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F5 / C3 / COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

Coordination involves:
1) Detection of by the .
2) Transmission of .. by the ..
() from the receptors to the
which includes the
and the ..
3) Integration / Processing of information by the brain / spinal cord.
4) Transmission of by the .
(.) from the Central Nervous System to the
.
5) Production of . by the . (the muscle
tissues or the endocrine glands).
Examples of:
1) External stimuli:
............
2) Internal stimuli:
..

COORDINATIO
N

Central Nervous System:


The Brain

1)

5)

4)

3)

PARTS
1)

2)

FUNCTIONS
Controls . actions.
Centre for functions such as

2)

.., ., .
Coordinates .
Maintains body .

3)

Controls . functions such as

4)
5)

The Spinal Cord

, , .
Relays impulses from the spinal cord to the brain.
Relays .. to various parts of the brain.
Regulating , . &
Control centre of the .. system.
Detections of some internal stimulus such as ....

1)
(Contains dendrones of

.)

3)
(Contains axons of

.)

2)
(Contains cell bodies of

.)

4)

5)

Peripheral Nervous System:

Consists of nerve cells or

Nerve cells / neurons are bundled in nerve fibres.

Nerve fibres:

Cranial nerves branch out from the ..

Spinal nerves branch out from the

Functions: Transmit nerve impulses from the receptors to the


.. (CNS) and from the CNS to the
..
AFFERENT NEURONE
(Sensory Neurone)

RELAY NEURONE
(Interneurone)

EFFERENT NEURONE
(Motor Neurone)

Myelinated nerve cell.

Unmyelinated nerve cell.

Myelinated nerve cell.

Transmit impulses from the

Relay impulses from the

Transmit impulses from the

.. to the

to

the

to the ..

Transmission of impulse within a neurone:

Impulse travels in a neurone through the changes in charges along the neurone.
o

.. carries impulse towards the cell body.

. carries impulse away from the cell body.

Myelin sheaths act as insulators along the neurone cell. Unmyelinated regions are called the
Nodes of ..

Both the presence of Myelin sheath and the node of Ranvier ..


transmission of nerve impulses.

Transmission of impulse between one neurone to the next neurone:

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
1. Consists of ductless glands that synthesize and secrete chemical signals called ..
2. Most hormones are proteins, while some are lipids ()
3. Hormones actions are specific; one hormone can only affect certain parts of the body.
4. Hormones are released/secreted directly into the interstitial fluid, where it will enter the
and carried all over the body. However, only the target organs/tissues/cells will be
affected by the hormones.
5. Hormones actions are slow but ...............................................
GLANDS/ORGANS
Pituitary Gland
(Posterior Lobe)

Pituitary Gland
(Anterior Lobe)

Thyroid Gland
Pancreas

Adrenal Gland
(Cortex)

HORMONE

FUNCTIONS

EFFECTS OF
HYPOSECRETION

EFFECTS OF
HYPERSECRETION

GLANDS/ORGANS

Adrenal Gland
(Medulla)

Ovary

Testes

HORMONE

FUNCTIONS

EFFECTS OF
HYPOSECRETION

EFFECTS OF
HYPERSECRETION