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ISSN 1857-8047

Olusegun Ayodele Adelodun

Institute of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Department Of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Abstract:

In the last three decades, the LISREL model, methods and software have become

synonymous with structural equation modeling (SEM) which allows researchers in the social

sciences, management sciences, behavioral sciences, biological sciences, educational sciences

and other fields to empirically assess their theories. These theories are usually formulated as

theoretical models for observed (manifest) and unobservable (latent) variables. When data are

collected for the observed variables of the theoretical model, the LISREL program can be

used to fit the model to the data. In this paper, we highlight the various updated versions and

demonstrate the usability of the LISREL program in empirical research using a new empirical

example of cross relationships between latent constructs and students academic

performance.

1. Introduction

The LISREL methodology development started in 1970, when Karl Joreskog

presented a first LISREL model at a conference. The first generally available LISREL

program (version 3) was published in 1975. The name LISREL is an acronym for Linear

Structural Relations. The qualifier Linear is too restrictive for the current version of the

LISREL program, but the name LISREL has become synonymous with Structural Equation

Modeling or SEM. However, LISREL for Windows is no longer limited to SEM. The latest

LISREL for Windows includes the following statistical applications:

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ISSN 1857-8047

In 1986, the first version of PRELIS was published. Its main function is the

computation of the appropriate summary for analysis with the LISREL program. Over time,

its functionality has expanded to include a variety of exploratory tools to give users a better

understanding of their data before they attempt a LISREL model. Its name stands for

preprocessor for LISREL.

SIMPLIS was publicly introduced in 1993 as an alternative syntax for the LISREL

model specification. As the name implied, it meant a tremendous simplification over the

original LISREL syntax, which required some understanding of matrix algebra as well as the

memorization of several Greek characters. Another added capability was the drawing of path

diagrams, with some first attempts to allow the user to interact with the program. Up to that

point, the user communicated with the program in so-called batch mode. Some kind of script,

also called syntax file or command file, had to be written with a text editor, containing

instructions for the program: instructions about where the data file was to be found, how

many variables it contained, the names of the variables, etc. This command file was then

submitted to the actual program for execution.

In 1998, the first truly interactive version of LISREL (version 8.20 for MS Windows)

introduced a dialog-box interface to facilitate the writing of those command files. As much as

possible, typing of syntax was replaced with point-and-click actions in a series of dialog

boxes. From these actions, the program then produced the equivalent command file, in

PRELIS syntax for processing of raw data, or in SIMPLIS or LISREL syntax for the actual

SEM analysis.

The path diagram feature became much more flexible, giving maximum control to the

user, not only to specify or change a model, but also to produce a graphic representation of

the model with publication quality that could be exported as a separate file for subsequent

import in document. Parallel with these developments regarding the way that the user

interacts with the program, numerous statistical features were added, including a multilevel

analysis module, exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis, imputation for

missing values, bootstrap and Monte Carlo procedures, etc. More details of the other versions

of can be found at http://www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/.

ISSN 1857-8047

The LISREL program makes all these additions available to the user through a choice

of menus and submenus, toolbars, and command buttons. LISREL interface has developed to

the point that this paper becomes necessary for beginners.

Researchers using LISREL as a tool for analysis have increased dramatically over the

past few decades (MacCallum & Austin, 2000). LISREL is a flexible modeling tool for many

multivariate statistics, such as regression analysis, path analysis, factor analysis (e.g., Bentler,

1995; Jreskog & Srbom, 1996), ANOVA to MANCOVA (Bagozzi & Yi, 1999), Canonical

Correlation Analysis (Fan, 1997), and Growth Curve Modeling (Ducan, Ducan, Strycker, Li,

& Alpert, 1999). Also, Raykov (2001) presented a collection of examples showing how

multivariate covariance and mean structure hypotheses could be tested via LISREL. His

article focuses on how to test covariance hypotheses, such as MANOVA, using SEM. We

shall therefore review some work done by researchers with the help of LISREL program.

Adelodun (2008) identified the variables that tend to affect educational performance

among adult learners, and developed structural equation models (SEM) for examining the

relationships between the variables. He also estimated the parameters of the models and

evaluated the formulated models. This was with a view to providing an appropriate

framework for predicting educational performance. The mathematical framework of SEM

used was of the form mx1 Bmxm mx1 mxn nx1 , where mx1 and nx1 are vectors of latent

and manifest dependent variables and independent variables respectively. The corresponding

and for dependent and independent variables

design covariance matrices were

respectively. Data collected from a sample of 2000 students were analyzed using the factor

analysis tool of factor loadings, percentages, F test, 2 test and structural equation model

technique. Seven factors were identified to affect educational performance. These were

parental socio-economic characteristics (0.517), circumstances (0.604), self concept (0.647),

health characteristics (0.666), marital status (0.730), training environment (0.796) and

parenting style (0.817), the figures in parentheses being factor loadings. The study concluded

that structural equation model was capable of predicting educational performance using

appropriate indicators.

The evaluation of fit of a theoretical model to data is a classic problem and practical

concern in structural equation modeling. The limitations of likelihood ratio tests for assessing

model goodness-of-fit has led to the construction of a variety of descriptive fit indexes for

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ISSN 1857-8047

this purpose. Johnson and Bodner (2007) reviewed these limitations and propose an

alternative testing procedure for confirmatory tetrad tests.

Flouri (2006) investigated the long-term effect of mothers and fathers interest in

childs education at age 10 and childs locus of control and self-esteem at age 10 in

educational attainment at age 26; and also explored if mothers interest and fathers interest in

childs education are linked to childs educational attainment via their effect in increasing

childs self-esteem and internal locus of control.

sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The initial sample was those 1,737 men

and 2,033 women with valid data on age 10 self-esteem, locus of control, fathers interest,

mothers interest, and age 26 educational attainment. Of these, 1,326 men 1,578 women were

included in the final analysis.

Bauer (2005) considered an indirect application of the Structural Equation Mixture

Model (SEMM) in which the latent classes are estimated only in the service of more flexibly

modeling the characteristics of the aggregate population as a whole. More specifically, the

SEMM is used to semiparametrically model nonlinear latent variable regression functions.

This approach is first developed analytically and then demonstrated empirically through

analyses of simulated and real data.

In Simons, Dewitte and Lens (2004), two theories in the field of motivation and

achievement, namely the future time perspective theory and goal theory, result in conflicting

recommendations for enhancing students motivation, because of their differential emphasis

on the task at hand and on the future consequences of a task. This study investigates whether

type of instrumentality a learning task evokes has an influence on students motivation, goal

orientation, and study behaviour and ultimately on performance during the first year training

in nursing. The path analysis shows that both variables independently enhance task

orientation, the use of deep level strategies (via task orientation), persistence (via task

orientation), excitement (via task orientation), regular studying (via task orientation) and

performance. Further, approach and avoidance age orientation decreases, and with it surface

level processing, which also increases performance.

In Mullis, Rathge and Mullis (2003), utilizing the National Education Longitudinal

Study of 1988 (NELS: 88), their study examined some of the frequency used indicators of

social capital and resource capital as predictors of academic performance of 24,599 middle

school adolescents (12,111 males and 12,244 females) ranging in age from 13-16 years. 68%

were White, 12.2% were Black, and 12.9% were Hispanic. The participants were drawn from

a stratified national sample of over 1000 public and private schools in the United States. Data

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from NELS: 88 were analyzed using indicators of social capital and resource capital.

Preliminarily modeling indicated the need to separate social capital into two components:

parental networks and student networks. Resource capital, including parent education, parent

income, and educational items in the home, was most predictive of academic performance. In

addition, student reported misbehavior (behavior) in school was included as a mediating

variable. The findings indicated that both indicators of social capital were not strong

contributors to academic performance among adolescents. Resource capital indicators were

found to be stronger contributors to academic performance. The context variable

(hypothesized as a mediator variable) of student misbehavior in school was found to be the

best predictor of academic performance. The results are discussed in relation to social capital

theory and future research of viable predictors of academic performance among adolescents.

The study examined by Verlaan and Schwartzman (2002) links between parents

adjustment and childrens externalizing behaviour problems representative of the general

population. Structural equation modeling was used to examine models that included direct

and indirect pathways. Externalizing behaviour problem in children were strongly related to

parental adjustment difficulties. Maternal antisocial behaviour and marital hostility were

licked to sons and danglers externalism behaviour problems via dysfunctional childrearing

practices. Maternal antisocial behaviour, however, was not fully mediated by dysfunctional

parenting. For father the pattern related to externalizing problems in sons was as those

specified for mothers. The pattern did not appear relevant for daughters. Results are discussed

in terms of the importance of adjustment patterns with regard be the sex composition of the

parent child dyads.

Ganzach (2000) examined the interactions between parents education, cognitive

ability and education expectation in determining educational attainment. The information was

taken from the National Longitudinal survey of youth. Three interactive relationships

examined in this work fall into two general classes of interactive relationships: synergistic

relationships and offsetting relationships. A synergistic relationship implies that high (low)

values of the independent variables result in especially high (low) values of the dependent

variable, higher (lower) than might be expected from a linear combination of the independent

variables. An offsetting relationship implies that it is enough that one of the independent

variables will be high (low) in order for the dependent variable to be high (low).

Dukes, Ullman, and Stein (1995) examined the short-term effects of the D.A.R.E.

(Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program using classroom level data and a Solomon 4group design. In series of 2 group models with latent means, pretest sensitization, maturation,

5

ISSN 1857-8047

and treatment effects were examined for the core concepts (latent variables) targeted by

D.A.R.E.: (1) self-esteem (2) bonds to family, police, and teachers, (3) endorsement of risky

behaviors, and (4) resistance to peer pressure. The maturation analysis of the non-treated

classrooms revealed that self-esteem and bonds to family, police, and teacher significantly

decreased over time. This is opposite to the effects of the D.A.R.E. program. There was

evidence of pre-test sensitization for resistance to peer pressure. Participating in the pre-test

alone led to greater resistance to peer pressure. Regardless of participation in the pre-test,

students who participated in the D.A.R.E. program reported significantly higher self-esteem,

and stronger bonds to family, teachers, and police. They also endorsed fewer risky behaviors

than students who did not participate in D.A.R.E.

Stein, Newcomb, and Bentler (1993) examined the effects of grandparent and parent

drug use on behavior problems in boys and girls aged 2-8. Separate structural equations

models were developed for boys and girls. Six measured child behavior variables served as

DVs: (1) developmental problems, (2) fearfulness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) acting out, (5)

psychosomatic complaints and (6) social problems. The IVs of interest were four latent

variables; (1) grandparent drug use, (2) mothers drug problem, (3) mates drug use, and (4)

dyadic adjustment. They found that boys were more likely than girls to have developmental

and social problems. Drug use among grandparents and mothers was associated with more

problems in boys than in girls. Grandparent drug use directly predicted greater hyperactivity,

more acting out, more psychosomatic complaints, and greater social problems in boys. In

girls, grandparent drug use was associated with more acting out. Maternal drug use also

predicted more fearfulness, hyperactivity, and social problems for boys.

Fullagar, McCoy, and Shull (1992) examined the effects of union socialization

programs on union attitudes and loyalty in a path analysis model. The participants in this

study were 71 apprentices undergoing a union-management training program. Measures of

(1) subjective norms, (2) charismatic leadership, (3) individual consideration, (4) intellectual

stimulation and (5) training satisfaction were employed as IVs to predict (1) union attitudes,

(2) union socialization and (3) union loyalty. Union socialization also served to predict union

attitudes. They found the most important predictors of union loyalty were positive union

attitudes, and training satisfaction. Charismatic leadership and individual consideration both

predicted union socialization. Union socialization predicted positive union attitudes.

Subjective norms, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation predicted positive

union attitudes.

ISSN 1857-8047

Harlow and Newcomb (1990) tested several confirmatory factor analytic models to

describe the relationships among 25 measured variables related to meaning and satisfaction in

life. The best model consisted of 9 first-order specific factors, 3 second-order primary factors,

and one third-order general factor. Beginning at the top, the third-order factor representing

Meaning and Satisfaction in Life predicted the three second-order factors; (1) Relationship

Satisfaction, (2) Purposeful Living, (3) Work and Health Satisfaction. The Relationship

Satisfaction predicted three specific first-order factors; (1) Peer Relationships, (2) Intimate

Relationships, (3) Family Relationships. The Purposeful Living factor also predicted three

specific first-order factors; (1) Purposeful in Life, (2) Meaninglessness, and (3)

Powerlessness. Finally, the Work and Health Satisfaction factor predicted two specific firstorder factors; (1) Work Satisfactions and (2) Health Satisfaction.

Era, Jokela, Qvarnverg, and Heikkinen (1986) studied pure-tone thresholds and

speech understanding in three different age groups of men: (1) 31-35, (2) 51-55, (3) 71-75.

Cognitive capacity, occupational status, number of symptoms, and noise at work used to

predict hearing threshold. The strongest predictors of hearing threshold at 4,000 Hz in the 3135 year old group were occupational status and number of symptoms. The equation

accounted for 22% of the variance in hearing threshold. Overall, the strongest predictors of

auditory functioning within each age group were occupational status, noise exposure at work,

cognitive capacity, education, and number of disease symptoms.

Hence there is need for researchers in the fields of Science, Technology and Education to be

further familiar with and understand the importance and usability of LISREL program in

empirical research, which this work is aimed at achieving

The conceptual model considered in this empirical study consists of Parenting Style

with three manifest variables: Permissive, Authoritarian, and Authoritative; and also the

Training Environment with two manifest variables: Boarding facility, and School type. The

indicators for measuring students academic performance are parents socio-economic status,

parents educational status, and aptitude test.

The following three hypotheses are proposed:

H01: There is no significant relationship between Parenting styles and Students academic

performance.

H02: There is no significant relationship between Training environment and Students

academic performance.

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H03: There is no significant relationship between Parenting styles and Training environment

The research design used for the study is survey research. One Hundred and Nineteen (119)

students of the Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, were selected

randomly from the 7 departments (Special Education and Curriculum studies; Institute of

Education; Educational Foundation and Counselling; Department of Educational Technology;

Department of Continuing Education; Physical and Health Education; and Educational

Administration and Planning). The selected study sample, from these departments, are

grouped into Sciences and Social Sciences based on their programme of study.

The conceptual model for this study is to examine the cross relationships between

latent constructs and students academic performance.

Parents socioeconomic

status

Permissive

Acad per

Aptitude test

H1

Authuorita

rian

H2

Parenting

Boarding

facility

H3

School type

Training

Env.

Authorita

tive

Parents

Educational

Status

Figure 1: Conceptual Model for Parenting styles and Training environment on Academic

performance

ISSN 1857-8047

Frequency Percentage

Gender

Male

54

45.4

Female

65

54.6

Sciences

59

49.6

Social Sciences

60

50.4

Parents Socio-

Wealthy

76

63.9

economic status

Not wealthy

43

36.1

Parents Educational

Father alone

12

10.1

Status

Mother alone

2.5

Both parents

90

75.6

None of them

14

11.8

Programme

(PAQ) with its constructs identification. The data collected was analyzed using frequency

count, percentage score, descriptively, while a structural equation modeling technique was

used to test the model, inferentially. The LISREL 8.80 program was employed. The

covariance matrix of the variables in the model are given in the Appendix of this paper.

The parameters of the model are estimated with the Maximum Likelihood (ML)

procedure. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated with indicators: Chi-square/degrees of freedom

(x2/df); comparative fit index (CFI); non-normed fit index (NNFI); goodness-of-fit index

(GFI) criteria, among others.

Hypothesis testing was performed on the model. The observed (manifest) variables or

indicators (Permissiveness, Authoritarian, Authoritative, Boarding facilities, School type,

Parents Educational Status, Parents Socio-economic Status, and Aptitude test) were used to

predict the latent variables (Parenting styles, Training environment, and Academic

performance). The Structural Equation Modeling was obtained by processing the data in the

instrument. Table 2 reveals the observed variables as against the corresponding latent

variables.

ISSN 1857-8047

Latent Variable

Manifest Variable

Abbrevation

Permissive

Permiss

Authoritarian

Authrian

Authoritative

Authtive

Boarding facility

Brdfac

Kind of School

Schtype

Pes

Academic

Parents Socio-economic

pses

Performance

Status.

Parenting Styles

Training Environment

Aptitude Test

apt

The Manifest variable pses; pes; and apt, were used as predictors of the Latent

variable academic performance. These variables were calculated using the relevant items as

a result of the factor analysis carried out on the items (Adelodun and Obilade, 2011), in the

data collection tool, which tend to explain the effect of Parenting styles and Training

environment on the students academic perfofmance.

Seven fit indexes which are commonly used in the literature i.e. x 2/df; GFI; AGFI;

NNFI; CFI; RMSR; RMSEA, were employed to test the model fit. The commonly used

measures of model fit, based on results from an analysis of the Structural Model, are

summarized in Table 3. In practice, Chi-square/degrees of freedom (x2/df) less than 3; GFI

greater than 0.9; NNFI greater than 0.9; CFI greater than 0.9; an AGFI greater than 0.8;

SRMSR less than 0.1; and RMSEA less than 0.06 or 0.08, are considered indicators of good

fit.

Fit index

Chi-square/degrees of freedom

GFI

AGFI

NNFI

CFI

SRMSR

RMSEA

Recommended value

3.00

0.90

0.80

0.90

0.90

0.10

0.06 or 0.08

Observed value

1.18

0.95

0.91

0.69

0.79

0.07

0.04

10

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CFI = Comparative Fit Index

AGFI = Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index

SRMSR = Standardized Root Mean Square

Residual

NNFI = Non-normed Fit Index

RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of

Approximation

Figure 2: LISREL test of Research Model

Graphical presentation of the results is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 shows the standardized

LISREL path coefficients with their respective significance levels.

4. Main Results

From the members of the research group, 54 (45.4%) students are male, and 65

(54.6%) students are female. 59 (49.6%) students are Sciences while 60 (50.4%) students are

Social Sciences. Majority of the respondents, 76 (63.9%) students are from wealthy families

but 43 (36.1%) students are not. Also, 12 (10.1%) students have only their father educated, 3

(2.5%) students have only their mother educated, 90 (75.6%) students have both of their

parents educated, and 14 (11.8%) students have none of their parents educated.

As seen in Table 3, all good-of-fit statistics are in the acceptable ranges except for

NNFI and CFI which are close enough (0.69 and 0.79 respectively) to the recommended

value 0.90.

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Figure 2 illustrates the significant structural relationships among the study variables.

Hypothesis 1 and 2 are postulated that Parenting styles and Training environment have

significant effect on Students academic performance. The direct path Parenting

styleAcademic performance is significant though reversed since the regression co-efficient

() is -0.09 with t = -1.17, and p<0.05. Therefore the hypothesis is supported, which means

that the style of parenting significantly has a direct effect on students academic performance.

Moreover, the direct path Training environment Academic performance is significant since

is 0.17 with t = -1.42, and p<0.05. The third hypothesis is also accepted because the direct

path Parenting styleTraining environment is significant since is 0.50 with t = 0.96, and

p<0.05.

5. Conclusion/Summary

This paper attempted to explain the concept of SEM using the LISREL (Linear

Structural Equations) approach: its major purpose, application, types of models, steps

involved in formulation and testing of models.

We reveal that the LISREL 8.80 for Windows (Jreskog & Srbom, 2006) is a

suitable Windows software product for structural equation modeling, multilevel structural

equation modeling, generalized linear modeling, multilevel linear modeling, multilevel

generalized linear modeling, and multilevel nonlinear modeling, among others.

References:

Adelodun, O.A. (2008): Application of Structural Equation Modeling to Latent Constructs for

Evaluating Educational Performance of Adult Students. Unpublished Ph.D. (Mathematics)

Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife. Nigeria.

Adelodun, O.A. & Obilade, T.O. (2011). Identification of Factors Affecting Educational

Performance of Nigerian Adult Learners: A preliminary Study. African Research Review:

An International Multi-Discipline Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 5(2), S/No. 19 pp. 225- 232.

Bagozzi, R.P. & Yi, Y. (1999). On the use of structural equation models in experimental

designs. Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 271-285.

Bauer, D.J. (2005). A Semiparametric Approach to Modeling Nonlinear Relations Among

Latent Variables. Structural Equation Modeling, 12(4), 513535, Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, Inc.

Bentler, P.M. (1995). EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, CA:

MultivariateSoftware.

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Ducan, T.E., Ducan, S.C., Strycker, L.A., Li, F. & Alpert, A. (1999). An introduction to

latent variable growth curve modeling. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

Dukes, R.L., Ullman, J.B. & Stein, J.A. (1995) An evaluation of D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse

Resistance Education) using a Solomon Four-Group Design with latent variables. Evaluation

Review.

Era, P., Jokela, J., Qvarnverg, Y. & Heikkinen, E. (1986). Pure-tone threshold, speech

understanding and their correlates in samples of men of different ages, Audiology, 25, 338352.

Fan, X. (1997). Canonical correlation analysis and structural equation modeling: What do

they have in common? Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 65-79.

Flouri, E. (2006). Parent interest in childrens education, childrens self-esteem and locus of

control, and later educational attainment: twenty-six year follow-up of the 1970 British birth

cohort. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 41-55.

Fullagar, C., McCoy, D. & Shull, C. (1992). The socialization of union loyalty. Journal of

Organization Behavior, 13, 13-26.

Ganzach, H.K. (2000). Does family structure really influence educational attainment? Social

Science Research, 28, 331-357.

Harlow, L.L. & Newcomb, M.D. (1990) Towards a general hierarchical model of meaning

and satisfaction in life. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 387-405.

Http://www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/

Johnson, T.R. & Bodner, T.E. (2007). Some properties of likelihood ratio and nested tetrad

tests comparing factor models with different numbers of factors. Paper presented at the

International Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Jreskog, K.G. & Srbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: Users reference guide. Chicago: Scientific

Software International.

------------ (2006). LISREL 8.80 for Windows [Computer Software].Lincolnwood, IL:

Scientific Software International, Inc.

MacCallum, R.C. & Austin, J.T. (2000). Applications of structural equation modeling in

psychological research. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 201-226.

Mullis, R.L., Rathge, R. & Mullis, A.K. (2003) Predictors of academic performance during

early adolescence: a contextual view. International Journal of Behavioral Development,

27(6):541-548.

Raykov, T. (2001). Testing multivariate covariance structure and means hypotheses via

structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 224-256.

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Simons, J., Dewitte, S. & Lens, W. (2004). The role of different types of instrumentality in

motivation, study strategies, and performance: know why you learn, so youll know what you

learn! British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 343-360.

Stein, J.A., Newcomb, M.D. & Bentler, P.M. (1993) Differential effects of parent and

grandparent drug use on behavior problems of male and female children. Development

Psychology, 29, 31-43.

Verlaan, P. & Schwartzman, A.E. (2002). Mothers and fathers parental adjustment: links to

externalizing behaviour problems in sons and daughters. International Journal of Behavioral

Development, 26(3), 214-224.

Appendix

Covariance Matrix of the Manifest Variables

Pses

Apt

Brdfac

Schtype

Pes

Permiss

Authrian Authtive

Pses

0.23

Apt

- 0.05

-3.06

Brdfac

0.01

-0.14

0.30

Schtype

0.09

-0.13

0.06

0.79

Pes

- 0.01

-0.09

- 0.01

0.16

0.47

Permiss

0.14

-1.39

- 0.26

1.53

- 0.02

35.91

Authrian

- 0.26

-1.29

- 0.06

- 0.40

- 0.06

2.68

75.40

Authtive

- 0.25

0.21

- 0.02

- 0.02

- 0.28

3.33

8.48

14.76

14

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