Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11


discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261532030

Sugarcane bagasse and leaves: Foreseeable

biomass of biofuel and bio-products. J Chem
Technol Biotechnol
Impact Factor: 2.35 DOI: 10.1002/jctb.2742





Anuj K Chandel

Silvio Silvrio da Silva

Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira

University of So Paulo





Om Singh
University of Pittsburgh

Available from: Anuj K Chandel

Retrieved on: 21 January 2016

Received: 8 July 2011

Revised: 3 September 2011

Accepted: 4 September 2011

Published online in Wiley Online Library:

(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jctb.2742

Sugarcane bagasse and leaves: foreseeable

biomass of biofuel and bio-products
Anuj K. Chandel,a Silvio S. da Silva,a Walter Carvalhoa and Om. V. Singhb
Sugarcane is among the principal agricultural crops cultivated in tropical countries. The annual world production of sugarcane is
1.6 billion tons, and it generates 279 million metric tons (MMT) of biomass residues (bagasse and leaves). Sugarcane residues,
particularly sugarcane bagasse (SB) and leaves (SL) have been explored for both biotechnological and non-biotechnological
applications. For the last three decades, SB and SL have been explored for use in lignocellulosic bioconversion, which offers
opportunities for the economic utilization of residual substrates in the production of bioethanol and value-added commercial
products such as xylitol, specialty enzymes, organic acids, single-cell protein, etc. However, there are still major technological
and economic challenges to be addressed in the development of bio-based commercial processes utilizing SB and SL as raw
substrates. This article aims to explore SB and SL as cheaper sources of carbohydrates in the developing world for their industrial
implications, their use in commercial products including commercial evaluation, and their potential to advance sustainable
bio-based fuel systems.
c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

Keywords: sugarcane residues; ethanol; xylitol; organic acids; industrial enzymes

The constant demand for non-food and feed based substrates has
influenced the need to exploit sustainable and cheaper resources
for their bioconversion into value-added products of commercial
interest through basic routes of microbial bio-conversion.1 With
this objective, there have been many products obtained from
renewable resources such as biomass. Due to advancement in the
agricultural industries, millions of tons of wastes and byproducts
are generated every year that have potential as low-cost sources
of energy and material.1 4 One of these byproducts is sugarcane
bagasse, which can be used in the production of industrial
enzymes, ethanol, xylitol, organic acids, etc.4,5 Bagasse is a residue
obtained from sugarcane after it is crushed to obtain the juice used
for sugar and ethanol production. Another important sugarcane
residue is the leaves, which are usually left in agricultural fields
during sugarcane harvesting.6 8 The dried leaves, called sugarcane
trash (ST), are produced in abundance (68 tons from one hectare
of sugarcane crop).7 Generally, leaves are burnt in the fields, which
produces fly ash, severely damages soil microbial diversity, and
raises environmental concerns.
Sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sugarcane leaves/trash (SL or ST)
contain appreciable amount of cellulose and hemicellulose, which
can be de-polymerized by chemical or enzyme cocktails into simple
sugar monomers (glucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, galactose,
etc.).7,8 Such sugar streams obtained from SB and SL can be converted into bioethanol and value-added products of commercial
significance, which has joint economic importance.4,7 10 Harnessing bagasse and leaves for industrial purposes could provide
a sustainable and economic solution for the production of biobased, value-added products such as ethanol, xylitol, organic acids,
industrial enzymes, and other products.4,5 The proposed model in
Fig. 1 shows the efficient utilization of SB or SL/ST into products
of economic importance via both biological and non-biological

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

routes. The efficient utilization of sustainable resources will assist in

improving the socioeconomic status of developing countries, creating employment opportunities and improving the environment.
Among sugarcane-producing countries, Brazil is the top
producer, with 625 million tons of sugarcane in 2011, followed
by India and China (http://www.unica.com.br). Generally, 280 kg
of humid bagasse is generated from 1 ton of sugarcane.10 A
significant quantity of post-harvest SL is also generated (250 kg
dry weight per ton of sugarcane).7 Pandey et al.4 reported that
50% of SB is used for energy generation within the plant and
the rest remains unused in the environment. Therefore, the
bioconversion of leftover bagasse into value-added products may
have sustainable economic and strategic benefits.4,11 . Figure 2
summarizes the procedural steps involved in the application of SB
for the production of various industrially important products of
commercial significance (bio-products and biorefineries) along
with its application for entrapment of microbial cells as an
immobilized or growth support.
SB has long been considered in bioethanol industries for ethanol
production, referred to as second-generation ethanol.10,11 De-

Correspondence to: Anuj K. Chandel, Department of Biotechnology, School of

Engineering of Lorena, University of Sao Paulo, Lorena- 12.602.810, Brazil.
E-mail: anuj.kumar.chandel@gmail.com; anuj@debiq.eel.usp.br
Om. V. Singh, Division of Biological and Health Sciences 300 Campus Drive,
University of Pittsburgh, Bradford, PA-16701, USA. E-mail: ovs11@pitt.edu;

a Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering of Lorena, University of

Sao Paulo, Lorena 12.602.810, Brazil
b Division of Biological and Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Bradford,
PA 16701, USA


c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry


Sugarcane bagasse

AK Chandel et al.

Sugarcane tops and leaves (ST)



Fermentation (SSF)
Enzymatic hydrolysis
Microbial fermentation (SmF)

Ethanol as fuel
Industrial enzymes
Organic acids
Other value-added products
(antibiotics, Single cell protein,
bio-hydrogen, aroma, pigments

Chemical catalysis
Coumaric acid
Methyl cellulose
Furfural and 5-hydroxy
methyl furfural
Pyrolysis and steam
gasification etc.

Figure 1. Strategic applications of sugarcane plant. The pocessing of sugarcane in fields yield green tops and dried leaves, so-called sugarcane trash (ST).
The bagasse is products from the stem after juice extraction. Both have profound importance in biotechnological and non-biotechnological applications.

spite major research efforts to promote SB as a bioenergy

material, commercial use of SB on an industrial scale has yet
to be explored.12,13 However, recent advancements in genetic
engineering to improve microbial strains, media formulations, and
product recovery have enabled more efficient conversion of SB
and SL into value-added products of commercial interest.1,3,14
This article discusses the possibilities of exploiting SB and SL/ST
as potential substrates for biofuel and value-added products of
commercial interest. Special emphasis is placed on recent developments such as genetically modified microbial strains, statistical
software for designing the process parameters and media formula-


tion, including downstream recovery in the process and products

developed including commercial evaluation of bio-products from
SB and SL/ST.


The complex chemical composition of the cell walls in SB limits its
use as fodder for cattle and ruminants, in contrast to wheat straw,
rice straw, sorghum straw, etc., which makes SB a more attractive
substrate for commercialization. Generally, SB is composed (% w/w

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Bio-industrial benefits of sugarcane bagasse and leaves


Mild alkali


Industrial enzymes
Organic acids,
pigments, vitamins
 Antibiotics, single
cell protein

Direct carbon
source for
microbes in
SSF or SmF

sugar rich
+ inhibitory

or dilute

(Chemical or

Cellulignin or

(alkali or

hydrolysis by

Fermentation of
sugars (C5 + C6)

single cell
protein and

Figure 2. Procedural steps involved in the application of SB for the formation of various industrially important products.

dry basis) of hemicellulose (26.235.8), cellulose (3545), lignin

(11.425.2), and others (2.914.4).15,16 The unequal chemical
composition of bagasse depends upon multiple factors, including
crop variety, climate conditions, location and mode of growth, use
of fertilizers, and physical and chemical composition of soil.16 The
method of chemical composition analysis may also play a crucial
role in establishing the chemical makeup of bagasse.17
A detailed chemical analysis (% dry matter) from the cell wall of
SB and SL showed glucan (41.4, 33.3); xylan (22.5, 18.1); arabinan
(1.3, 3.1); galactan (1.3, 1.5); mannan (3.4, 1.5); and lignin (23.6,
36.1), respectively.18 The higher content of lignin limits the SL or
lignocellulosic biomass (LB) usage for industrial applications. In
order to utilize the LB into value-added products, harnessing of cellulosics fraction into ready-to-fermentable sugars is inevitable.15
It is evident that the high content of lignin in the plant cell wall is
a major barrier to access the carbohydrate fraction of the cell wall,
which essentially requires pretreatment (higher chemical loadings
in conjunction with increased reaction time and temperature) and
higher cellulase loadings result in an uneconomic process.14,30
The costs of cellulolytic enzymes are high, and the required
amount of cellulases is also high, which increases processing
costs. The removal of lignin increases accessibility to cellulose and
allows more amenability of cellulase to the carbohydrate skeleton
of plant cell wall.15 The low content of ash (1.4%) in SB was found
to be highly advantageous over other agricultural residues such
as rice straw (17.5% ash) or wheat straw (11.0% ash).4


An effective pretreatment is to expose the cellulosics by removal of lignin or hemicellulose to improve the overall hydrolysis
efficiency.20 In addition to pretreatment, an effective cellulolytic

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

enzyme cocktail, the amount of enzyme loading, hydrolyzing

conditions and the nature of lignocellulosic material are critical
parameters for maximum hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material.15
Substantial increase in lignin removal and hemicellulose depolymerization into simpler sugars has often been reported with
pretreated substrate.19 Among classical methods for pretreatment
of lignocellulosic materials, alkaline hydrolysis (NaOH, Na2 SO3 ,
NH4 OH etc.), biological treatment (growth of white rot fungi or
delignifying microorganisms over the lignocellulosic residues), and
acidic pretreatments (HCl, H2 SO4 , H3 PO4 , oxalic acid, formic acid,
etc.) have been known to either depolymerise the hemicellulosic
fraction of cell wall into simpler monomeric constituents or remove the lignin.20 Pretreatment is required to make the cellulosics
more amenable to further cellulase mediated hydrolytic reactions.
Pretreated SB has also been utilized as an inert support material
for fungal biomass in the solid-state fermentation process7,21 and
as an immobilization carrier.22 The mechanistic application of
pretreated SB impregnated with suitable liquid media provides
homogenous aerobic conditions throughout the bioreactor, which
in turn will yield high product titers with relatively high purity after
the completion of a cultivation cycle.22
The acidic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates degrades
the hemicellulose fraction into a variety of sugar monomers
(xylose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose) in addition
to fermentation inhibitors (furfurals, phenolics, and weak acids).
These inhibitory substances must be eliminated from the
hydrolysates prior to fermentation to improve the yield of desirable
products.9,23 Alkali-based pretreatments and bio-delignification
methods remove the lignin, leaving cellulose and hemicellulose.
The pretreated material can then be hydrolyzed into simpler sugars
using a cellulolytic enzyme cocktail. The cellulolytic cocktail should
contain sufficient amounts of exoglucanase, endoglucanase,
-glucosidase, and other ancillary enzymes required for the

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry



Table 1.

Hydrolytic efficiency of chemically pretreated sugarcane bagasse followed by enzymatic saccharification

Pretreatment conditions

Enzymatic loadings

NaOH treatment (10% NaOH, 90 C, S : L=1 : 3, 1.5 h) + per

acetic acid (10%, 2.5 h, 75 C)
Cellulose dissolution by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide
(NMMO) (5%w/w bagasse/NMMO, 130 C, 1 h)
SO2 catalyzed steam pre-treatment (2% SO2 , 190 C,
5 min)
Peroxide-alkaline pre-treatment (2% H2 O2 , 0.5% MgSO4 ,
60 C, 16 h, pH 11.6)
Phosphoric acid (10 min, 160190 C, 1% H3 PO4 ,
Calcium hydroxide
Formic acid (60% v/v formic acid, 0.6% H2 SO4 , 121 C,
90 min)
Steam explosion

AK Chandel et al.

Hydrolysis efficiency


15 FPU g1



5 FPU g1



2.32 g of Celluclast 1.5L and 0.52 g

of Novozyme 188
10 FPU g1





81 1 g L1 total sugars


392.8 mg total sugars g1 bagasse


0.791 g sugars g1 bagasse




100 FPU g1 dry weight

3.5 FPU g1 FPU, 1.0 IU g1 beta
3.5 IU mL1 FPU; 4.0 IU mL1 beta
glucosidase; 75 IU mL1 CMCase

Based on dry weight of total carbohydrate content available in substrate.

Table 2.

Applications of SB in ethanol production using different microorganisms under various cultivation conditions

Hydrolysate composition (g L1 )
Glucose, 7.3; Xylose, 65.9; Galactose,
2.2; Acetic acid, 5.9
Glucose, 3.5; Xylose, 25.8; Arabinose
2.4; Acetic Acid 4.6
Glucose, 9.1; Xylose, 42.8; Galactose,
2.3; Arabinose, 4.6; Acetic acid, 0.8
Glucan, 41.63%; Xylan, 17.24%;
Arabinan, 0.68%
Xylose, 21.5; Arabinose, 2.95;
Glucose, 5.84
Glucose, 50.9; Xylose 33.1
Simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation (SiSF), Glucose,
80 g L1


Fermentation conditions


E. coli MM160

37 C, pH: 6.5, 150 rpm, 24 h

29.0 g L


Candida tropicalis JH030

30 C, pH: 6.0, 100 rpm, 24 h

3.2 g L1


Pachysolen tannophilus DW06

30 C, pH: 5 150 rpm

0.34 g g1


S. cerevisiae D5A

30 C, pH: 4.8, 200 rpm, 48 h

23 g 100 g1 biomass


C. shehatae NCIM 3501

30 C, 150 rpm, 24 h

0.48 g g1 , 8.67 g L1

S. cerevisiae 424A LNH-ST

Zymomonas mobilis

30 C, 150 rpm, 120 h

Enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 C, 12 h
and fermentation at 30 C, pH: 5.5

33.7 g L1
60 g L1


efficient breakdown of polysaccharides present in the cell

walls of lignocellulosics.15,19 The effects of different enzyme
loadings on the hydrolysis efficiency of SB after pretreatments
at different conditions are being summarized in Table 1. Different
enzyme loadings are required to maximum hydrolysis of SB after
pretreatment under different conditions.


SB has long been studied for industrial applications, including
ethanol production. Theoretically, a single ton of SB could yield up
to 300 L of ethanol.11 However, there are several parameters that
directly affect ethanol yield, such as the quality of bagasse and the
process employed for ethanol production.11 It has been predicted
that 12 000 to 15 000 L ethanol ha1 could be produced if
the sugarcane juice and bagasse were processed for ethanol
production.11,12 This amount could be even higher if SL was
employed in the process.12 Both enzymatic and acidic hydrolysates
of SB have been employed for ethanol production using different


Ethanol production
(g L1 or g g1 )

ethanologenic strains (Pichia stipitis, Candida shehatae, Pachysolen

tanophillus, native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
recombinant Escherichia coli, and Zymomonas mobilis) under
various cultivation techniques.10 Table 2 summarizes ethanol
production from SB hydrolysates using different microorganisms.
The ethanol production and yield may vary depending upon the
process and the conditions used for fermentation as well as the
microbial strain used in the conversion.4
Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous
saccharification and fermentation (SSF) have been implemented
using SB for ethanol production.19 Santos et al.34 obtained maximum cellulose-to-ethanol conversions (60%) with volumetric
productivity 0.290.30 g L1 h1 in pre-saccharification assisted
SSF from SB.
In this study, SB was first treated with acid using H2 SO4
(1% (v/v), solid/liquid ratio 1 : 2) at 121 C for 30 min followed
by separation of solid biomass (cellulignin) which was again
treated with NaOH (4% (v/v), solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20) at
121 C for 30 min. Afterwards, the treated solution was used
for SSF. Ferreira et al.35 carried out SSF for ethanol production
using a recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring a -glucosidase gene

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Bio-industrial benefits of sugarcane bagasse and leaves

Table 3.


Utilization of SB for production of industrial enzymes under varying cultivation conditions


Mode of cultivation

Product titers (g L1 or g g1 )


Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1

A. heteromorphus
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
Rhizopus homothallicus
B. licheniformis KBR6
Penicillium viridicatum RFC3
Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571


36.38 5.38 U g1 dry material

2.9 IU mL1
67.4 U mL1
826 U g1 dry material
0.56 0.03 U mL1
300 U g1 substrate
391.9 U g1 dry material


Pectate lyase

and obtained 60 g L1 ethanol production. However, studies on

consolidated bioprocesses using SB for ethanol production have
yet to be conducted.
Dias et al.12 suggested the importance of process integration
in sugarcane processing mills. Under thermal integration, SB was
hydrolyzed in an organosolv process catalyzed by dilute acid
and then utilized for conventional production of ethanol from
sugarcane juice. These studies revealed the use of SB and lignin as
auxiliary fuels to fulfill the energy demands of the biorefinery. In
addition, Ojeda et al.13 reported a case study where a simulation
of process integration was used to compare biorefinery inputs and
outputs considering the residual biomass produced by the sugaralcohol industries, and reported the highest ethanol yield (169.3 L
ton1 of SB) in an integrated process (organosolv + simultaneous
saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF).
D-xylitol is another value-added product that can be produced
from SB/SL by microbial fermentation to cater for its large demand
in food and pharmaceutical industries.36,37 It is a five carbon sugar
alcohol that is naturally found in various fruits and vegetables. Due
to its anti-carcinogenicity, tooth rehardening and remineralization
properties, D-xylitol has been widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry, odontological formulations, and in food industries.37
Being a sugar substitute, xylitol has been used in dietary foods
especially for insulin-deficiency patients.36,37 The fermentative
production of xylitol is possible from hemicellulosic hydrolysates
of SB. The acid hydrolysates of SB primarily contain xylose sugar.
Other sugars like arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose are
also present in very low concentrations, along with inhibitors
such as furans, phenolics, and weak acids. It is necessary to eliminate fermentation inhibitors from the hemicellulosic hydrolysates
prior to fermentation. Several physical (evaporation, membrane
separation), chemical (calcium hydroxide overliming, activated
charcoal and/or ion-exchange adsorption), and biological methods (microbial or enzymatic treatments) have been applied to
eliminate fermentation inhibitors.9,23 Yeast species (mainly Candida sp.) have been known to produce xylitol from pentose-rich SB
hydrolysates as reviewed by Prakasham et al.37 SB has also been
found an excellent carrier for entrapping Candida guilliermondii
cells for the continuous production of xylitol.22 Semi-continuous
production of xylitol was also attempted by Carvalho et al.38 using calcium-alginate-entrapped C. guilliermondii FTI 20 037 cells
growing on SB hydrolysate, which showed improved xylitol production (g L1 ) 25.9, 46.8, and 48.7 after three consecutive cycles
of fermentation. SB has been reported on multiple occasions in
research and development as potential substrate for xylitol production, however, the industrial output of xylitol from SB is yet to

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Industrial enzymes
SB has been used for the production of industrial enzymes
such as xylanase, cellulase, amylase, and laccase by certain
bacteria and fungi, employing solid-state fermentation (SSF) or
submerged fermentation (SmF) systems. Table 3 shows that SB
has been utilized for production of various enzymes under SSF
or SmF conditions. Among others, cellulase and xylanase have
been studied extensively for production from SB.5,40 Singhania
et al.46 compared cellulase production from SB with production
from other lignocellulosic materials such as wheat bran, cassava
bagasse, and rice straw under SSF by Trichoderma reesei NRRL
11 460. The maximum production of cellulase (154.58 U gds1 )
was reported from SB, followed by wheat bran, cassava bagasse,
and rice straw. The cost of cellulase plays a vital role in the success of
biorefineries. A potential technology has yet to be investigated that
can provide a feasible approach to the cost-effective production
of cellulase with high titers.


SB has also been explored for the production of various organic
acids (citric acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, etc.) using different
cultivation techniques and with a variety of microorganisms.
Borges and Pereira49 employed SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate
for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Singh
et al.48 used SB as an inert support for the growth of fungi
Aspergillus niger mycelium for gluconic acid production under SSF
and a semi-solid state fermentation (SmSF) system with a stabilized
mutant strain ORS-4.410. A plant hormone, gibberellic acid (GA),
was produced under SSF conditions by Gibberella fujikuroi, NRRL
2278 using SB. An excellent growth of biomass was observed, but
only a trace amount of GA was noted during the fermentation
Apart from ethanol, xylitol, enzymes, and organic acids, SB has
been employed to make other value-added products of commercial interest such as antibiotics, animal feed, biohydrogen,
alkaloids, and pigments.4 Nampoothiri and Pandey50 used SB to
produce L-glutamic acid and reported a yield of 80 mg L1 glutamic acid g1 dry bagasse under an SSF system. The production
of a single-cell protein with Candida langeronii RLJY-019 using SB
has also been established under SmF cultivation.53 SB has been
employed as an alternative packing material for biofiltration of
benzene-polluted gaseous streams. Maximum elimination of benzene was observed using 3.50 and 3.80 gm3 packing material h1
with raw and ground SB.52 A summary of various other value-added
products of commercial significance is provided in Table 4. SB has

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry



Table 4.

AK Chandel et al.

Production of value added products of commercial interest from SB under various cultivation conditions

Organic acids


Lactic acid, acetic acid,

formic acid, ethanol
Gluconic acid
Succinic acid
L-glutamic acid
Penicillin G
Single-cell protein

Lactococcus lactis IO-1


A. niger ORS- 4.410

Actinobacillus succinogenes
Brevibacterium sp.
A. niger van Tieghem
Penicillium chrysogenum P2-4
Candida langeronii RLJ Y-019


Red pigment

Penicillium sp. NIOM-02


the potential for strong commercialization. Despite this, no significant approach has been developed to harness its commercial
potential as a raw substrate. The molecular elements of microbial
metabolism using SB have not been established, which may assist
in efficient utilization of SB for products of commercial interest.

SB has also been used in conventional applications, including as a
cheaper source of energy. Burning it in boilers for steam generation
is the most common application in sugar and alcohol producing
industries.4 Apart from steam generation, SB plays major roles
in the electricity generation and pulp and paper production
industries.55 In one study, SB was fractionated into cellulose,
hemicellulose, and lignin by a proprietary steam explosion process,
followed by downstream purification, revealing that SB can be
utilized to produce high-value plastics.56 In another potential
application, Ou et al.57 studied phenolic acids that were released
from SB by alkaline hydrolysis at 30 C and purified with anion
exchange resin. The main component of the purified bagasse
hydrolysate was revealed to be p-coumaric acid rather than
ferulic acid. This purified product showed the same antioxidant
activity, reducing power, and free radical scavenging capacity
as the standard p-coumaric acid. In another attempt, SB was
anaerobically digested to produce methane,55 and the digested
residue and fresh bagasse were pyrolyzed separately into biochar
at 600 C in a nitrogen environment. This study suggests that
efficient use of SB under anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis to
produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally
beneficial use of agricultural wastes.55
In a different application of SB, Gonzalez et al.58 developed a
novel process for synthesis of diverse nanometric materials (silica
oxide) with specific crystal arrays as precursors to agro-industrial
wastes by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida).
In road transportation, it is a challenge to develop low-emission
vehicles with high specific power dealing with specific energy.
Super capacitors, or electrochemical double-layer capacitors, are
a promising high-power technology that can meet peak power
demands in fuel cell electric vehicles. Rufford et al.59 studied the
characterization and electrochemical performance of activated
carbons prepared by the ZnCl2 activation of sugarcane bagasse.
Their study showed that SB carbons prepared with a ZnCl2 ratio
of 3.5 were the most stable electrochemical performer at fast
chargedischarge rates.59


Product titers (g L1 or g g1 )

Fermentation conditions

10.85 g L1 , acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid,

6.04 and ethanol, 5.24
106.5 g dm3 (94.7% yield)
22.5 g L1
80 mg glutamic acid g1 dry bagasse
2.95 mg g1 dry substrate
7000 g g1 bagasse
48.2, 1.4, 5.8 and 23.4% of total protein,
DNA, RNA and carbohydrate
Red Pigment scavenged 91% 2, 2
di-phenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl radicals


SB has been explored in many other applications, including the

removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater, as reviewed by Wan
Ngah and Hanafiah.60 These proven non-biological applications
suggest that SB could play a pivotal role in best economic
utilization, as it is abundantly available in nature as a renewable,
cheap, and widespread residue in tropical countries. Therefore, it
is important to point out that in the developing world, SB is the
raw material for 20% of total paper production. In the entire world,
10% of all the available bagasse is used for paper production

SL has yet to be explored for biological processes. The cell
walls of SL are composed of 57.5% carbohydrate, demonstrating
the potential for the bioconversion of products of commercial
significance, including ethanol as biofuel. However, the abundance
of lignin (36.1%) and silica (6.96%) may limit the industrial
and veterinary acceptability of SL.61 Regardless of the complex
chemical composition of its cell wall, SL was hydrolyzed by sulfuric
acid at varying temperatures, acid loads, hydrolysis times, and
solid : liquid ratios in a fractional factorial and central composite
design. The optimal conditions at 130 C with 2.9% w/v H2 SO4 ,
solid : liquid ratio (1 : 10) for 30 min residence time allowed
formation of xylose (56.5 g L1 ), corresponding to a recovery
of 85.1% from the hemicellulosic fraction of SL (Moutta et al.,
unpublished work). Krishna et al.6 reported ethanol production
(2% w/v) from SL employing SSF with cellulases from Trichoderma
reesei QM 9414 and S. cerevisiae NRRL-Y-132. Ferreira-Leitao et al.18
evaluated the saccharification of SL into glucose (97.2% theoretical
yield) after pretreatment with steam at 220 C for 5 min. Silva
et al.62 reported enzymatic hydrolysis yield of glucose (77.6%)
and xylose (56.8%) based upon the total structural carbohydrates
present in ball milled pretreated sugarcane leaves straw and this
sugar solution when fermented by S. cerevisiae showed 91.8%
ethanol yield under submerged fermentation conditions.
Another study of enzymatic digestibility (9598%) by the coordinated action of cellulases and hemicellulases was conducted
using SL.8 The released sugars were converted into ethanol by
S. cerevisiae 424A LNH-ST with appreciable ethanol concentration
(3436 g L1 ) and yield (92%). Singh et al.7 processed dried SL
after microbial pretreatment for the reduction of C : N ratio in
conjunction with cellulase production by selective bioagents
including fungi and bacteria. Microbial pretreatment of sugarcane

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Bio-industrial benefits of sugarcane bagasse and leaves

Table 5.


Factors and procedural steps governing the commercialization of SB/ST with respect to impact on cost incurred

Mode of

Procedural steps involved

Cultivation type



Mild pretreatment, washing

Industrial enzymes, organic acids,

pigments, antibiotics etc.


Auto hydrolysis, Pretreatment with

dilute acid, detoxification
Alkaline, biological pretreatment,
enzymatic hydrolysis

Solid state fermentation (SSF) or

submerged fermentation (SmF)
or their modifications


Mild pretreatment, washing

SHF (Separate hydrolysis and

Simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation (SiSF)
Consolidated bio-processing (CBP)

Mild pretreatment


Impact on cost

Xylitol, ethanol, 2, 3 butanediol,

single cell protein


Microbial cells attached on

pretreated SB
Dye decolorization


Impact on cost incurred in the process: + moderate, ++ considerable, +++ strong.

trash caused the reduction in C : N ratio from 108 : 1 to a varying

range of approximately 42 : 1 to 60 : 1. The maximum 61% reduction in C : N ratio was achieved with Aspergillus terreus, followed
by Cellulomonas uda (52%), Trichoderma reesei, and Zymomonas
mobilis (49%). These microorganisms were also able to produce
in situ cellulase by triggering the degradation of sugarcane trash.
Maximum cellulase production came from A. terreus (12-fold),
followed by C. uda (10-fold), Cellulomonas cartae (9-fold), and
Bacillus macerans (8-fold).7 Saad et al.63 reported the impact
of fungal pretreatment of sugarcane leaf straw for organosolv
pulping resulting in 40% reduction in lignin, which ameliorated
2.4-fold cellulose degradation after enzymatic hydrolysis.
Sugarcane trash (SL+Tops) was used for ammonium carboxylate
production under long-term air-lime pretreatment/mixed-culture
fermentation using marine microorganisms.64 The study revealed
over 75% production of ammonium acetate by a mixed culture
of marine microorganisms at 55 C. In another study,65 ST was
amended for the vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge
by epigeic Eisenia fetida, showing their optimum growth by
reducing organic matter (12.7%) and simultaneously mitigating
the metal toxicity of sludge. Jayasinghe et al.66 attempted to
improve the growth and nutrition of lettuce using ST-based
sewage sludge. These studies promote the utilization of ST-based
growth medium in horticulture as an alternative to the widely
used and expensive peat. Roopashree et al.67 evaluated the
potency of ST as compost under field conditions using chilli as
the test crop. The results revealed that combining trash compost
with chemical fertilizers on a 50% basis was helpful in improving
the growth and yield of green chillies (10.757 to 12.627 ton ha1 )
compared with applying ST alone (8.44 to 10.239 tone ha1 ).
Among products of commercial significance, Mane et al.68
exploited ST for oxalic acid production (42.951.6% w/w) using
a nitric oxide oxidation process. SL was explored for the
development of a low-density biomass gasification system for
thermal applications,69 and the efficacy of this system was
assessed for more than 700 h ex situ, generating output levels
of 2881080 MJ h1 . Rossy et al.70 attempted to develop an
essence of SL through a spraying and freeze-drying procedure,
and found that this essence improved the taste of flavored calcium
supplements, food, beverages, chewing gums, and oral care
products. In another promising application, the Appropriate Rural

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Technology Institute (ARTI) developed a technology for producing

briquetted charcoal from ST (http://www.arti-india.org).

Bio-products derived from SB/ST are considered a breakthrough to
replace chemically synthesized products in industries. In particular,
they offer tremendous opportunities for chemical industries to
develop unique functionality and marketing benefits due to their
sustainability, eco-friendly assessment and their vast availability in
nature.71 Looking at the copious amount of SB and ST in the world
and their practical feasibility for the production of value-added
products, this feedstock can be referred as biological or green
currency. Therefore, the importance of SB/ST as a sustainable
source of energy or other valuable products has become a subject
of intense research and commercial interest.4,10,12,71 However,
the market for white biotechnology based products including SB
and ST appears to be small (34%) on a global industry scale.71
Despite the socio-economic advantages, environmental benefits
and technological developments, entrepreneurs are hesitant to
invest in agro-based biotechnology units. Recently, corporate
business has shown their interest in biofuels promotion with
limited investment in research. Table 5 highlights the cost decisive
factors of various other applications of SB and ST
The bioconversion of SB/ST into value-added products such as
xylitol, organic acids, and industrial enzymes is profitable business
compared to ethanol production.4 In general, the cost of raw
material such as sugarcane and maize single handedly contributes
34% of the total cost of bioethanol production. Tabular data
(Table 6) reveals that the cost of biomass and cellulases has
maximum impact (nearly 70%) on bioethanol production. The
total cost of bioethanol production from SB/ST can be brought
down if combined approaches like cellulase production, hydrolysis
and fermentation of released sugars into ethanol can be merged
in a single unit. Traditional challenges such as detoxification and
recovery of sugars, etc. will remain part of the process for ethanol
production. Dias et al.12 performed a process simulation study
in which bioethanol was produced from sugarcane juice and SB
after pretreatment with an organosolv process with dilute acid
hydrolysis in a process integration using multi-pressure distillation
columns allowing cost reduction of hot utilities requirements. ST

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry



Table 6. Cost wise impact of main factors on bioethanol production

from sugarcane bagasse (Source: Viikari72 )
Feed handling
Saccharification and fermentation
Distillation and solid recovery
Wastewater treatment

Cost incurred (%)


and lignin can be utilized as auxillary fuels to fulfill the energy

requirements of biorefinery with hydrolysis. Despite the ongoing
efforts, a joint venture of research and policy is required to
develop the cost-effective production of industrially important


The byproducts generated during agro-industrial processing of
sugarcane, SB and SL, constitute potential sources of carbohydrates that can be used to generate valuable products of
commercial interest. Bio-industrial applications appear to provide
sustainable, economic, environmental, and strategic advantages,
with breakthroughs in micro-biotechnology offering huge potential opportunities. SB has already been successfully converted into
many value-added products such as ethanol, xylitol, organic acids,
industrial enzymes, and other important specialty chemicals, as
summarized in Fig. 2. Scaling up to the pilot scale, however, is still
a necessity. Such a step forward in the developing world would be
highly rewarding. For instance, it has already been foreseen that
16 times more energy could be produced if the entire sugarcane
plant were used by the alcohol industry, including SB in the process. The energy generation could be increased even more if SL
were added to the processing cycle.
The increasing price of gasoline may be remedied by SB-derived
biofuel in the near future. In the sugar- and alcohol-producing
industries, integration of process operations like hydrolysis,
detoxification, fermentation, and distillation would be an effective
strategy to maximize the efficient utilization of raw substrates.
Currently, SB is mostly burned in boilers as a cheaper source
of energy. The available technology for bioethanol production
from SB polysaccharides cannot afford a competitive price for
second-generation ethanol. Therefore, alternative processes to
convert SB and SL/ST into value-added products of commercial
significance such as xylitol, enzymes, organic acids, antibiotics, and
single-cell protein would contribute to economizing the entire

2008/57926-4 and 2010/11258-0) and CNPq for financial support.
The authors also thank Dr Ellen C. Giese for critical reading of the
manuscript and valuable suggestions.


AK Chandel et al.


1 Hatti-Kaul R, Tornvall
U, Gustafsson L and Borjesson
P, Industrial
biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals a cradleto-grave perspective. Trends Biotechnol 25:119124 (2007).
2 Somerville C, Youngs H, Taylor C, Davis SC and Long SP, Feedstocks
for lignocellulosic biofuels. Science 329:790792 (2010).
3 Chandel AK and Singh OV, Weedy lignocellulosic feedstock and
microbial metabolic engineering: advancing the generation of
biofuel. Appl Microb Biotechnol 89:12891303 (2011).
4 Pandey A, Soccol CR, Nigam P and Soccol VT, Biotechnological
potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse.
Bioresource Technol 74:6980 (2000).
5 Parameswaran B, Sugarcane bagasse. in Biotechnology for AgroIndustrial Residues Utilization, ed. by Nigam P and Pandey A.
Springer, Netherlands (2009).
6 Krishna SH, Prasanthi K, Chowdary GV and Ayyanna C, Simultaneous
saccharification and fermentation of pretreated sugarcane leaves
to ethanol. Process Biochem 33:825830 (1998).
7 Singh P, Suman A, Tiwari P, Arya N, Gaur A and Shrivastava AK,
Biological pretreatment of sugarcane trash for its conversion to
fermentable sugars. WorldJMicrobiolBiotechnol 24:667673 (2008).
8 Krishnan C, Sousa LC, Jin M, Chang L, Dale BE and Balan V, Alkalibased AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse
and cane leaf residues to ethanol. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:441450
9 Chandel AK, Kapoor RK, Singh AK and Kuhad RC, Detoxification of
sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by
Candida shehatae NCIM 3501. Bioresource Technol 98:19471950
10 Soccol CR, Vandenberghe LPS, Medeiros ABP, Karp SG, Buckeridge MS, Ramos LP, Pitarelo AP, Ferreira-Leitao V, Gottschalk LMF,
Ferrara MA, Bon EPS, Moraes LMP, Araujo
JA and Torres FAG,
Bioethanol from lignocelluloses: status and perspectives in Brazil.
Bioresource Technol 101:48204825 (2010).
11 Cerqueira-Leite RC, Leal MRLVL, Cortez L, Griffin WM and Scandiffio MIG, Can Brazil replace 5% of the 2025 gasoline world demand
with ethanol? Energy 34:655661 (2009).
12 Dias MOS, et al, Production of bioethanol and other bio-based
materials from sugarcane bagasse: integration to conventional
bioethanol production process. Chem Eng Res Design 87:12061216

13 Ojeda K, Avila
O, Suarez J and Kafaro V, Evaluation of technological
alternatives for process integration of sugarcane bagasse for
sustainable biofuels production Part 1. Chem Eng Res Design
89:270279 (2010).
14 Chandel AK, Singh OV, Chandrasekhar G, Rao LV and Narasu ML,
Key-drivers influencing the commercialization of ethanol based
biorefineries. J Comm Biotechnol 16:239257 (2010).
15 Zhao X, Peng F, Cheng K and Liu D, Enhancement of the enzymatic
digestibility of sugarcane bagasse by alkali-peracetic acid
pretreatment. Enzyme Microb Technol 44:1723 (2009).
16 Canilha L, Santos VTO, Rocha GJM, Silva JBM and Giulietti M, A study
on the pretreatment of a sugarcane bagasse sample with dilute
sulfuric acid. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:14671475 (2011).
17 Hatfield R and Fukushima RS, Can lignin be accurately measured? Crop
Sci 45:832839 (2005).
18 Ferreira-Leitao V, Perrone CC, Rodrigues J, Franke APM, Macrelli S and
Zacchi G, An approach to the utilization of CO2 as impregnating
agent in steam pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and leaves for
ethanol production. Biotechnol Biofuels 3:18 (2010).
19 Chandel AK, Chan ES, Rudravaram R, Narasu ML, Rao LV and Ravidra P,
Economics and environmental impact of bioethanol production
technologies: an appraisal. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 2:1432 (2007).
20 Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ and Stroeve P, Methods for
pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and
biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:37133729 (2009).
21 Pandey A, Selvakumar P, Soccol CR and Nigam P, Solid state
fermentation for the production of industrial enzymes. Curr Sci
77:149162 (1999).
22 Santos DT, Sarrouh BF, Rivaldi JD, Converti A and Silva SS, Use of
sugarcane bagasse as biomaterial for cell immobilization for xylitol
production. J Food Eng 86:542548 (2008).
23 Parawira W and Tekere M, Biotechnological strategies to overcome
inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates for ethanol production:
review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 31:2031 (2011).

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

Bio-industrial benefits of sugarcane bagasse and leaves

24 Kuo CH and Lee CK, Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatment.
Bioresource Technol 100:866871 (2009).
25 Carrasco C, Baudel HM, Sendelius J, Modig T, Roslander C, Galbe M,
G, SO2 -catalyzed steam
Hahn-Hagerdal B, Zacchi G and Liden
pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed
sugarcane bagasse. Enzyme Microb Technol 46:6473 (2010).
26 Monte JR, Brienzo M and Milagres AMF, Utilization of pineapple
stem juice to enhance enzyme-hydrolytic efficiency for sugarcane
bagasse after an optimized pre-treatment with alkaline peroxide.
Appl Energy 88:403408 (2011).
27 Geddes CC, Mullinnix MT, Nieves IU, Peterson JJ, Hoffman RW,
York SW, Yomano LP, Miller EN, Shanmugam KT and Ingram LO,
Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane
bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160.
Bioresource Technol 102:27022711 (2011).
28 Rabelo SC, Filho RM and Costa AC, Lime pretreatment of sugarcane
bagasse for bioethanol production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol
153:139150 (2009).
29 Sindhu R, Binod P, Satyanagalakshmi K, Janu KU, Sajna KV, Kurien N,
Sukumaran RK and Pandey A, Formic acid as a potential
pretreatment agent for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to
bioethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162:23132323 (2010).
30 Adsul MG, Ghule JE, Shaikh H, Singh R, Bastawde KB, Gokhale DV
and Varma AJ, Enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified bagasse
polysaccharides. Carbohyd Polym 62:610 (2005).
31 Huang CF, Jiang YF, Guo GL and Hwang WS, Development of a yeast
strain for xylitol production without hydrolysate detoxification
as part of the integration of co-product generation within the
lignocellulosic ethanol process. BioresourceTechnol 102:33223329
32 Cheng KK, Cai BY, Zhang JA, Ling HZ, Zhou YJ, Ge JP and Xu JM,
Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for ethanol
production by acid recovery process. Biochem Eng J 38:105109
33 Aita GA, Salvi DA and Walker MS, Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol
fermentation of dilute ammonia pretreated energy cane.
Bioresource Technol 102:44444448 (2011).
34 Santos DS, Camelo AC, Rodrigues KCP, Carlos LC and Pereira N,
Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse by Zymomonas mobilis
using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol 161:93105 (2010).
35 Ferreira V, Faber MO, Mesquita SS and Jr NP, Simultaneous
saccharification and fermentation process of different cellulosic
substrates using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae
harbouring the -glucosidase gene. Electron J Biotechnol 13:17
36 Carvalho W, Canilha L and Silva SS, Semi-continuous xylose-to-xylitol
bioconversion by Ca-alginate entrapped yeast cells in a stirred tank
reactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 31:493498 (2008).
37 Prakasham RS, Rao RS and Hobbs PJ, Current trends in
biotechnological production of xylitol and future prospects. Curr
Trends Biotechnol Pharm 3:836 (2009).
38 Carvalho W, Canilha L and Silva SS, Semi-continuous xylitol bioproduction in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate: effect of nutritional
supplementation. Braz J Pharm Sci 43:4753 (2007).
39 Camassola M and Dillon AJ, Cellulases and xylanases production by
Penicillium echinulatum grown on sugarcane bagasse in solid-state
fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162:18891900 (2010).
40 Singh A, Bajar S, Bishnoi NR and Singh N, Laccase production
by Aspergillus heteromorphus using distillery spent wash and
lignocellulosic biomass. J Hazard Mater 176:10791082 (2010).
41 Rajagopalan G and Krishnan C, Alpha-amylase production from
catabolite derepressed Bacillus subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane
bagasse hydrolysate. Bioresource Technol 99:30443050 (2008).
42 Rodriguez JA, Mateos JC, Nungaray J, Gonzalez V, Bhagnagar T,
Roussos S, Cordova J and Baratti J, Improving lipase production
by nutrient source modification using Rhizopus homothallicus
cultured in solid state fermentation. Process Biochem 41:22642269
(2006[My). p.
43 Mohapatra PKD, Mondal KC and Pati BR, Production of tannase by the
immobilized cells of Bacillus licheniformis KBR6 in Ca-alginate beads.
J Appl Microbiol 102:14621467 (2007).
44 Ferreira V, da Silva R, Silva D and Gomes E, Production of pectate
lyase by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 in solid-state and submerged
fermentation. Int J Microbiol 2010:18 (2010).

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)

45 Mazutti MA, Zabot G, Boni G, Skovronski A, Oliveira D de, Luccio MD,
Rodrigues MI, Treichel H and Maugeri F, Optimization of inulinase
production by solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.
J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85:109114 (2006).
46 Singhania RR, Sukumaran RK, Pillai A, Prema P, Szakacs G and
Pandey A, Solid-state fermentation of lignocellulosic substrate
for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei NRRL 11460. Ind
J. Biotechnol 5:332336 (2006).
47 Laopaiboon P, Thani A, Leelavatcharamas V and Laopaiboon L, Acid
hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.
Bioresource Technol 101:10361043 (2010).
48 Singh OV, Jain RK and Singh RP, Gluconic acid production under
varying fermentation conditions by Aspergillus niger. J Chem Technol
Biotechnol 78:208212 (2003).
49 Borges ER and Pereira N Jr, Succinic acid production from sugarcane
bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:10011011 (2010).
50 Nampoothiri KM and Pandey A, Solid state fermentation for L-glutamic
acid production using Brevibacteriumsp. BiotechnolLett 18:199204
51 Hasan HAH, Production and determination of nigerloxin by Aspergillus
niger. Int J Agric Biol 9:315318 (2007).
52 Domnguez M, Meja A and Revah S, Barrios-Gonzalez J. Optimization
of bagasse, nutrients and initial moisture ratios on the yield of
penicillin in solid-state fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol
17:751756 (2001).
53 Nigam JN, Cultivation of Candida langeronii in sugarcane bagasse
hemicellulosic hydrolyzate for the production of single cell protein.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:367372 (2000).
54 Dhale MA and Vijay-Raj AS, Pigment and amylase production in
Penicillium sp NIOM-02 and its radical scavenging activity. Int J Food
Sci Technol 44:24242430 (2009).
55 Inyang M, Gao B, Pullammanappallil P, Ding W and Zimmerman AR,
Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource
Technol 101:88688872 (2010).
56 Shaikh HM, Pandare KV, Nair G and Varma AJ, Utilization of sugarcane
bagasse cellulose for producing cellulose acetates: novel use of
residual hemicellulose as plasticizer. Carbohyd Polym 76:2329
57 Ou SY, Luo YL, Huang CH and Jackson M, Production of coumaric acid
from sugarcane bagasse. Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol 10:253259
58 Gonzalez AE, Martnez-Hernandez AL, Chavez C, Castano VM and
Velasco-Santos C, Novel crystalline SiO2 nanoparticles via annelids
bio-processing of agro-industrial wastes. Nanoscale Res Lett
5:14081417 (2010).
59 Rufford TE, Hulicova-Jurcakova D, Khosla K, Zhu Z and Lu GQ,
Microstructure and electrochemical double-layer capacitance of
carbon electrodes prepared by zinc chloride activation of sugarcane
bagasse. J Power Sources 195:912918 (2010).
60 Wan Ngah WS and Hanafiah MA, Removal of heavy metal ions from
wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a
review. Bioresource Technol 99:39353948 (2008).
61 Patel M and Kumari P, Silicon carbide from sugarcane leaf and rice
straw. J Mater Sci Lett 9:375376 (1990).
62 Silva AS, Inoue H, Endo T, Yano S and Bon EPS, Milling pretreatment of
sugarcane bagasse and straw for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol
fermentation. Bioresource Technol 101:74027409 (2010).
63 Saad MBW, Oliveira LRM, Candido RG, Quintana G, Rocha GJM and
Goncalves AR, Preliminary studies on fungal treatment of sugarcane
straw for organosolv pulping. Enzyme Microb Technol 43:220225
64 Nachiappan B, Fu Z and Holtzapple MT, Ammonium carboxylate
production from sugarcane trash using long-term air-lime
pretreatment followed by mixed-culture fermentation. Bioresource
Technol 102:42104217 (2011).
65 Suthar S, Recycling of agro-industrial sludge through vermitechnology. Ecol Eng 36:10281036 (2010).
66 Jayasinghe GY, Tokashiki Y, Arachchi IDL and Arakaki M, Sewage
sludge sugarcane trash based compost and synthetic aggregates
as peat substitutes in containerized media for crop production.
J Hazard Mater 174:700706 (2010).
67 Roopashree DH, Joshi M, Lakshmi TB, Bai SK, Ramesha YM and
Krishnamurthy D, Effect of enriched sugarcane trash compost on
green chilli yield. Environ Ecol 27:16081611 (2009).

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry


68 Mane JD, Modak HM, Ramaiah NA and Jadhav SJ, Utilisation of
sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of
oxalic acid. Biol Wastes 25:17176 (1988).
69 Jorapur RM and Rajvanshi AK, Development of sugarcane leaves
gasifier for electricity generation. Biomass Bioenergy 8:918 (1995).
70 Rossy PA, Davidson RH, Miller KP, Warder IT, Schulman M, Pittet AO,
Bolen PL and Hawn RD. Use of spray-dried and freeze-dried
sugarcane leaf essence in improving taste of flavored calcium
supplements, foodstuffs, beverages, chewing gum, oral care


AK Chandel et al.

compositions and calcium supplement. United States Patent

6251463 (2001).
71 Nieuwenhuizen PJ and Lyon D, Anticipating opportunities in industrial
biotechnology: sizing the market and growth scenarios. J Comm
Biotechnol 17:159164 (2011).
72 Viikari L, Overcoming technical barriers in bioethanol production from
lignocellulosics. European-China Workshop on Liquid Biofuels 45
November, Beijing (2004).

c 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

J Chem Technol Biotechnol (2011)