
base station, a self-install outdoor antenna may be required to improve transmission
quality. To serve isolated customers, a directive antenna pointing to the WiMAX base

station may be required. For customers requesting voice in addition to broadband

services, specific CPE will allow the connection of standard or VoIP phones.
Ultimately, WiMAX chipset will be embedded in data-centric devices.

The incumbent operators can use the wireless technology as a complement to DSL,
allowing them to offer DSL-like services in remote, lowdensity areas that cannot be
served with DSL.

For alternate operators, the wireless technology is the solution for a competitive
high-speed Internet with applicability in urban or sub-urban areas.

The larger opportunity will come with the Portable Internet usage, complementing
fixed and mobile solution in urban and suburban areas. Therefore it will enhance the
business case by giving access to a large potential of end users.

WiMAX, the obvious choice for operators:

By integrating WiMAX into their networks, mobile operators can boost their
service with high bandwidth, when necessary, the same applications (messaging,
agenda, location-based services, ) being offered on both networks with a single
billing and subscriber profile. Mobile operators can also reuse existing radio sites and
backhauling equipment to facilitate the deployment of WiMAX. Fixed operators,
incumbent or alternate, will offer nomadic and Portable Internet usage as an addition
to their fixed access offering to complement their DSL and Wi-Fi bundle. For those
having deployed WiMAX for fixed access, this is also a natural evolution of their

WiMAX-compliant equipment will be allowed to operate in both licensed and
unlicensed bands. The minimum channel bandwidth for WiMAX usage is 1.75 MHz
per channel, while 10 MHz is considered as an optimum. Although 2.4 GHz and 5
GHz non-licensed bands are largely available, their usage could be limited to trials
because of the risks of interference preventing QoS commitments. The 2.5 and 3.5
GHz licensed bands will be the most common bands for WiMAX applications. It
should be noted that the 5 GHz band is also partially licensed in some countries. Most
countries have already allocated licensed spectrum, generally to alternate operators.
Nevertheless large quantities of spectrum are still in process of allocation, and some
countries have not even defined any WiMAX licensed bands yet. WiMAX is designed
to accommodate either Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD), which is more suited to
enterprise traffic, or Time Division Duplexing (TDD), which is more adapted to
asymmetrical traffic. Cohabitation of FDD and TDD techniques is possible within the
same bands, provided guard bands are implemented.

By using a robust modulation scheme, IEEE 802.16 delivers high throughput
at long ranges with a highlevel of spectral efficiency that is also tolerant of signal
reflections. Dynamic adaptive modulation allows the base station to tradeoff
throughput for range. For example, if the base station cannot establish a robust link to
a distant subscriber using the highest order modulation scheme, 64 QAM (Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation), the modulation order is reduced to 16 QAM orQPSK
(Quadrature Phase Shift Keying), which reduces throughput and increases effective

To accommodate easy cell planning in both licensed and license-exempt
spectrum worldwide, 802.16 supports flexible channel bandwidths. For example, if an
operator is assigned 20 MHz of spectrum, that operator could divide it into two sectors

of 10 MHz each, or 4 sectors of 5 MHz each. By focusing power on increasingly

narrow sectors, the operator can increase the number of users while maintaining good
range and throughput. To scale coverage even further, the operator can re-use the
same spectrum in two or more sectors by creating proper isolation between base
station antennas.

In addition to supporting a robust and dynamic modulation scheme, the
IEEE 802.16 standard also supports technologies that increase coverage, including mesh
topology and smart antenna techniques. As radio technology improves and costs drop,
the ability to increase coverage and throughput by using multiple antennas to create
transmit and/or receive diversity will greatly enhance coverage in extreme

Quality of Service:
Voice capability is extremely important, especially in underserved international
markets. For this reason the IEEE 802.16a standard includes Quality of Service
features that enable services including voice and video that require a low-latency
network. The grant/request characteristics of the 802.16 Media Access Controller
(MAC) enables an operator to simultaneously provide premium guaranteed levels of
service to businesses, such as T1-level service, and high-volume


service to homes, similar to cable-level service, all within the same base station
service area cell.

Privacy and encryption features are included in the 802.16 standard to support secure
transmissions and provide authentication and data encryption.

WiMAX Focuses on Interoperability:

WiMAX (the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Forum) is a
non- profit corporation formed by equipment and component suppliers, including Intel
Corporation, to promote the adoption of IEEE 802.16 compliant equipment by
operators of broadband wireless access systems. The organization is working to
facilitate the deployment of broadband wireless networks based on the IEEE 802.16
standard by helping to ensure the compatibility and interoperability of broadband

wireless access equipment. In this regard, the philosophy of WiMAX for the wireless
MAN is comparable to that of the Wi-Fi* Alliance in promoting the

IEEE 802.11

standard for wireless LANs. In an effort to bring interoperability to Broadband

Wireless Access, WiMAX is focusing its efforts on establishing a unique subset of
baseline features grouped in what is referred to as System Profiles that all compliant
equipment must satisfy. These profiles will establish a baseline protocol that allows
equipment from multiple vendors to interoperate, and that also provides system
integrators and service providers with the ability to purchase equipment from more
than one supplier. System Profiles can address the regulatory spectrum constraints
faced by operators in different geographies. For example, a service provider in
Europe1 operating in the 3.5 GHz band who has been allocated 14 MHz of spectrum is
likely to want equipment that supports 3.5 and/or 7 MHz channel bandwidths and
TDD (time-division duplex) or FDD (frequency-division duplex) operation. Similarly,
a WISP in the U.S. using licenseexempt spectrum in the 5.8 GHz UNII band may
desire equipment that supports TDD and a 10 MHz bandwidth. WiMAX will establish
a structured compliance procedure based upon the proven test methodology specified
by ISO/IEC 96462. The process starts with standardized Test Purposes written in
English, which are then translated into Standardized Abstract Test Suites in a language
called TTCN3. In parallel, the Test Purposes are also used as input to generate test
tables referred to as the PICS (Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement) pro
forma. The end result is a complete set of test tools that WiMAX will make available
to equipment developers so they can design in conformance and interoperability
during the earliest possible phase of product development. Typically, this activity will
begin when the first integrated prototype becomes available. Ultimately, the WiMAX
suite of conformance tests, in conjunction with interoperability events, will enable
service providers to choose from multiple vendors of broadband wireless access
equipment that conforms to the IEEE 802.16a standard and that is optimized for their
unique operating environment. Internationally, WiMAX will work with ETSI, the
European Telecommunications Standards Institute, to develop similar test suites for
the ETSI HIPERMAN standard for European broadband wireless metropolitan area
access. WiMAX has key benefits for operators. By choosing interoperable, standardsbased equipment, the operator reduces the risk of deploying broadband wireless access

Economies of scale enabled by the standard help reduce monetary risk.

Operators are not locked in to a single vendor because base stations will interoperate
with subscriber stations from different manufacturers

.Ultimately, operators will benefit from lower-cost and higher-performance equipment,

as equipment manufacturers rapidly create product innovations based on a common,
standards-based platform.

Potential services:
WiMAX services can have potential applications in various fields. Different
applications can demand different QoS, which can be classified as follows


INTERACTIVE SERVICES : Web Browsing, Game interface,etc





: VoD ,MPEG ,etc.

FTP,E-Mail, SMS, Multicast/Broadcast



Possible services provided by WiMAX are widespread over various data

communication services including entertainment, information and commerce
services. The first round of WiMAX technology is expected to be nomadic, meaning
that CPEs will be portable, but not truly mobile. But with Samsungs new
developments on hand-over, the technology may become truly mobile, offering the
20 Mb/s to 30 Mb/s at speeds up to 120 km/h WiMAX enthusiasts are touting. For
entertainment services, WiMAX will provide high quality VoD/MoD/AoD, real- time
streaming broadcasting, 3G network games and MMS. Web Browsing, file
downloading and interactive information services will be provided as information
services by WiMAX. Commerce services such as m-commerce, mobile banking,
trading will be also provided by WiMAX as well. Table 1 summarizes possible
services to be provided by WiMAX. Example of WiMAX Services

Service type

QoS class




Real Time

Network Game

Entertainment service




Web Browsing




Information service

Interactive information




Mobile banking
Stock trading

Commerce service


Current Service:
KT offers 18.4Mbit/s/4Mbit/s for $22 a month with unlimited data usage.
WiMAX seems faster than HSDPA. There are similar service in U.S. operated by
wireless company but much more expensive and slower. Hanaro Telecom have

announced a partnership to roll out WiMAX nationwide in Korea, excluding Seoul

and six provincial cities, where independent networks will be rolled out.In November
2004, Intel and LG Electronics executives agreed to ensure compatibility between
WiMAX and WiMAX technology In September 2005, Samsung Electronics signed a
deal with Sprint Nextel Corporation to provide equipment for a WiMAX trial. In
November 2005, KT Corporation(aka Korea Telecom) showed off WiMAX trial
services during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Busan.

February 10th 2006: Telecom Italia, the dominant telephony and internet
service provider in Italy, together with Korean Samsung Electronics, has demonstrated
to the public a WiMAX network service on the occasion of the 2006 Winter Olympics,
held in Turin, with downspeed of 10 Mbit/s and upspeed of some hundreds of kbit/s
even in movement up to 120 km/h.
In the same event Samsung tlc div. president Kitae Lee assured a future of 2030 Mbit/s by the end of this year (2006) and 100+ Mbit/s down / 1+ Mbit/s up in 2008
KT Corporation launched commercial WiMAX service in mid-2006 as reported Sprint
(US), BT (UK), KDDI (JP), and TVA (BR) have or are trialing WiMAX. KT
Corporation and SK Telecom launched WiMAX around Seoul on June 30, 2006. More
about the KT launch.On April 3, 2007, KT launched WiMAX coverage for all areas of
Seoul including all subway lines.








54 Mbps

100 Mbps

16 Mbps

50 miles

Several miles

Max Speed

2 Mbps


Several miles 300 feet



Unlicensed Either











Disadvantagges Slow

Short range Interference High price


Overview: Widespread, Affordable
Connectivity is vital to Indian business and society. Globalization and the
Internet have created rapid growth in information technology-related businesses in
India. Although only half a percent of the Indian population has residential Internet
access (4.7 million out of 1 billion people), Indias more than 9,000 Internet cafes can
be seen bustling with people everywhere in the Indian cities.These Internet services
provide a means for people to stay connected with their friends and family through email, audio or video chat, and to browse the Internet for job and academic
opportunities. While Indians are enthusiastic about the Internet, the lack of physical
connectivity or telecommunications infrastructure and the cost and lack of broadband
technologies are a big hindrance to more widespread adoption of the Internet. In fact,
14 percent of Indias 0.6 million villages still do not have a single public telephone.
But wireless technologies are beginning to offer reliable alternatives to fixed-line
access, offering the potential for widespread, affordable connectivity to every region,
village, and person in India.

The Promise of Wireless Internet Access:

India is increasingly embracing wireless technologies. Cellular phones based
on various wireless technologies have revolutionized telecommunications in India. As
the growth of fixed-line subscribers has slowed over the past several years, cellular
usage has skyrocketed, nearly doubling in 2003 and growing by 159 percent so far in
2004, with 1.4 million new subscribers every month. But these cellular technologies
have not delivered broadband data connectivity to the households, due to both cost and
complexity. Yet India needs a way to provide widespread Internet access, access that
can usher in economic growth, better education and healthcare and improved

entertainment services as it has done elsewhere in the world. And the solution must
be wireless, to avoid the overwhelming cost and resources that would be required to
deploy countrywide fixed-line broadband Internet infrastructure.With widespread
wireless broadband facilities, the Indian information technology (IT) industry could
grow beyond a few cities, students in rural areas could videoconference with
educators across the country, and entertainment programs could be telecast to remote
areas along with Internet telephony services, using technologies like Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP). Improved communications could bring remote villages into
the world economy, information access could speed worker productivity, and faster
communication between producers and suppliers could fuel demand for Indian

Improved Education, Health Care and Entertainment:

With higher bandwidth and faster speeds, broadband Internet can make
education more accessible by delivering interactive distance education at a low cost.
TRAI reports that in Korea, the government provided training on PC and Internet
usage for low-income and disabled households with children. They also launched
programs to provide these families with heavily subsidized and sometimes free PCs.
Over 55 percent of all educational documents are electronic at this point. Teachers in
schools have access to their own PCs with Internet connections, and are required to
leverage information and communication technologies as an integral part of their
curriculum.5 In India, schools and libraries in rural or remote areas without wired
infrastructure or broadband services can be costeffectively connected to broadband
using WiMAX. Video conferencing tools can help students to study a variety of
subjects with educators who may not be able to commute to remote areas. Lecture
classes from urban schools and top universities can be broadcast to rural students, and
the students could use the broadband facilities of WiMAX for communicating with
teachers and with their remote classmates. The Indira Gandhi National Open
University (IGNOU) is already encouraging state governments and conventional
universities to establish distance learning programs, providing financial support and
grants for programs

and facilitating development of multimedia materials for

delivery through distance learning programs,6 Other premier institutions such as the
Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, are already offering distance

learning programs through relationships with industry and development agencies.

BITS conducts off-campus degree programs as a means of continuing education for
employed professionals as part of the human resource development programs of
specific organizations at various off-campus centers. BITS offerings include degree
programs in math, science and engineering, computer science, medical and healthcare
and other fields.
7 Extensive and reliable broadband Internet can help these Internet-based
quality distance education reach more people across the nation. Agriculture and health
care can also benefit from broadband services. High-resolution pictures or real-time
images of crop diseases can be transmitted to agricultural experts in a different
geographic location for immediate expert advice, thus containing the crop diseases
faster. Similarly, doctors can use real-time video conferencing to discuss patient
symptoms with faraway experts, thus providing faster and better care to the patients.

The Future of WiMAX:

The IEEE 802.16 standard body members are working toward incremental
evolution, from fixed operation to portability and mobility. The IEEE 802.16e
amendment will amend the base specification to enable not just fixed, but also
portable and mobile operation. IEEE 802.16f and IEEE 802.16g task groups are
addressing the management interfaces for fixed and mobile operation. Clients will be
able to hand-off between 802.16 base stations, enabling users to roam between service
areas. In a fully mobile scenario users may be moving while simultaneously engaging
in a broadband data access or multimedia streaming session. All of these
improvements will help make WiMAX an even better Internet access solution for
growing economies like that of India.

The latest developments in the IEEE 802.16 group are driving a broadband
wireless access (r) evolution thanks to a standard with unique technical characteristics.
In parallel, the WiMAX forum, backed by industry leaders, helps the widespread
adoption of broadband wireless access by establishing a brand for the technology.
Initially, WiMAX will bridge the digital divide and thanks to competitive equipment
prices, the scope of WiMAX deployment will broaden to cover markets where the low
POTS penetration, high DSL unbundling costs, or poor copper quality have acted as a
brake on extensive high-speed Internet and voice over broadband. WiMAX will reach
its peak by making Portable Internet a reality. When WiMAX chipsets are integrated
into laptops and other portable devices, it will provide high- speed data services on the
move, extending today's limited coverage of public WLAN to metropolitan areas.
Integrated into new generation networks with seamless roaming between various
accesses, it will enable end users to enjoy an "Always Best Connected" experience.
The combination of these capabilities makes WiMAX attractive for a wide diversity of
people: fixed operators, mobile operators and wireless ISPs, but also for many vertical
markets and local authorities. Alcatel, the worldwide broadband market leader with a
market share in excess of 37%, is committed to offer complete support across the
entire investment and operational cycle required for successful deployment of
WiMAX services


1) www.ewh.ieee.org/r4/chicago/Yu-WiMAX.pdf

2) http://computer.howstuffworks.com/wimax.htm

3) www.wimaxforum.org

4) http://standards.ieee.org/catalog/olis/lanman.html