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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER
1.2 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
1.3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS
CHAPTER 2: THE MEANING OF E-BALL TECHNOLOGY
2.1 DEFINING E-BALL TECHNOLOGY
2.2 FEATURES OF E-BALL
A) PROCESSOR
B) HARD DRIVE
C) RAM
D) SOUND & GRAPHIC CARD
CHAPTER 3: VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
3.1 VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
3.2 COMPONENTS
3.3 ADVANTAGES &DISADVANTAGES
CHAPTER 4: PROJECTOR USED IN E-BALL
4.1 LCD PROJECTORS
4.2 DLP PROJECTORS
4.3 COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5: WORKING OF E-BALL
5.1 WORKING
5.2 IF THERE IS NO WALL
5.3 SCENARIO IN USE
5.4 ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION, AND REFERENCES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
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The word computer comes from the word compute, which means, to calculate.

problems and solutions. We need to instruct a computer using coded instructions that

Hence, people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform

specify how it will do a particular job.

arithmetic operations at high speed.

B) SPEED

In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating

A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that

machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is non-mathematical

a human being can do in an entire year. While talking about speed of a computer we do not

or non- numerical nature. Hence, to define a computer merely as a calculating device is to

talk in terms of seconds or milliseconds but in terms of microseconds, nanoseconds and

ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device

even picoseconds. A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion simple

that operates upon data. Data can be anything like bio-data of applicants when computer is

arithmetic operations per second.

used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in various
subjects when used for preparing result; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when

C) ACCURACY

used for making airlines or railways reservations; or number of different parameters when

In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is

used for solving scientific research problems, etc.

consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer

Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer

performs every calculation with the same accuracy.

application. A computer can store, process, and retrieve data as and when desired. The fact
that computers process data is so fundamental that many people have started calling it as
data processor.
The name data processor is more inclusive because modern computers not only compute in
a usual sense but also perform other functions with data that flows to and from them. The
activity of processing data using computer is called data processing. Data processing
consists of three sub-activities: capturing input data, manipulating the data, and managing
output results. Data is basically a raw material used as input to data processing and
information is processed data obtained as output of data processing.
1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS
Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is very powerful and useful tool. The
power and usefulness of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics
A) AUTOMATIC
An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers are
automatic machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job until it is finished.

D) VERSATILITY
Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about computer. One moment it is preparing
result of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills etc. In brief, a
computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite
series of logical steps.
E) DILIGENCE
Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of
concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without
grumbling. Hence, computer score over human beings in doing routing type jobs that
require great accuracy.
1.2 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
A) 1623: Mechanical calculator Wilhelm Schickard invented first known mechanical
calculator, capable of simple arithmetic. Similar mechanical adding machine made in
1640s by Blaise Pascal.

However, computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find

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B) 1673: More advanced mechanical calculator.1673byGerman mathematician Gottfried

G) 1946: ENIAC completed Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. By Presper

Leibniz Capable of multiplication and division purely mechanical with no source of power.

Eckert and John Mauchly 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupied a 30 by 50 foot room
Programming by plugging wires into a patch panel. Very difficult to do, because this style

C) 1823: Charles Babbage begins work on Difference Engine. He designed, but it was

programming requires intimate knowledge of the computer

completed by a Swedish inventor in 1854. Image of the Difference Engine from Niagara
College

D) 1833: Charles Babbage begins Analytical Engine Never completed. Important concept:
a general-purpose machine capable of performing difference functions based on
programming.

1.3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS


The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different
generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major
technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate,
resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful, more efficient and reliable
devices.

E) 1834: Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace impressed with the concept of the Analytical Engine at

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes


The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and

a dinner pArty. Daughter of poet Lord Byran Created plans for how the machine could

were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in

calculate Bernoulli numbers. This is regarded as the first computer program," and she is

addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the

the first "programmer."The Department of Defense named a language Ada in her honor

cause of malfunctions.

in 1979.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming


language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one
problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was

F) 1890:Punched cards used by Herman Hollerith to automate Census Concept of

displayed on printouts.

programming the machine to perform different tasks with punched cards was from

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.

Babbage. Punch cards based on Josph Marie Jacquards device to automate weaving looms.

The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S.

Hollerith founded a company that became International Business Machines (IBM) to

Census Bureau in 1951. Figure (a) shows first generation computer.

market the technology.

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computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Secondgeneration computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or
assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. Highlevel programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions
of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their
instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core
technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy
industry. Figure (b) shows second generation computer
Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of
computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called
semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead
of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through
keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device
to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the
memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they
were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors Figure (c) shows second generation
computer.

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors


The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated
FIGURE (1)

FIGURE (2)

Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors


Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The

circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire
room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971,
located all the components of the computerfrom the central processing unit and memory

transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late

to input/output controlson a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for

1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become

the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved

smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation

out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more

predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the

everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more

computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation

powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the

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development of the Internet Fourth generation computers also saw the development of
GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Figure (d) shows second generation computer

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence


Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in
development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being
used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial
intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will
radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation
computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of
learning and self-organization. Figure (e) shows second generation computer
FIGURE(5)

FIGURE (3)

FIGURE (4)

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CHAPTER

2:

THE

MEANING

OF

E-BALL

TECHNOLOGY
2.1 DEFINING E-BALL TECHNOLOGY
Arent you tired of your PC? By his ugly shape and the way that it looks?
Well, this is exactly what designer Apostol Tnokovski was feeling when he
decided to create the smallest PC ever made.
Apostol Tnokovski introduced a new pc that is E-Ball Concept pc. The EBall concept pc is a sphere shaped pc which is the smallest design among all
the

laptops

and

desktops. This computer has all the feature like a

traditional computer, elements like

keyboard, mouse, dvd, large screen

display etc
E-Ball is designed to be placed on two stands , opens by simultaneously pressing and
holding the two buttons located on each side. E Ball concept pc don't have any external
display unit.

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It has a button when you press this button a projector will pop and it focus the computer
screen on the wall which can be adjusted with navigation keys. This concept PC will

2.2 FEATURES OF E-BALL

measure 160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft Windows OS.

I-TECH VIRTUAL KEYBOARD

For the moment there is no word on pricing or when its going to be available, however, I
am sure that everybody would like to see a small spherical PC like this E-BALL shape is
spherical because in Tnokovskis opinion this is the best shape in nature and it draws
everybodys attention.
E-Ball will feature a dual core processor, 250-500GB HDD, 2GB of RAM, integrated
graphic card and sound card, 2 x 50W speakers, HD-DVD recorder, wireless optical mouse
and laser keyboard, LAN and WLAN card, modem, Web cam and integrated LCD projector.

DUAL CORE PROCESSOR


2GB RAM
350-500 GB HARDDRIVE
INTEGRATED GRAPHICS AND SOUND CARD
SPEAKERS
WIRELESS OPTICAL MOUSE
LAN AND WLAN CARD
LCD PROJECTOR
PAPER HOLDER
MODEM

FIGURE (6)

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FIGURE (7)

FIGURE (8)

A) PROCESSOR
Intel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high-end consumer and business
microprocessor made by Intel. The current lineup of Core processors includes the latest
following processors:
Intel Core i7

Intel Core i5

Intel Core i3

Intel Core

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Intel Core

Intel Core 2 Duo

Intel Core 2 Solo

Intel Core 2 Quad

The e-ball pc basically uses Intel core 2 Duo processor. Figure shown below shows the
Intel core 2 duo process

SRAM
1) SRAM dont require
external refresh circuitry

DRAM

2) SRAM is faster than DRAM.


3) SRAM is more power-efficient when idle.
4) SRAM is several times more expensive than DRAM

C) HARD DRIVE

FIGURE (9)

1) Hard drive is basically a secondary storage device. It is non-volatile in nature. It consists

B) RAM
RAM stands for Random Access memory. It gets the word random because information
can be accessed in non-sequential order. Though the data itself is stored tighter, it could be
anywhere in the container or amount of RAM available. RAM is measure in bits, and 8
bits equal to 1 byte. A kilobyte is equal to 1024 bits , and megabyte is equal to 1024
kilobyte. The E-BALL pc uses 2gb of RAM.

of metal platter coated with oxide that can be magnetized to represents data. We can
directly access the data from hard drive. The e-ball pc basically consists 350-500 GB of
hard drive
D) GRAPHIC & SOUND CARD
A video card, display card, graphics card, or graphics adapter is an expansion card which
generates output images to a display. Most video cards offer various functions such as
accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics , MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV
output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitor). Other modern high
performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes, such as PC
games. Video hardware is often integrated into the motherboard, however all modern
motherboards provide expansion ports to which a video card can be attached. In this

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RAM

configuration it is sometimes referred to as a video controller or graphics A video card,


display card, graphics card, or graphics adapter is an expansion card controller

FIGURE (11)

FIGURE (10)

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CHAPTER 3: VIRTUAL KEYBOARD


3.1 VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
Virtual Keyboard is just another example of todays computer trend of smaller and faster.
It uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it

FIGURE (12)

were a keyboard.

The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any

Virtual Keyboard is a small Java application that lets you easily create multilingual text

surface, and disappears when not in use. Used with Smart Phones and PDAs, the VKey

content on almost any existing platform and output it directly to web pages. Virtual

(TM) provides a practical way to do email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks,

Keyboard, being a small, handy, well-designed and easy to use application, turns into a

allowing the user to leave the laptop computer at home.

perfect solution for cross platform multilingual text input.

VKey technology has many applications in various high-tech and industrial Sectors. These

The main features are: platform-independent multilingual support for keyboard text input,

include data entry and control panel applications in hazardous and harsh environments and

built-in language layouts and settings, copy/paste etc. operations support just as in a regular

medical markets.

text editor, already existing system language settings remain intact, easy and user-friendly
interface and design, and small file size.

Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience of
compactness with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. An interesting use
of such keyboards would be in sterile environments where silence or low noise is essential
like operation theaters. The advantage of such a system is that you do not need a surface for
typing, you can even type in plain air. The company's Virtual Keyboard is designed for
anyone who's become frustrated with trying to put information into a handheld but doesn't
want to carry a notebook computer around. There is also the provision for a pause function

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to avoid translating extraneous hand movements function, so that users can stop to eat,
drink etc

3.2 COMPONENTS
This system comprises of three modules,
1. The sensor module,
2. IR-light source
3. The pattern projector

1) SENSOR MODULE
The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology. The Sensor
Module operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the intended
keystrokes, or mouse movements. Mouse tracking and keystroke information is processed

FIGURE (13)

and can then be output to the host device via a USB or other interface. Electronic
Perception Technology:
Electronic perception technology enables ordinary electronic devices to see the world
around them so they can perceive and interact with it. Now everyday electronic devices in a
variety of markets can perceive users actions, gaining functionality and ease of use.

Electronic perception technology has a fundamental advantage over classical image


processing that struggles to construct three-dimensional representations using complex
mathematics and images from multiple cameras or points of view. This single chip contour
mapping approach results in a high reduction of complexity, making it possible to embed
the application independent processing software directly into the chips themselves so
they may be used in the most modestly-priced, and even pocket-sized electronic devices.

The tiny electronic perception chips and embedded software work by developing a 3D
distance map to nearby objects in real-time. This information is factored through an onchip processor running imaging software that translates the image into defined events
before sending it off-chip for application-specific processing. Its an action that is
continually repeated, generating over 30 frames of 3D information per second.

2) IR-LIGHT SOURCE
The Infrared Light Source emits a beam of infrared light. This light beam I designed to
overlap the area on which the keyboard pattern projector or printed image resides. This is
done so as to illuminate the users fingers by the infra-red light beam. This helps in

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recognizing the hand movements and the pressing of keys. The light beam facilitates in

The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the keyboard or

scanning the image. Accordingly the information is passed on to the sensor module which

mouse zone of the system. This image can be projected on any flat surface.

decodes the information.


The projected image is that of a standard qwerty-keyboard, with all the keys and control
An invisible infra-red beam is projected above the virtual keyboard. Finger makes

functions as in the keyboard.

keystroke on virtual keyboard. This breaks infrared beam and infrared light is reflected
back to projector. Reflected infrared beam passes through infrared filter to camera. The
camera photographs angle of incoming infrared light. The Sensor chip in the sensor module
determines where the infrared beam was broken, detected co-ordinates determine actions or
characters to be generated.

The Projector features a wide-angle lens so that a large pattern can be projected from
relatively low elevations. A printed image, with replaceable templates allows system
flexibility, permitting most any kind of keyboard configuration for greater functionality.
In some types of virtual keyboards, a second infra-red beam is not necessary.
Here the projector itself takes the inputs, providing dual functionality. A sensor or camera
in the projector picks up the finger movements, and passes the information on to the sensor
modules.

FIGURE (14)

3) THE PATTERN PROJECTOR

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FIGURE (15)

2. Used with Smart phones, PDAs, email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks

3.3(a) ADVANTAGES
1. Portability
2. Accuracy

3. Operation Theatres

3. Speed of text entry


4. Lack of need for flat or large typing surface
5. Ability to minimize the risk for repetitive strain injuries
6. Flexibility

4. As computer/PDA input

7. Keyboard layouts can be changed by software allowing for foreign or Alternative


keyboard layouts
3.3(b) DISADVANTAGES

5. Gaming control

1. Virtual keyboard is hard to get used to. Since it involves typing in thin air, it requires a

6. TV remote control

little practice. Only people who are good at typing can use a virtual keyboard efficiently.

CHAPTER 4: PROJECTOR USED IN E-BALL


2. It is very costly ranging from 150 to 200 dollars.

4.1 LCD PROJECTORS


LCD projectors are systems that display or project information or video onto a
surface. LCD stands for liquid crystal display, the technology used to project images. They

3. The room in which the projected keyboard is used should not be very bright so that the

are the technological descendants of overhead and slide projectors, older systems which

keyboard is properly visible.

serve the same purpose. They are most commonly used for displaying images in
presentations or lectures, but are also used in home theaters.

APPLICATIONS
1. High-tech and industrial Sectors

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Video signals are comprised of three colors: red, green, and blue. LCD projectors contain a
separate glass panel for each. Each panel consists of two plates of glass with a layer of
liquid crystal between them. When a charge is applied, the crystals open to allow light
through or close to block it. This opening and closing of pixels is what forms the image.
These devices use dichroic mirrors to split the light from the input source into red, green,
and blue components. Each then passes through the corresponding panel, where pixels
form an image. The three colors are then recombined in a prism before being projected
through a lens. LCD projectors use separate panels for each color because it results in
better color saturating than using a single panel for all three.

FIGURE (17)
The white light from the projector lamp is split into red, green, and blue components
using two dichroic mirrors, special mirrors that only transmit light of a specified
wavelength. Each red, green and blue beam then passes through a dedicated LCD panel
made up of thousands of miniscule pixels. An electrical current turns the panel's pixels
on or off to create the grayscale equivalent of that color channel. The three colors are
then recombined in a prism and projected through the projector lens and onto the screen.
FIGURE (16)
LCD projectors employ a three-panel LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) system, referred to as

By using a combination of three LCDs to produce a final image, LCD projectors are

3LCD. LCD projectors crisply reproduce bright, naturally colored images that are easy on

capable of billions of colors and smooth grayscale gradations. The resolution of the

the eyes. LCD projectors are also capable of detailed shadow reproduction that is ideal for

image is determined by the number of pixels in the LCD panels used. Currently LCD

demanding business and home theater applications.

panels offer resolutions as high as true HD (1920 x 1080) for home theater applications.
New panels promise resolutions as high as 4K (3840 x 2160).

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LCDs are not just found in projectors. They are found in many of the electronics you use

6) Portability.

everyday, from a cell phone to an MP3 player to your digital alarm clock. LCDs are very

7) Image degradation.

common because they offer distinct advantages: they are thinner, lighter, and draw less

8) LCD competes extremely well when high light output is rrequired.

power than many competing display technologies. A reliable, sophisticated technology


with universal appeal, 3LCD is the world's most popular projection technology,
delivering high quality images for the most demanding business and consumer

4.2 DLP PROJECTORS

audiences.
DLP stands for Digital Light Processing.
A video projection technology, developed by Texas Instruments, that utilizes a chip,
referred to as a DMD (Digital Micro mirror Device). In essence, every pixel on a DMD
chip is a reflective mirror.
ADVANTAGES
The video image is displayed on the DMD chip. The micro mirrors on the chip (remember:
1) LCD is generally more light efficient than DLP.
2) LCD projectors can project bright, vivid images with a low output lamp.
3) 1000 lumen LCD is more preffered than 1200 lumen DLP.
4) LCD trends to produce a sharper image
5) More accurate color.
6) Sharper image.
7) LCD also delivers a somewhat sharper image than DLP at any given resolution.
8) Another benefit of LCD is that it is more light-efficient.
9) One benefit of LCD is that it controls red, green, and blue independently through

each micro mirror represents one pixel) then tilt very rapidly as the image changes.
This process produces the grayscale foundation for the image. Then, color is added as light
passes through a high-speed color wheel and is reflected off of the micro mirrors on the
DLP chip as they rapidly tilt towards or away from the light source. The degree of tilt of
each micro mirror coupled with the rapidly spinning color wheel determines the color
structure of the projected image. As the amplified light bounces off the micro mirrors, it is
sent through the lens and can be projected on a large screen.

DISADVANTAGES
1) More bulky as there are more internal components.
2) Dead pixels.

Another way that DLP is implemented is to utilize a separate DLP chip for each primary
color. Light from a single source is passed through a prism, which creates separate red,
green, and blue light sources, then reflected on each of the chips designated for each
primary color, and from there, projected onto a screen. This application very expensive, in

3) DLC panel can fail.

comparison to the color wheel method, and is used only in higher-end consumer and

4) Screen door effect.

commercial DLP projectors.

5) Contrast.

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This technology is used in both rear-projection televisions and in separate video projector,
screen applications.

DISADVANTAGES
1) Rainbow effect
2) Light leakage.
3) High cost.
4.3 COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION
1: Pixelization (fill factor)
DLP = Seam-less , Film-like.
LCD = Grainy, Pixellated.
2: Contrast Ratio
DLP = Simple optics, easier light management
LCD = Complex optics, more difficult light management
3: Video Quality
DLP = Fast switching, minimal lag
FIGURE (18)

ADVANTAGES
1) Portability.
2) Higher contrast.
3) Reduced pixilation.

4: Sharpness
DLP =No misalignment
LCD =Misalignment likely over time

4) Reliability.

5: Color Quality

5) Sealed optics this makes it better for use in dusty environment.

DLP = Can match any LCD color gamut

6) Less screen door effects.

LCD = Cant match any DLP color gamut

7) Since the DLP light engine consists of a single chip rather than tthree LCD panels, DLP
p

LCD = Slow switching, significant lag

projectors tend to be more compact.

R, G, B, bandwidth is depend on each color because of non sequential system.


6: Smallest & Brightest
DLP = Simple optical system, good reflectivity.

8) Another DLP advantage is that it can produce smooth, high contrast video.

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LCD = Complex optical system

SVGA-resolution LCD projectors uniformly have a clearly visible pixel grid at just about
any screen image size. For this reason, we don't recommend SVGA-resolution LCD

7: Repeatable performance

projectors for home theater use except for those on the most limited of budgets. Three

DLP = Digital, precise control, constant performance over time.

developments have served to close the gap between DLP and LCD in the area of pixel

LCD = Analog, variable, affected by temperature, vibration, heat, humidity,

visibility. First was the step up to XGA resolution (1,024x768). This higher resolution uses

deterioration over time.

64% more pixels to paint the image on the screen, as compared to an SVGA-resolution
projector. The inter-pixel gaps are reduced in XGA resolution, so pixels are denser and less

8: Reliable

visible. In XGA resolution, DLP projectors have an invisible pixel grid on any typical home

DLP = Reflects heat

theater screen no matter how big. LCD projectors with standard XGA panels still have a

LCD = Absorbs heat, performance degrads

visible, but much reduced screen door effect. Second, the inter-pixel gaps on all LCD
machines, no matter what resolution, are reduced compared to what they use to be. So even

While both technologies have produced improvements in contrast in the past year, and

the inexpensive SVGA-resolution LCD projectors have less screen door effect than they

Sanyo's new PLV-70 is rated at 900:1. Meanwhile, the latest DLP products geared Toward

used to.

home theater are rated has high as 1800:1. However, one should not place too much

The third development in LCDs was the use of Micro-Lens Array (MLA) to boost the

emphasis on the specs. In reality, though the difference between projectors rated at 400:1

efficiency of light transmission through XGA-resolution LCD panels. Some XGA-class

vs. 800:1 is quite noticeable, the difference is not so dramatic between products rated at

LCD projectors have this feature, but most do not. For those that do, MLA has the happy

900:1 vs. 1800:1. Once you get to contrast ranges of 900:1 or higher, blacks appear as solid

side effect of reducing pixel visibility a little bit as compared to an XGA LCD projector

black and shadow details resolve quite nicely. Increased contrast can yield relatively subtle

without MLA. On some projectors with this feature, placing the focus just a slight hair off

improvements, but there are other factors which contribute to image quality that become

perfect, a practice The Current State of the Art DLP maintains its lead in contrast

equally if not more important. Reduced pixelation is another benefit of DLP. LCDs were

performance, while LCD projector makers have continued to emphasize latent advantages

always known for their visible pixel structure, often referred to as the screen door effect

in color fidelity and image sharpness for data display. DLP color has improved of late, and

because it appears as though the picture is being viewed through a screen door.

color accuracy on the latest models is much better than it used to be. Both LCD and DLP

Historically, LCD technology has had a hard time being taken seriously among many home

are evolving rapidly to the benefit of the consumer. The race for miniaturization has

theater enthusiasts (quite understandably) because of this flaw in the image. DLP

produced smaller yet more powerful projectors than we might have even imagined possible

technology went a long way toward eliminating the screen door effect. In SVGA (800x600)

just a couple of years ago. Light output per pound has increased dramatically. And video

resolution, DLP projectors have either a muted pixel structure or an invisible pixel structure

quality on the best LCD and DLP projectors now surpasses that available in a commercial

depending upon the size of the projected image relative to the viewing distance (the larger

movie theater.

the image the more visible the pixels). Conversely,

When it comes to home theater, DLP has continued to make competitive advances in color,
contrast, and image stability that have served to establish DLP as the preferred technology

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for video. But the fact is that both DLP and LCD continue to improve, and both are capable

work very easy while you are making video presentations, listening music watching large

of delivering higher quality video for home theater than they ever were before. Which

screen movies, and chatting on the net.

technology is the best? When comparing DLP to LCD in a home theater environment DLP

As year passes, the computer size is becoming smaller. This ball is known as E-Ball and its

is the winner. Better blacks and the removal of the screen door effect making the DLP an

design is given by Apostol Tnokovski. He was trying to create the smallest PC in the world

obvious choice.

when he came across this idea.


It is shaped like a sphere because in Tnokovskis opinion this is the best shape in nature and
it draws everybodys attention. You'll see the pop-out laser mouse, a pico projector inside
that illuminates either the wall or a sheet of paper for a screen, and that laser keyboard that

CHAPTER 5: WORKING OF E-BALL


5.1 WORKING
E Ball concept pc don't have any external display unit, It has a button when you press this
button a projector will pop and it focus the computer screen on the wall which can be
adjusted with navigation keys.

would almost certainly be a clumsy input device. Fix that, and find a motherboard thatll fit
inside this palm-sized baby, and Apostol might be onto something here.
E-Ball will feature a dual core processor, 250-500GB HDD, 2GB of RAM, integrated
graphic card and sound card, 2 x 50W speakers, HD-DVD recorder, wireless optical mouse
and laser keyboard, LAN and WLAN card, modem, Web cam and integrated LCD
projector.

If there is no wall then it has a paper sheet holder that divides into three pieces like an
umbrella just after popping up, and it will show desktop on the paper sheet. Also, the EBall PC supports a paper holder and the paper sheet on the holder could act like a screen
where you can watch movies or something.
This concept PC will measure 160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft
Windows OS, sorry about the others. For the moment there is no word on pricing or when
its going to be available, however, I am sure that everybody would like to see a small
spherical PC like this one.
E-Ball concept pc has a laser keyboard that is fully a concept keyboard that is visible when
the pc is in working. The keyboard is not physical - it is interpreted by lasers that appear
after you press the respective button. It recognizes your fingers with the help of an IR
sensor when you are typing at a particular place, while the mouse is a pop out wonder
making this an unique piece of technology.
The software interface of E-Ball concept pc is highly stylized with icons that can be
remembered easily that support all type of windows operating system. E-Ball concept pc

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FIGURE (19)

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FIGURE (20)
5.2 IF THERE IS NO WALL
1) When we are working in an open place we can make use of a paper sheet as a screen.
2) Paper sheet holder is placed at the back panel of this computer.
3) The holder can be opened by pressing it in the lower part

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FIGURE (22)
FIGURE (21)
5.4(A) ADVANTAGES
1) E-BALL is portable.
5.3 SCENARIO IN USE

2) E-BALL has large memory.


3) E-BALL is useful for making video presentation.
4) E-BALL support user defined keyboard layouts.

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5) E-BALL is efficient.
6) E-BALL is very easy to use
7) E-BALL is more secure than other computer.

5.4(B) DISADVANTAGES
1) Normal operating systems cannot work in these computers.
2) Cost of E-BALL is very high.
3) It is difficult to understand if any problems occur in hardware part.

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND REFERRENCE


CONCLUSION
1) As the year passes, the computer size is becoming smaller.
2) Todays technology is at its peak point beyond what we could ever imagine.
3) New inventions and innovations are emerging on daily basis.
4) Our imaginations have dressed into reality and today it has become possible to have a
whole computer in our pocket all the time.
5) At last this ball technology has taken the computer technology to new horizons
REFERENCES
http://www.google.co.in/EBALL
http://www.electronics.howstuffworks.com

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ht1. http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh
www.canesta.com. www.procams.org
www.billbuxton.com/3state.html
www.smarttech.com
www.3m.com/us/office/meeting/product_catalog/wd.jhtmltp://www.google.com

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