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With stringent fuel economy and CO2 regulations on the horizon, powertrain designers

are increasingly investigating new ways to improve engine efficiency through friction and
mass reduction by using high-strength materials and advanced design methods. One key
contributor to the friction of an engine is the mass of its power cell unit (PCU), which is
comprised of the connecting rod, conrod bearings, piston, piston pin, and piston rings. By
reducing the mass of these components, the mechanical efficiency of the engine can be
improved.
The connecting rod is a key component that affects the mass of the rest of the cranktrain; a
lighter connecting rod would allow for reduced ancillary component mass. While the basic
component design has remained the same for over a century, new materials and advanced
calculation methods are now allowing for significant reductions in mass with no degradation
in durability.
The challenge is to reduce connecting rod mass, which, in turn, improves engine
performance and fuel economy in the more highly loaded downsized engines of the future.
PCU supplier Mahle recently completed a project aimed at demonstrating the advantages of
an ultra-lightweight connecting rod (ULWC). The goal was to engineer a fracture-split
forged-steel conrod that is as light as possible, adheres to modern durability standards, and
is feasible for volume production.
By reducing mass, the conrod would also be reduced in cost through decreased material
usage.
The main design considerations of the ULWC include the bearing housing (big end) integrity,
small-end hydrodynamic conditions, shank robustness against buckling and fatigue, and
structural integrity. The platform chosen for the conrod design optimization was the Chrysler
3.6-L Pentastar V6. This modern and highly loaded naturally aspirated engine is rated at
218 kW (292 hp) at 6200 rpm and 353 Nm (479 lbft) at 4000 rpm.
Design yields a 27% mass reduction
The original production conrod is a Mahle 36MnVS4 micro alloy, forged-steel unit designed
to have a minimum fatigue safety factor of 1.6 in the shank. This conrod is already
lightweight by industry standards at 548 g (19.3 oz). Four iteration steps were performed
and resulted in a connecting rod 27% lighter than the original.
To achieve such a dramatic weight reduction while maintaining production durability, an
exact understanding of both the material properties and advanced conrod design was
required. The material used for the connecting rod concept needed to possess exceptional
material properties and good machinability without the addition of any secondary operations
such as heat treatment.

The strongest material suitable for a fracture-split volume-production forged light-vehicle


connecting rod was chosen. The 46MnVS6 material is a fine-grained ferritic-pearlitic micro
alloy forged steel that has a mean fatigue strength of 496 MPa (71.9 ksi) at R = -2.5. This is
about 20% higher in strength than premium 3% Cu powder forged alloys.
The ULWC retains all characteristics of the original, while adding several advanced design
features. At the small end, a bushingless, stepped design is used with optimized pin bore
profile, clearance, and surface finish. The pin bore features hydrodynamically optimized
forged-in oil pockets (patent pending). The pockets serve to both introduce oil to the joint
through the capillary effect and provide structural flexibility during severe engine operation.
In the shank, an I-beam design is used with a 4:1 ratio between the oscillating and
cantilever moduli of inertia. By optimizing the cross section of the beam in this way, the
buckling stress (and therefore critical buckling force) of each plane during engine operation
is made equivalent to significantly reduce the risk of buckling.
The web thickness of the shank beam is only 2.3 mm (0.09 in) and the edge radii are 1.5
mm (0.06 in), which are the absolute minimum according to current forging process
limitations.
The beam section transitions into the big ends closed bolt holes to maximize bore housing
integrity, reduce bore distortion, and eliminate the notch factor of a through hole. The big
end of the conrod features a fracture-split design, high-strength torque-to-yield fasteners,
and intelligent distribution of material that provides maximum stiffness and minimum mass.
Numerical simulation
The conrod was first hydrodynamically analyzed. The profile of the pin bore and the stiffness
of the small end were optimized to distribute the surface pressure evenly while maintaining
a lubrication boundary between the piston pin and conrod small end.
To calculate stresses for use in the fatigue analysis, the maximum operating conditions of
the engine were considered. As a result of a finite-element analysis (FEA), in the optimized
design the fatigue factor is at its minimum in a large portion of the I-beam, as the loads are
evenly distributed over the beam section without any stress concentrations. The absolute
minimum safety factor of 1.20 occurs in this large-portion I-beam section during the
maximum gas pressure case.
Mechanical testing
This ULWC was validated in the same manner as a production conrod design. One of the
primary concerns of a conrod with such an aggressive design is the integrity of both the
small and big ends. The optimization of the big end is based primarily on deformation rather

than fatigue, as the integrity and stiffness of the bearing housing is an integral factor in the
life of the bearings. With the mass reduction of the shoulders as well as the cap rib, the big
end of the optimized design was more susceptible to deformation than the current Mahle
design.
For the small end, a targeted deformation is part of the design. The deformation is not large
enough to induce fatigue failure but is of sufficient magnitude to improve pin bore
hydrodynamic conditions by introducing oil to the joint. This is accomplished in tandem with
the oil pockets, which effectively draw in oil that is splashed up to the joint.
Even with the significant reduction in bore housing material, both the big- and small-end
deformation are within acceptable limits. They are not much changed from the current
series design due to the 14% reduction in inertia force from the reduced component mass.
Another primary concern was the buckling strength of the I-beam. Although calculation
showed the safety factor to be well above 1.2, further testing was required to validate the
calculation. Two conrods were loaded up to a maximum of 80 kN (18,000 lb) in compression
(45% above the nominal load), and no buckling occurred.
Engine validation testing
To validate the strength of the ULWC, a final split-test of three lightweight conrods vs.
three current production conrods was conducted.
A 250-h modified durability test cycle, with the engine cycling between 4000 and 6000
rpm wide-open throttle (WOT) was performed. The engine and conrods completed the 250-h
test with no issues. Pre- and post-test inspections were conducted using a coordinate
measuring machine to evaluate the dimensional integrity of the conrods. All critical
dimensions were within tolerance both before and after the test.
A major concern with the optimized conrod was the integrity of the small-end and crank-end
housings. If the bores of the optimized design suffered excessive deformation, scuffing in
the small end would result, and the crank-end bearings would be prematurely worn and be
at greater risk of failure. The post-test traces of the small and crank ends of the conrods
after the durability testing resulted in almost perfectly round housings, exceeding the
production specification for new Mahle conrods.
Visually, all three conrods completed the testing in excellent condition. Although the
Pentastar engine is highly loaded, it appeared as though lubrication was sufficient in the pin
bore to maintain a hydrodynamic boundary between the wrist pin and bore. This is likely
due in part to the oil pockets in the small end.
Summary

The ULWC design for the Chrysler 3.6-L V6 achieved a significant 27% mass reduction,
lowering the assembly mass from 548 to 400 g (19.3 to 14.1 oz). Advanced calculation and
numerical simulation demonstrated that this design has a minimum fatigue factor of 1.2,
while the bolted joint integrity remains intact and the pin bore is not under severe risk of
wear.
Durability testing has shown that the design exceeds expectations in terms of fatigue
strength, bearing wear, and hydrodynamic performance. Most importantly for Mahle, this
design meets the company's manufacturing requirements for volume production forging and
machining.
This ULWC was benchmarked against the industry, including a variety of contemporary
passenger car gasoline production conrods. The fully optimized design is significantly lighter
than designs found in similar engines.
The 148-g (5.2-oz) mass reduction from each conrod has significant effects on reciprocating
mass and reliability. As the connecting rods have been reduced in mass, the counterweights,
crankshaft, bearings, piston pins, and other critical engine components can also be
downsized.
The effect of this conrod mass reduction in a six-cylinder engine can result in a total engine
reciprocating mass reduction of up to 2 kg (4.4 lb). This mass reduction can help improve
reliability and decrease CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Mahle engineers believe the
conrod design demonstrated by the ULWC project make it ideal for the engines of the future
such as downsized aggregates or range extenders.
This article was written for Automotive Engineering by Dipl. Ing. Michael T. Lapp, Head of
Engine Component Development, and Chris C. Hall, Mechanical Engineer, R&D department
of connecting rods, both of Mahle Industries Inc.

UNIT-V Design of Bearings & Miscellaneous Elements


Session -1
Objective:

To introduce the Bearings and its elements


www.ahrinternational.com/introduction_to_bearings.htm

Recap:

Recall the shafts and its purposes

PPT and Board Explanation

BEARINGS:
A bearing is a machine element which supports another moving machine element.
It permits a relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members while carrying the
load. Due to the relative motion between the surfaces a certain amount of power is
wasted in overcoming frictional resistance and if the rubbing surfaces are indirect contact
there will be rapid wear. In order to reduce frictional resistance and wear resistance in
some cases to cases carry away the heat generated a layer of fluid may be provided.
TYPES OF BEARINGS:
Depend upon the nature of contact
(i) Sliding contact bearing
The sliding takes place along the surfaces of contact between the moving
element and fixed element
(ii) Rolling contact bearing
The steel balls or rollers are interposed between the moving and fixed
element. The balls offer rolling friction at the two points for each ball or roller.
Material should have the following properties.
High compressive strength
Low coefficient of friction
High thermal conductivity
High resistance to corrosion
Sufficient fatigue strength
It should be soft with a low modulus of elasticity
Bearing materials should not get weld easily to the journal material.
i) Lead base contains:
It contains Lead-74%, Antimony- 15%, Tin- 1%, Arsenic-O. 5% and Cu-O.25%.
It has excellent resistance to seizure and has good corrosion resistance its
Compressive strength and hardness decrease rapidly with an increase in temperature.
Therefore it should not be used above 1150.
It is used for split bushings made from strip or gravity cast bearings.
ii) Tin base habit:
It contains Tin-89%, Antimony-7.5% and Copper-3.25%.
It is slightly harder than lead habit at room temperature. It has excellent anti-series
Deformability and acid-resisting properties.
It is also used for split bushings.

(iii) Leaded bronze:

The compositions and use of leaded bronze are as follows.


Cu 80% Tin 10%, Lead-l0% it used for split bushings made 4
From strip or gravity cast bears. 4
These are having excellent Fatigue life and are capable of Carrying heavy loads at

high Temperatures.
Cu-72%, Tin-3%, Lead-23% Use for split bushings and hail
Beings made from strip or Gravity cast bearings.
(iv) Copper lead alloy:
The compositions and uses of copper lead alloy are as follows. Cu-65%, Lead 35% Use for split bushings and half Bearings made from strip or Gravity cast bearings
Cu-71%, Lead-28%, Silver-l% Used for gravity cast bearings these are having
excellent fatigue life and capable of carrying
Heavy leads at high temperatures.
But they are having poor erosion resistance compared to Habit
(v) Gun metal:
Its composition is as follows.
Copper-88%, Tin-l0%, Zinc-2%.
It is used for high-grade bearings subjected to high
pressure and high speeds.
(vi) Phosphor bronze:
Superior fatigue resistance.
(V) Plastics:
Composition is Copper-80%, Tin- 10%, Lcad-9%, Phosphores- 1%. It is used
for bearings subjected to very high pressures and speeds.
(vii) Cast Iron:
It is used with steel journals. It should be provided with adequate lubricant.
It is used for low pressure and low speed bearings.
(viii) Aluminum alloy:
Its composition is Al-92%, Cu-l%, Tin-6%, Ni-1%
It is used for cast or forged solid construction.
It has better fatigue resistance but poor surface behavior.
(ix) Silver:
The usual form of construction is electro- plated bearing used with lead-tin or lead

indium overlay.
It has excellent corrosion resistance and
The common commercial plastics used for bearings are Nylon and Teflon.
These may be used as zero film bearings.
These have high fatigue strength, hardness and more resistant to abrasive wear.

Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the shaft mounting with bearing and its types

Session -2
Objective:

To introduce sliding contact bearings


To design sliding contact bearings
nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Machine_Design_II/.../5_1.pdf

Recap:

Recall the bearings and its types

JOURNAL BEARING:

Board Explanation

A sliding contact bearing that supports a load in a radial direction is known as


journal bearing. It consists of two main parts, a shaft and a hollow cylinder. The portion of
the shaft inside the hollow cylinder also known as bearing is called as journal. In most
applications the journal rotates while the bearing is stationary. However there are some

applications where the journal is stationary and the bearing rotates and even somewhere
both the journal and bearing rotates. This journal bearing may be classified as full journal
bearing and partial journal bearing depending upon whether the journal is fully or partially
covered by bearing.
TERMS USED IN HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARING
1. Diameter clearance:
It the different between the diameter of journal and the bearing. c= D-d
2. Radial clearance:
It is the different between the radial of the bearing and the journal. c1=R-r=D-d/2
3. Diameteral clearance ratio:
It is the ratio of the diameteral clearance to the diameter of the Journal.
=c/d= (D-d)/d
4. Eccentricity:
It is the radial distance between the center of the bearing and the displaced
center

of the bearing under load.

5. Minimum oil film thickness:


It is the minimum distance between the bearing and the journal under complete
lubrication condition. It is denoted by ho and occurs at the line of centers.
Bearing
A journal bearing is a sliding contact bearing which gives lateral support to the rotating shaft.
It consists of two main parts,
A journal is that part of the shaft which runs in a sleeve or bushing.
A hollow cylinder i.e. Sleeve is at rest.
In journal bearing, the diameter of the journal is kept less than the diameter of the bearing to
allow the flow of lubricant between the surfaces
Design steps:
Step 1:

Calculate the diameter of journal from given power. Use the following equations

Where,
T Torque to be transmitted
P Power to be transmitted
Step 2:

Select a suitable value of ratio. Determine the length of the D, L Bearing and the
bearing pressure by using the table given in PSGDB 7.31.

Step 3:

Calculate the bearing pressure by Using p = Check this Pressure with the allowable value
given in the table of PSGDB page 7.31. If it is not within the limit, select suitable value
of ratio. D

Step 4:

Select the clearance and find out clearance ratio by using the Table given in PSGDB
page 7.32 D

Step 5:

Select suitable oil and its viscosity at operating temperature, Zn Which is preferably within
60 to 75C.

Step 6:

Calculate the bearing characteristic number. It should be P Greater than the minimum
value given in PSGDB 7.31.

Step 7:

Determine the Somerfield number and therefore the minimum Film thickness from fig. In
PSGDB 7.40 otherwise use tables given in PSGDB 7.36 to 7.39

Step 8:

Calculate the co-efficient of friction using Petroff s equation or Mckee s equation.

Step 9:

Determine the heat generated (Hg) and heat dissipated (Hd).The generated heat is more
than the dissipated heat, provide artificial Cooling arrangements.

Conclusion &Summary:

Conclude the session by recalling the various steps on design


process.

Session -3
Objective:

To introduce rolling contact bearings


To design rolling contact bearings
nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse.../Machine%20design1/.../mod14les2...

Recap:

Recall the bearings and its types

ROLLING CONTACT BEARING

Board Explanation

The advent of automobiles and many high speed machineries make very much
use another type of bearings known as rolling contact bearings. The friction produced in
these bearing is very low. These bearings also called as antifriction bearings. They differ
from sliding contact bearings in their structure and usage.
COMPONENTS OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARINGS
The rolling bearing consists of four main components (1) the inner ring, (2) outer
ring, (3) the balls or rollers, (4) the retainers or separators. The inner ring is forced to fitted
with machine shaft and outer ring is fitted with machine housing. The shaft rotates because of
relative rotations of balls or rollers. The retainers is used to prevent the balls or rollers from
ejecting out during operation.
CLASSIFICATION OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARINGS
The rolling contact bearings are classified into two major groups with respect to
their structure
(1) Ball bearings
(2) Roller bearings
Basically the structure of ball bearings are similar expect that whether the rolling
element between the inner ring and outer ring are balls or rollers. Also these ball bearings are
many types such as deep grove ball bearings, angular contact bal bearings and so on. Both
type of bearing can carry radial loads and axial loads acted individually or in combined
form. Generally the ball bearings are used for light loads and the roller bearings are usually
used for heavier loads. Also in the case of ball bearings the nature of contact is the point
contact hence the friction produced is very less compared to roller bearings where the
nature of contact is the line contact which produce more friction.

Figure 5.1 Types of radial ball bearing


SELECTION OF BEARINGS FOR STEADY LOADING
The size of bearing required is judged by the magnitude and nature of applied load,
life and reliability. The bearing load is composed of weights involved forces derived from
power transmitted and additional force based on method of operation
C- basic dynamic load rating
L- life of bearing in million revolutions
L10- life of bearing for 90% survival at 1 million revolutions
P- Equivalent load
k- Exponent (3 for ball bearing, 10/3 for roller
bearings) P= (XFr+YFa) S
Fr- radial load
Fa- axial load
X- Radial load factor Y- axial load factor S- service factor
Conclusion &Summary:

Conclude the session by recalling the various steps on design


process.

Session -4
Objective:

To design sliding contact bearing

Tutorial Problem:

Board Presentation

From university question bank solve simple problems on sliding contact bearing

Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure

Session -5
Objective: To design rolling contact bearing

Simple Problem:

Board Presentation

From university question bank solve simple problems on rolling contact bearing

Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure

Session -6
Objective:

To design sliding contact bearing

Simple Problem:

Board Presentation

Calculation of Heat generation and Heat dissipation

Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the calculation procedure

Session -7
Objective:

To design sliding contact bearing

Simple Problem:

Board Presentation

Calculation of Heat generation and Heat dissipation and select appropriate lubrication oil
Conclusion &Summary:
Session -8

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure

Objective:

To improve problem solving skill

Tutorial Problem:

Board Presentation

From university question bank solve simple problems on sliding contact bearing and
rolling contact bearing
Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure

Session -9
Objective:

To solve simple problems with Mackees equation


www.exlar.com/Engineering%20Stuff/59_66.pdf

Simple Problem:

Board Presentation

From university question bank solve simple problems on sliding contact bearing
Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure

Session -10
Objective:

To design connecting rod

INTRODUCTION

PPT & Board Presentation

The connecting rod is an intermediate link between the piston and the crankshaft of an
I.C. engine. It transmits force from the piston to the crankshaft. It also carries the lubricating oil
from the crank pin end to the piston pin end and provides lubrication to the piston cylinder

assembly. The connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of the piston to rotary motion of
the crankshaft. The main parts of the Connecting rod of an I.C. engine are shown in fig.

It has (i) An eye at the small end to acconunt date piston pin bearing
(ii) A long shank usually of I-section and
(iii)A big end opening, which is usually split to take the crank pin bearing shells. The
length of the connecting rod is usually kept 3 to 4.5 times the crank radius.

The materials for connecting rod ranges from mild or medium carbon steels to alloy
steels. In industrial engines, carbon steel with ultimate tensile strength 550 to 670N/mm2 is used.
In transport engines, alloy steel having strength of about 780 to 940N/mm2 is used. Manganese
steel. In aero engines, nickel chrome steel having ulti1i1al tensile strength of about 940 to 135
N/mm2 is used. Connecting rods are mostly manufactured by drop forging.
Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the connecting rod and its


material

Session -11
Objective:

To stresses induced on connecting rod

STRESSES IN CONNECTING ROD

PPT & Board Presentation

A connecting rod is subjected to alternating tension and compression, the compressive


stress being much greater than tensile stress and is therefore mainly designed as a strut. The
stresses in the connecting rod are set up by a combination of forces. The various for acting on the
connecting rod are

The combined effects of gas pressure on the piston and the Inertia of the reciprocating
parts.
Inertia of the connecting rod.
Friction of the piston rings and of the piston.
The friction of the two-end bearings.
Simple Problem:
Design simple problem on connecting rod.

Session -12
Objective:

To improve problem solving skill

Tutorial Problem:

Board Presentation

From university question bank solve simple problems on sliding connecting rod
Conclusion &Summary:

Recall the session by summarizing the design procedure