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# Prime number :

All prime numbers greater than 3 can be expressed in the form 6n-1 or 6n+1 i.e. all
prime numbers, which are greater than 3-leave remainder 1 or 5 when divided by 6.

## Properties of Addition of Natural Numbers

Some more properties on natural numbers
(i) Sum of 1stn Natural numbers i.e. 1 + 2 + 3 + . + n = n(n+1)2
(ii) Sum of squares of 1stn natural number i.e.
12 + 22 + 32 + .. + n2 =n(n+1)(2n+1)6
(iii) Sum of cubes of 1stn Natural number i.e.
13 + 23 + 33 + .. + n3 =(n(n+1)2)2
(iv) Sum of 1st n Odd natural number
i.e. 1+ 3 + 5 + .. + (2n 1) = n2
(v) Sum of squares of 1stn Odd natural number i.e.
12 + 32 + 52 + .. + (2n 1) 2 = n(2n1)(2n+1)3

## (vi) Sum of squares of 1st n Even natural number i.e.

22 + 42 + 62 + .. + (2n)2 =2n(n+1)(2n+1)3
(vii) Sum of cubes of 1stn Odd natural number i.e.
13 + 33 + 53 + .. + (2n -1)3 = n2 (2n2 -1)
(viii) Sum of cubes of 1stn Even natural number i.e.
23 + 43 + 63 + .. + (2n)3 = 2 [n (n + 1)]2

Key Observations:
From 1 9, the digit 3 is used 1 time
From 1 99, the digit 3 is used 20 times.
From 1 999, the digit 3 is used 300 times
From 1 9999, the digit 3 is used 4000 times and so on
Note: Above is true for any digit except 0.
Number of digits between two numbers:
Number of single digit natural numbers (i.e. from 1 9) = 9
Number of two digit natural numbers (i.e. from 10 99) = 90
Number of three digit natural number (i.e. from 100 999) = 900 etc.

## Unit Digit of Perfect Square

Properties regarding Unit Digit of Perfect Square
Squares: There is a definite relationship between the unit digits when square of a number is
considered, we will see that one by one.
If unit digit of a perfect square is 1 then tens digit has to be Even
E.g. 81, 121, 441, 961 all are Perfect Square having unit digit 1 and tens digit is even.
If unit digit of a number is 2 then it cant be a perfect square.
If unit digit of a number is 3 then it cant be a perfect square.
If unit digit of a perfect square is 4 then tens digit has to be Even.
E.g. 64,144,484 all are Perfect Square having unit digit 4 and tens digit is even.
If unit digit of a perfect square is 5 then tens digit has to be 2
E.g. 25, 225, 625,1225 all are Perfect Square having unit digit 5 and tens digit is 2.
If unit digit of a number is 7 & 8 then it cant be a perfect square
If unit digit of a perfect square is 9 then tens digit has to be Even.
E.g. 49, 169, 529 all are Perfect Square having unit digit 9 and tens digit is even.

## If unit digit of a perfect square is 0 then tens digit has to be 0.

E.g. 100,400,900 all are Perfect Square having unit digit 0 and tens digit is 0.
If a number ends with 2, 3, 7 or 8 then it cant be perfect square.
Square of any natural number has last two digits same as that of last two digits of squares of
first twentyfive natural numbers. For example if we calculate square of
88 we get 7744. You can notice last two digits are 44, which are same as last two digits of square
of 12 i.e. 144.

Magic of Numbers
Magical 1
3 x 37 = 111
33 x 3367 = 111,111
333 x 333667 = 111,111,111
3333 x 33336667= 111,111,111,111
33333 x 3333366667= 111,111,111,111,111
333333 x 333333666667 = 111,111,111,111,111,111
Consider the L.H.S of the above numbers. The number of 3s in both the numbers are same and 6
is one less than the number of 3 and there is only one 7. Then in the final product, N would
appear three times the number of threes in the first number on the LHS.
6 when multiplied with 7 give 4 and 2
6 x 7 = 42
66 x67 = 4422
666 x 667 = 444222
6666 x 6667 = 44442222
For multiplication such as the above:
The number of digits in both the numbers is same, the 2nd number has one 6 less than the number
of 6s the 1st number has .
The number of 4s and 2s is equal to the number of 6s in the 1st number
Cyclic numbers
142857 is called as the cyclic number, since its digits are rotated around when multiplied by any
number from 1 to 6
142857 x 1 = 142857
142857 x 5= 714285
142857 x 4= 571428
142857 x 6 = 857142

142857 x 2= 285714
142867 x 3 = 428571
The same method helps us calculating fractions involving 7 in denominator

## We know 1/7 = 0.142857

Thus 2/7 will be a value close to 0.28 and directly we will write exact answer as numbers repeat
in cyclic order as shown in diagram.Hence exact answer will be 0.285714
Similarly 3/7 will be a value close to 0.42 and directly we will write exact answer as numbers
repeat in cyclic order as shown in diagram. Hence exact answer will be 0.428571
Similarly 4/7 will be a value close to 0.56 and directly we will write exact answer as numbers
repeat in cyclic order as shown in diagram. Hence exact answer will be 0.571428
Similarly 5/7 will be a value close to 0.7 and directly we will write exact answer as numbers
repeat in cyclic order as shown in diagram. Hence exact answer will be 0.714285
Similarly 6/7 will be a value close to 0.84 and directly we will write exact answer as numbers
repeat in cyclic order as shown in diagram. Hence exact answer will be 0.857142

## Properties of Consecutive Integers

We have studied about integers, integers is combination of both positive and negative numbers
lying on the number line including zero. There are few important properties regarding integers
that you should know:

## 1. Zero is also an Integer.

2. Integers which follow one another are called consecutive integers.
3. If we multiply a number by an integer and resultant value remains same then that integer is 1.
Consecutive Integers: The integers which follow one another are called consecutive integers.
For example 3,4,5,6 are consecutive integers. An individual random number can never be a
consecutive integer.
Note: If we have consecutive integers in a set M from a to b i.e. M ={a,a+1,a+2,
..,b}.
Then number of elements in the set M is ba+1.
Example: Set M consists of natural numbers from 75 to 199.
Find the numbers of elements in set M ?
Solution: Question would have been very easy if we are asked number of natural numbers from
1 to 199. The answer to this is obviously 199. So we can also conclude it same way from 1 to
199 we are not counting first 74 natural numbers. Hence the answer should be 199 -74= 125
Some more points about Consecutive Numbers
TOOLTIP 1
If there is odd number of digits in the set of consecutive numbers like set of three consecutive
numbers (4,5,6,) or 5 digits are there say (3,4,5,6,7). Then in this case the sum of all integers is
always divisible by the number of digits present in the set.
For example 2+3+4 = 9 divisible by number of digits i.e. 3
For example 1+2+3+4+5 = 15 divisible by 5
TOOLTIP 2
On the other hand ,If there are even number of digits in set of consecutive numbers like set of
four consecutive numbers (4,5,6,7) or 6 digits are there say (3,4,5,6,7,8). Then in this case the
sum of all integers is never divisible by the number of digits present in the set .
For example 2+3+4+5 = 14 never divisible by number of digits i.e. 4
For example 1+2+3+4+5+6 = 21 never divisible by 6.

Fractions
The concept of fractions, though a simple one, can be often confused. Having not solved
questions based on this simple concept, students often tend to confuse the problems. These
questions can throw up the occasional challenge and it makes sense to practice these questions
from this area.

Definition: Technically, fraction is defined as part of the whole. The most common example of a
fraction that comes to mind is half. When we say give me half of something, we are essentially
demanding part of it, in other words, is the fractional representation for half.
Fractions are nothing else than the numerator divided by denominator, that is they occur in the
form X/Y where X is the numerator and Y is the non-zero denominator.
Remember:
The numerator represents how many parts of that whole are being considered.To remember
simply, numerator is the top number of the fraction that represents the numbers of parts that are
to be chosen.
The denominator represents the total number of parts created from the whole, in other words it is
the bottom number representing the total number of parts created.
Example of Fractions :,2/3,3/4, and the numbers which are in the form of x/y where y is non
zero.
Types of Fractions:
Proper Fraction: When Numerator < Denominator, then the fraction is called as proper
fraction..For example:2/3, 4/5, 6/7 etc
Improper fraction:When Numerator >Denominator,then the fraction is called as improper
fraction. For example: 5/3, 7/5, 19/7 etc
Mixed fraction: When a natural number combines with a fraction that is called a mixed fraction.
For Example: 21/2 ,34/5 etc
Tooltip: Properties of fractions
Property 1:If we multiply the numerator and denominator by same quantity, the basic value of
fraction will never change.
For example:4/5 x 5/5 = 20/25 = 4/5
Property 2:If there are two fractions a/b and c/d then a/b=c/d when ad=bc.
For example 3/4 = 12/16 because 3 x 16 = 4 x 12
Property 3:A fraction with zero as the denominator is not defined.
Property 4:If the numerator of the fraction is zero, then the fraction equals zero.

Property 5:If the numerator and denominator of the fraction are equal, then the fraction is equal
to one.
Fractions
The concept of fractions, though a simple one, can be often confused. Having not solved
questions based on this simple concept, students often tend to confuse the problems. These
questions can throw up the occasional challenge and it makes sense to practice these questions
from this area.
Definition: Technically, fraction is defined as part of the whole. The most common example of a
fraction that comes to mind is half. When we say give me half of something, we are essentially
demanding part of it, in other words, is the fractional representation for half.
Fractions are nothing else than the numerator divided by denominator, that is they occur in the
form X/Y where X is the numerator and Y is the non-zero denominator.
Remember:
The numerator represents how many parts of that whole are being considered.To remember
simply, numerator is the top number of the fraction that represents the numbers of parts that are
to be chosen.
The denominator represents the total number of parts created from the whole, in other words it is
the bottom number representing the total number of parts created.
Example of Fractions :,2/3,3/4, and the numbers which are in the form of x/y where y is non
zero.
Types of Fractions:
Proper Fraction: When Numerator < Denominator, then the fraction is called as proper
fraction..For example:2/3, 4/5, 6/7 etc
Improper fraction:When Numerator >Denominator,then the fraction is called as improper
fraction. For example: 5/3, 7/5, 19/7 etc
Mixed fraction: When a natural number combines with a fraction that is called a mixed fraction.
For Example: 21/2 ,34/5 etc
Tooltip: Properties of fractions
Property 1:If we multiply the numerator and denominator by same quantity, the basic value of
fraction will never change.
For example:4/5 x 5/5 = 20/25 = 4/5

Property 2:If there are two fractions a/b and c/d then a/b=c/d when ad=bc.
For example 3/4 = 12/16 because 3 x 16 = 4 x 12
Property 3:A fraction with zero as the denominator is not defined.
Property 4:If the numerator of the fraction is zero, then the fraction equals zero.
Property 5:If the numerator and denominator of the fraction are equal, then the fraction is equal
to one.