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# 2/5/2016

(3 Credit Hours)

Announcements

## Assignment No. 1 will email it TODAY and will post on FB.

Due Date is 12th February 2016 (next Friday) during class
hours.

2/5/2016

Previous Lecture
Simple and Compound Interest
SPCAF
SPPWF
Today Lecture
- USPWF
- Capital Recovery Factor

Compounding and
Discounting
When we convert a P value into a F using some
rate we call this process . COMPOUNDING
and the rate use is called Interest rate
When we convert F into P using some rate we
call the process Discounting and the rate we
use is called Discount rate
Compounding increase your amount (as its
compounded).discounting decrease your amount
as its (discounted)

2/5/2016

Example
Find the present value of \$10,000 to be
received 10 years from now at a discount rate
of 10%
F = \$10,000
i or r = 10%
n = 10
P = F (1+i)-n
=> P = 10,000 (1+0.1)-10
= 10,000 x 0.385
= \$3850

Class Practice:
Allowed time 5 minutes
Sandy, a manufacturing engineer, just received a yearend bonus of \$10,000 that will be invested
immediately. With the expectation of earning at the
rate of 8% per year, Sandy hopes to take the entire
amount out in exactly 20 years to pay for a family
vacation when the oldest daughter is due to graduate
from college. Find the amount of funds that will be
available in 20 years?

2/5/2016

A Standard Notation

## Instead of writing the full formulas of SPCAF and SPPWF for

simplicity there is a standard notation

This notations includes two cash flows symbols, interest rate and
number of periods

## General form is: (X/Y, i, n) which means X represents what is

sought, Y is given, i is interest rate and n is number of periods
Examples:

Equation with
factor formula

Name
Single-payment compound
amount
Single-payment present
worth

F = P(1+i)n
P = F(1+i)-n

Notation

(F/P, i, n)

Standard Notation
Equation

Find/
Given

F = P(F/P, i, n)

F/P

(P/F, i, n) P = F(P/F, i, n)

P/F

## Using Standard Notation

Example
What will be the future value of Rs. 100,000
compounded for 17 years at rate of interest
(F/P, i, n)
10% ?
F= (1+ i)n or F = P(1+0.1)n now writing that
in standard notation we have
F = P(F/P, i, n)
F = 100,000(F/P, 10%, 17)
That value you
get from Table

F = 100,000 (5.054)

F= 505400

2/5/2016

P = F(1+i)-n

F = P(1+i)n

## The term (1+i)n is known

as Single Payment
Compound Amount Factor
(SPCAF)

## This is a converting factor,

when multiplied by P
yields the future amount
F of initial amount P
after n years at interest
rate i

## The term (1+i)n is known as

Single Payment Present Worth
Factor (SPPWF)

## This is a converting factor, when

multiplied by F yields the present
amount P of initial amount F
after n years at interest rate i

## From Single Payments to

Annuity
Normally, in real world we do not face Single
payments mostly instead faces cash flows
such as home mortgage payments and
monthly insurance payments etc
An annuity is an equal annual(periodic)
series of cash flows. It may be equal annual
deposits, equal annual withdrawals, equal
annual payments, or equal annual receipts.
The key is equal, annual cash flows

2/5/2016

## Uniform Series Present Worth

Factor (P/A factor)
P=?
t = given
1

n1

## Can we use Single

Payment Present Worth
Factor (P/F, i%, n), to get
P for this cash flow ?

t=0

A = given
A

1
+
(1 + )

= [

1
(1 + )
(

+ .+

1
(1 + )

. +
(

1
(1 + )

] . (1)

Multiply Eq(1) by (P/F, i, n) factor and subtract the equation(1) from Eq (2)

+ .+

+ .+

] ..(2)

## Uniform Series Present Worth

Factor (P/A factor)
Subtracting Eq(1)
from Eq(2)

= [

(1 + )
(

+
(

= [

= [

= [
=

+ .+

1
1+

+ .+

1]

1
]
(1 + )

] ..(2)

] . (1)

= [

1]
)

1]

(1 + ) 1
(1 + )

2/5/2016

(USPWF)
P=?
A = given
1

n1

t=0

t = given

## To find P of such series of A we cannot use P=F(P/F, i, n) because we

do not have a single amount but a uniform series in which cash flows
occurs in equal amounts (in each period) and in consecutive interest
periods.
Yes P/F can be use for each A separatelybut thats a lengthy process
Uniform Series Present Worth Factor (USPWF) represented as P/A is
used to calculate the equivalent P value in year 0 for uniform end-of-period
series of A values beginning at the end of period 1 and extend

Mathematically:

(1 + ) 1
(1 + )

=

(1 + ) 1
(1 + )

(1 + )
(1 + ) 1

P = given

t = given
1

A=?

n-1

t=0

## The term in bracket is called Capital Recovery Factor (CRF)

or A/P factor and it calculates the equivalent uniform annual
worth A over n yearshttps://www.epnuffic.nl/en
for a given P in year 0, when the
interest rate is i
Name
Uniform Series
Present Worth
Capital Recovery

## Equation with factor

formula
=
=

(1 + ) 1
(1 + )

(1 + )
(1 + ) 1

Notation

(P/A, i, n)
(A/P, i, n)

Standard Notation
Equation

P = A(P/A, i, n)
A = P(A/P, i, n)

2/5/2016

## Example 1: Uniform Series

Present Worth (P/A)
A chemical engineer believes that by modifying the structure of a
certain water treatment polymer, his company would earn an extra
\$5000 per year. At an interest rate of 10% per year, how much
could the company afford to spend now to just break even over a 5
year project period?
The cash flow diagram is as follows:

Solution:
A = 5000

A = \$5000

i = 10%

n=5

## Which factor should be used ?

P = A(P/A, i, n)
0

i =10%
P=?

P = 5000(P/A,10%,5)
= 5000(3.7908)
= \$18,954

## Spread Sheet Functions

Our course book (Blank and Tarquin) from time to time refers to
Spread sheet functions
You will also be come across various Spread sheet formulas
while reading the book
We are going to Ignore that parts because you cannot use it in
exams. Yes you will need it while doing projects in real life, but
applying that from EXCEL is not difficult if you know what it
mean.
However, to get familiar with it, I will give you one home
assignment to do it with help of Excel sheet, after doing a
session on it in class

2/5/2016

## Factor Values for

Untabulated i or n
There are 3 ways to find factor values for
untabulated i or n values
1. Use formula
2. Use spreadsheet function
3. Linearly interpolate in interest tables

## Formula or spreadsheet function is fast & accurate

Interpolation is only approximate

## Factor Values for Untabulated i

or n
Linear Interpolation
Factor value
axis

formula

f2

Example
Linear
assumption

unknown

( )

## Determine the value of (F/P, 8.3%, 10)

We have value of 8% and 9% only in
Tables
from Factor Tables for F/P

8 % ... 2.1589
8.3% (x).. unknown
9 % ... 2.3674

f1
=

X1

Required
X

i or n axis

X2

= 2.1589 +

( )

(2.3674 2.1589)
= 2.2215

= 0.0018

2/5/2016

## Uniform Series Compound Amount

Factor (USCAF) F = ?
t = given

n-1

A = given

## Similar to Uniform Series Present Worth Factor we have

Uniform Series Compound Amount Factor which is given
as follows (only the term in the parenthesis)
=

(1 + ) 1

## The term in the parenthesis is called Uniform Series

Compound Amount Factor (USCAF) represented as F/A, to
multiply with given uniform amount gives future worth of a
uniform series

2/5/2016

## Sinking Fund Factor (SFF)

F = given

t = given

n-1
n
A=?

Sinking Fund Factor can be obtained from USCA and given as:

(1 + ) 1

(1 + ) 1

The term in the brackets is Sinking Fund Factor and is used to determines
the uniform annual series A that is equivalent to a given future amount F

Practice
An industrial engineer made a modification to a chip manufacturing process that
will save her company \$10,000 per year. At an interest rate of 8% per year, how
much will the savings amount to in 7 years?

Solution:

## The cash flow diagram is:

A = \$10,000

F=?

i = 8%

A =10,000
i =8%
n =7

F = A(F/A, i, n)
F = 10,000(F/A,8%,7)

= 10,000(8.9228)
= \$89,228

2/5/2016

Class Practice:
4 Minutes
Question No. A
The president of Ford Motor
Company wants to know the
equivalent future worth of
a \$1 million capital
investment each year for 8
years, starting 1 year from
now. Ford capital earns at a
rate of 14% per year.

Class Practice
Question No. A
i= 14%
n = 8 years
A= 10,000

F=?
i = 14%

1 2

A = \$10,000

## Which factor should be used ?

F = A(F/A, i, n)
F = 1000( F/A, 14%,8)
= 1000(13.2328)
\$13,232.80

2/5/2016

Class Practice:
4 Minutes
Question No. B
A company that makes selfclinching fasteners expects
to purchase new
production-line equipment
in 3 years. If the new units
will cost \$350,000, how
much should the company
set aside each year, if the
account earns 10% per
year?

Class Practice
Question No. B
i= 10%
n = 3 years
A= ?
F = 350, 000
F = 350,000

i = 10%
1

A=?

A = 350,000 (A/F, i, n)
A = 350,000(A/F,10%,3)
= 350,000(0.30211)
= \$105,739

2/5/2016

## Graded Class Assignment

Class Assignment
Allowed time 5 minutes
Take a paper sheet
Write down your name and Registration number on
top of the paper sheet
Those who talk will get Zero
When I announce time overstop writing

2/5/2016

Class Practice A:
Allowed Time 7
A chemical product company is considering investment in
cost saving equipment. If the new equipment will cost
\$220,000 to purchase and install, how much must the
company save each year for 3 years in order to justify the
investment, if the interest rate is 10% per year?

Class Practice:
Allowed Time 7
A chemical product company is considering investment in
cost saving equipment. If the new equipment will cost
\$220,000 to purchase and install, how much must the
company save each year for 3 years in order to justify the
investment, if the interest rate is 10% per year?
The cash flow diagram is as follows:
A=?

Solution:
P = 220,000
I = 10%
n=3
Which factor should be used ?

P = \$220,000

i =10%

A = P(A/P, i, n)
A = 220,000(A/P,10%,3)
= 220,000(0.40211)
= \$88,464

2/5/2016

Practice B: 5 minutes
How much money should you be willing to pay now for
a guaranteed \$600 per year for 9 years starting next
year, at a rate of return of 16% per year?

Example 2.3
How much money should you be willing to
pay now for a guaranteed \$600 per year for
9 years starting next year, at a rate of return
of 16% per year?
Solution:
P=?
i = 16%
n=9
Which factor should be used ?

P = A(P/A, i, n)

A = \$600

t=0

P=?

2/5/2016

Gradient

or future values

normally

## We cannot exclude the possibilities of Arithmetic or

Geometric Gradient Series cash flows

Example

## You bought a used car with one year warranty

expected costs during first year will
be fuel and insurance that is \$2500

## let assume that cost of repair is

increasing by \$200 every year
what will be the amount in Second Year ?
0

n-1

Base amount
\$2500
\$2700

\$2900
\$2500+(n-2)200
\$2500+(n-1)200

2/5/2016

## Arithmetic Gradient Factors

(P/G, A/G)
Cash flows that increase or decrease by a constant amount
are considered arithmetic gradient cash flows.
The amount of increase (or decrease) is called the gradient
\$2000
\$1500

\$175
\$125
\$100

\$150

\$500

G = \$25
Base = \$100

\$1000

G = -\$500
Base = \$2000

Gradient
series
could be
both: cash
inflow (as
given
here) or
Outflows

(P/G, A/G)

## When we have a Gradient Series we

cannot apply Single Amount Present
Worth/Future Worth factors or Uniform
Series factors
We have to use a different methodology to
address problems related to gradient cash
flows.

2/5/2016

## Solving Arithmetic Gradient

related problems
Present value of the Arithmetic Gradient series can be
calculated as follows:
1. Find the gradient and base
2. Cash flow diagram maybe helpful if you draw it
3. Break the gradient series into a Uniform series and a
Gradient Series as shown on next slide
4. The formula for calculating present value of the
Arithmetic Gradient series is as follows;

PT =

PA

PG

## 5. Calculate PA and PG and use the above formula to

get the present value of the Arithmetic Gradient

## Arithmetic Gradient Factors

(P/G, A/G)
The base amount is A and the Gradient is G in the
following graph
CFn = base amount + (n-1)G

Important!!!
PG series start
with year 2

A+(n-1) G
A+3G

(n-1)G
3G

A+2G
A+G

=
0

+
0

PT =

2G

PA

PG

2/5/2016

(P/G, A/G)
PT =

PA

PG

## PA = A(P/A, i, n) or Uniform Series Present worth

Factor
PG = G(P/G, i, n) or Arithmetic Gradient Present
Worth Factor you can use table for it too.
Alternatively, PG can also be calculated by
following formula
G (1 i ) n 1
n
PG

i i (1 i ) n
(
1

i)n

PG

Or

G (1 i ) n in 1

i
i 2 (1 i ) n

## Arithmetic Gradient Factors

(P/G, A/G)
Equivalent cash flows:
\$175
\$150
\$125
\$100

\$100

\$50
\$25

=>

0
0

G = \$25

PA

\$P = \$100(P/A,i,4) + \$25(P/G,i,4)

## Note: the gradient series

(PG) by convention starts
in year 2.

## Note: Annuity series (PA)

starts from year 1.

Base = \$100

PT =

\$75

PG
PG

G (1 i )n 1
n

i i (1 i )n
(1 i )n

Where PA = Present worth uniform series (P/A, i,n) and PG = present worth of the gradient series (P/G,i, n)

2/5/2016

## Example (Problem 2.25)

Profits from recycling paper, cardboard, aluminium,
and glass at a liberal arts college have increased at a
constant rate of \$1100 in each of the last 3 years.
If this years profit (end of year 1) is expected to be
\$6000 and the profit trend continues through year 5,
(a) what will the profit be at the end of year 5 and
(b) what is the present worth of the profit at an interest
rate of 8% per year?

G = \$1100,

Base = \$6000

(a)
(b)

## what will the profit be at the end of year 5 &

what is the present worth of the profit at an interest rate of 8% per
year?

G = \$1100

Base = \$6000
\$10400
\$9300

\$8200

\$1100

1 2

=>

\$7100
\$6000
0

\$4400
\$3300
\$2200

\$6000

## Find the cash flows as follows:

CF = Base + G(n-1)
CF1 = 6000 + 1100(1-1)= 6000
CF2 = 6000 + 1100(2-1)= 7100
CF3 = 6000 + 1100(3-1)= 8200
CF4 = 6000 + 1100(4-1)= 9300
CF5 = 6000 + 1100(5-1)= 10400

PT =
PA
P = A(P/A, i, n)
P = 6000(P/A, 8%, 5)

P=

6000(3.9927)

P = 32066

+
PG
G(P/G, i, n)

+
+ 1100(P/G, 8%, 5)
+ 1100(7.3724)

4 5

2/5/2016

## Practice Question: 5 minutes

Neighboring parishes in Louisiana have agreed to pool
road tax resources already designated for bridge
refurbishment. At a recent meeting, the engineers
estimated that a total of \$500,000 will be deposited at
the end of next year into an account for the repair of
old and safety-questionable bridges throughout the area.
Further, they estimate that the deposits will increase
by \$100,000 per year for only 9 year thereafter, then
cease. Determine the equivalent: present worth, if public
funds earn at a rate of 5% per year.
5%

## Uniform Series Factors

Athematic Gradient

Sinking
Fund
(A/F)

Compound
Amount
(F/A)

Capital
Recovery
(A/P)

Present Gradient
Worth
Present Worth
(P/A)
(P/G)

Gradient
Uniform
Series (A/G)

0.09069

11.0266

0.14069

7.1078

26.1268

3.6758

10

0.07950

12.5779.

0.12950

7.7217

31.6520

4.0991

Solution

Base = 500,000
PT =
PA +
PG
Gradient = 100,000
PT = 500(P/A,5%,10) + 100(P/G,5%,10)
= 500(7.7217)
+ 100(31.6520)
Taking units in 1000
=\$7026.05 or .. (\$7,026,050)
P=?
Base = 500
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10
Gradient =100
i= 5%
\$500
\$600
n=1+9 = 10
\$700
\$800

\$900
\$1000

\$1100

\$1200

\$1300
\$1400

2/5/2016

Thank You