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From the Digital to the Tentacular,

or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

FromtheDigitaltotheTentacular,
orFromiPodstoCephalopods:
Apps,Traps,andEntreswithoutExit

DanMellamphyandNanditaBiswasMellamphy
TheImaginaryApp(Cambridge:TheM.I.T.Press).

Octopusintelligenceisunstableonlyinappearance:
itsaboutfacesareatrap,thenetinwhich
itsadversariescometobeentangled.
MarcelDtienneandJeanPierreVernant,
LesrusesdeLIntlligence:LamtisdesGrecs.

Opennessisanonymousuntilnow:
theincognitumhactenusofthehunterwhoisalreadythere
eatingyou,weavingandunweavingyourthread.
RezaNegarestani,AGoodMeal.

TheonlyappsIlikearetheonesthatcomebeforemyentre.
LizLemon,30Rock.

Walkingortakingpublictransportationtowork,theauthorsofthisessay
inevitablypassbynumbersofpeopledoingthesame,albeitwiththeir
headstilteddownandtheirattentionfixatedonhandheld(soontobe
ocularand/orcraniallyimplanted)gadgets:inthiscasein2012,theyear
thispaperisandwaswritteniPods,iPads,AndroidTablets,cellphones,
etcetera.Thenumberofpeopleapparentlyproceedingthroughthecity
butinfactstillinthevirtualcelloftheirmonadologicalmonasteries

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:1 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

growsweekly.Theseindividualswiththeirattentionrapt/rapped/enraptured
byappsmonkstrappedinandbytheirtrappistappcell[phone]s,compulsively
consumingtheirhypertexttabletsareallalreadyalluredby,andinthealureof,
alure:eachmonk,monkscell[phone],trappisttabletandactiveappmightbest
beimagined(foreaseofexemplification)asthecellofasinglesuckeramongst
scadsmyriadsarrayedontheteemingtentaclesofacolossalcybernetic
cephalopod(aratherLovecraftianandin somerespectsFlusserianvision,
hearkeningherefirsttoHowardLovecraftsmonstrousCthulhu:anoctopus
likecreaturewhosefacewasamassoffeelers1innumerableflexibleand
undulatingmembers2whichextendlikethewavesofawirelessnetwork3into
everydimensionofotherwiseproperandprivatepeopleslives,andsecond
lytoVilmFlussersinfernalVampyroteuthis,acreatureofthegenusoctopo
daequippedwithnumerousantenn,tentacles,andothersensoryorgans
thataretheextremitiesofitsdigestiveapparatusanapparatuswhich
sucksintheenvironment).4InthisinfernalI.T.vision,5theappuser
getssuckedintoaseductive,tricky,truc6like,manytentacledtrap
andinthiswayappropriatedbytheapp,whichtakesonthecharacterof
whatMarcelDtienneandJeanPierreVernant,intheirstudyoftricks,traps
andcunningintelligence,calledthepolyplokonnomathetentacularsavvy
ofalivingtrap:unpigevivantexemplifiedagainbytheoctopusandoctopus

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:2 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

intelligence.7

Toapproachappsastrapswithtentacularsavvyisnotsimplyto

engageinhyperboleorfancy,butakinwewouldarguetoadoptinga
strategytakenbythemilitarywhenengagingwithasocalledasymmetrical
enemy:8anopponentthathasmanyguisesandthuscannotbereadilyordis
tinctlydiscerned.Appshavebecomeaspopularastheyareinpartbecause
theyareofferedtousasbenign,usefulandfriendlydevicesthatarethere
toserveus,toattendtoourneedsanddesires:ourvariousappetites.Wetend
tothinkofappsinsomesenseasappetizers(orifyouprefer,appritifs):
assinglefunction/singlepurpose/singleserviceapplicationswithcustom
interfacesdesignedtobeappetizing(thatis,stheticallyappealing),user
friendly9andbiopoliticallybeneficial.10Butappsareneverwhattheyseem
andcannotsimplybedefinedbytheirformalpropertiesorstheticcharacter
istics;appsarealwaysimbricatedinmechanismsthatallowhiddendatacollect
ing,informationprocessingandintelligenceexchangingoperations.Nomatter
howbenigntheymaybe,inthesystemofcapitalistconsumption,uploads
anddownloads,theyarepartofalargerpredatoryframework,andare
inthisrespectweaponizedfromtheoutset(allthemore/allthebetter
ifbenign).Theyaretheappealingandenticingentrapmentsthebait,
ifyouwillinandofacapitalistgameofcoursing,huntingand/ortrapping.

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:3 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Theappispartofthehuntertrapper/
trapperkeepermachine,amachine
thathuntsyoutheappuser,and
appropriatesyou(youridentity
oryouruserinformation:location,
destination,usagedurationandre
plication,communication,identification,
etcetera)intothearenaandconcourseofcapitalistcoursingorhunting.

Wethusapproachtheappnotfromtheperspectiveofitstechnical

definitionsorinstrumentaluses,butinsteadfromtheperspectiveofits
traplikeoperation:appsarehypercamouflaged11predatoryoperatives
intheirfunctionascovertcapitalistcapturingdevices.Fromthedigital,dis
crete,handsonperspectiveoftheuser,appsareappetizinghorsduvres
forthehumanalltoohumanconsumer.Butfromthetentacularperspective
oftheallembracing/allpervadingandappropriatingnetwork,theuseris
theuvreitselfratherthanhorsduvre,theentrewithnoexits(or
lui,lehuiscloswithrespecttotheapp);themaincourseistheindividual
appuserwhoisultimatelyappropriated,whosethoughtsandactions/activities
areconsumed/suckedup/uploaded.Whatmakestheappsubversiveriddled
withCthulhulikecreepiness,asLovecraftmightsayisitsinvolvementwith

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:4 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

abroadercapitalistcomplexmadeupofthemyriadoflittlehumansubjects
andthemyriadsofmicroprocessesthatcomposeit.12Whereasweuseapps
likeappliances,asiftheywereafridgefullofappetizersforinstance,andman
handleormanagethemthroughthemanipulativeintermediaryoftenfingers,13
appsuseusthroughtheirappalliance,thecapitalistreticulationandredistribu
tivenetworkofdynamicdataandofeverflowinginformationwhichapprehends
(indeedcomprehends)usnotbygraspingusviathelimbsofabygone
locomotiveorgan(humandigits)14butbysuckingin,soakingin,takingin
viateemingtentacles:theinfernalalternativesreticulated,tentacular,
andcyberneticallycontinuousratherthandigitallydiscretewhichcharacter
izethevampiresquidsofcapitalismasAndrewGoffeystates,paraphrasing
PhilippePignarreandIsabelleStengers.15Theappuser,likeTheWasteLands
PhnicianSailor,16tendstobeoblivioustothiscontinuousandcontinuously
suckingoctopoidstream,yetwillfindwithinitwithandinithisbones
pickedinwhispers,17hisorhereverydetaildevouredanddigested,app
ropriatedandabsorbedbyavampiricBorg18).Thisiswhytheanimal
mostappropriateto21stcenturycorporategovernanceisnotBehemoth
orLeviathanbuttheoctopuswhichsucksupourthoughts19(theoctopus
issuckingup20mythoughts,wroteFlusserinalettertohisfriendMiltonVargas,
explaininghisfascinationwiththissomewhatterrifyingtentacularcreature,

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:5 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

andinsodoingthegenesisofhistreatiseontheVampyroteuthisInfernalis).21

Currentdaycapitalismand21stcenturycorporategovernance22

recapitulatesinmanyrespectsthefoundingOlympianmythofMtis,mother
andmatriarchofmagicconjuration,cunningand[Love]craftiness:traitsencom
passedinthewilywordmtis,atermassociatedwithmagic,magictricks,and
indeedallthingstricky23(themagicofcunningintelligencethisthemeof
dlos[i.e.ofdeceit]:atonceruse,trapandmagicalbind[and/orlink:
lienmagique]).24Themagicofmtisorcunningdeceitisofcoursesubjectto
andtheobjectofthethirdofthethreelawsinClarkesProfilesoftheFuture,
butrephrasedinthelanguageoftrickery:i.e.itisbutanoutmaneuveringin
advance,anadvancedcunningtechnique(theincogitumhactenus
[hithertounknown]ofthehunterwhoisalreadythere25),whichappearsas
aworkofmagictothosenotyetuptospeedwith,26andyetinthegripof,
itscaptivatingandcapturingkairos(therealtimeofitsinstantaneityandapp
arentubiquity).27Mtis,inGreekmyth,isakindofCthulhu:titanic,terrifying,
polytropic(fulloftricks/trickyturns)andpolymtic(fullofguile/manywiles);
sheisthechthonictitanthatthecaptain/archcapitalistofOlymposapp
roached,appropriated,andultimatelyabsorbedthatis,madehisconcu
bineandthenpromptlyconsumed.28ThecolossalCthulhu(tentaculartitan)
ofLovecrafts1930novellaAttheMountainsofMadnessand1928shortstory

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:6 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

TheCallofCthulhu(bothavailable
incellphoneappformat,bringing
awholenewdimensiontoitstitular
Call29),isintheformofthetitanMtis
suckedup30intothemouthofOlympian
Zeus,who,havingswallowedherwhole,
madehimself[solelyand]completelymtis,31corneringthemarketon
cunningconceitsandsubtlestratagemswhichwouldhenceforthhaveto
passthroughhisensnaringcircuits.Pasunerusenesetramedanslunivers
sanspasserdabordparsonesprit,explainDtienneandVernant:notasingle
ruseorstratagemcouldhenceforthbehatchedordevisedwithoutfirstpassing
throughthespiritandmindsetthatistheglory,thecapandthecrownofOlym
pos.32MountOlymposhasitselfbecometheMountainofMadness,itsbright
snowcappedpeakscovertlycoopting,absorbingandappropriatingthemurky
depthsofamoremaskedmtis(callingClarketomindonceagain,whatwith
thepublicationofhisparodyAttheMountainsofMurkinesstheyearbefore
DtienneandVernantsfamousstudywenttopress33).

WhatT.S.Eliotoncelikenedtoamodernmythicmethod34(inthiscase

capitalismsrecapitulationofanancientGreekmyth)bringsusbyacommodius
vicusofrecirculation35backtoacurrentlyapplicableanddeceptivelyapplike/able

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:7 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

ancientGreekconcept:thatofcunningintelligence,alsocalledtentacular
oroctopusintelligence(polyplokonnoma).36Theoctopusextendsitself
sediffuseviainnumerableflexibleandundulatingmembers.FortheGreeks,
theoctopuswasaknotofathousandarms,alivinginterlacednetwork,apoly
plokos.Thisisthesameepithetthatqualifiestheserpentwithitscoilsandfolds,
thelabyrinthwithitsmazesandtangleofhallsandpassages.Themonstrous
Typhonisalsoapolyplokos:amultiplehundredheadedbeingwhosetrunk
tapersoutintoanguipedmembers.37Theapp,wesuggest,ispartofasimilar
interlacednetworkorappalliance:thedigitalinterfaceofanotherwiseterrific
allytentacularcomplex.Flusserconceivedofthiscomplex,thismultiarmed
matrix,intermsofwhathecalledthevampyroteuthicworld(thisasop
posedto,orratherasbeyond,thatofthehumanalltoohuman):

Thevampyroteuthicworldisnotgraspedwithhandsbutwith
tentacles.Itisnotinitselfvisible(apparent),butthevampyro
teuthismakesitsowithitsownlights.Bothworlds,thatis,
aretangibleandobservable,butthemethodsofperception
aredifferent.Theworldthathumanscomprehendisfirm(like
thebranchesthatwehadoriginallyheld).Wehavetoundergo
itperambulateitinordertograspit,forthetenfingersof

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:8 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

ourgraspinghandsarethelimbsofabygonelocomotiveorgan.
Thevampyroteuthis,onthecontrary,takesholdoftheworldwith
tentacles,surroundingitsmouth,whichoriginallyservedto
directstreamsoffoodtowardthedigestivetract.Theworld
graspedbythevampyroteuthisisafluid,centripetalwhirlpool.
Ittakesholdofitinordertodiscernitsflowingparticularities.
Itstentacles,analogoustoourhands,aredigestiveorgans.
Whereasourmethodofcomprehensionisactiveweperambu
lateastaticandestablishedworlditsmethodispassiveandim
passioned:ittakesinaworldthatisrushingpastit.Wecompre
hendwhatwehappenupon,anditcomprehendswhathappens
uponit.Whereaswehaveproblems,thingsinourway,ithas
impressions.38

DtienneandVernantwoulddisagreewiththatlastclaim,theclaim

thatthepolyplokonnomaispassive,andwouldargueinsteadthatthe
passionhereisnotinfactpassivebutratherattentivelyactive39
(hencetheemphasisintheirstudyonmticvigilance40orwhatEliot
sinceweareusinghismythicmethodwouldhavelikenedtoPrufrocks
Pervigilium41andTheWasteLandslidlesseyes42);LisaRaphals,inher

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:9 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

followuptoDtienneandVernantsnowclassicstudy,linkstheGreekmtis
withtheChinesewuwei:theactivepassivitywhichisjustascunningas
theyouweiplotsofUlyssesandcorresponds(forRaphals)tothetwists
andUlysseanUturnsa.k.a.aboutfaces43ofthelattersequallymtic
mate:hiswilywifePenelope(whosenameismoreoversynonymouswiththe
everturning,shapeshiftingpolytropos:pnopsdesignatingonewhoweaves,
threadsorspools[pn]44theirface,countenanceorappearance[ops]45).
WecanaccountforboththeyouweiplotsofUlyssesandthewuweidesignsof
Penelopeasobliquemeanstowardsimilarendsthatistosaysimilaractions
writesRaphals.Both[playupon]appearances;bothareoblique;bothrelyon
skillfulmeansmorethanondiscursivewisdom.Bycontrast,theGreekphilo
sopher[i.e.loverofwisdom]andtheConfucianjunzi[i.e.sageruleror
wiseman]followlinesratherthantwists.46

Youweiandwuweiarethetwistsandturnsofduplicitousactivity

(asinUlyssessmanymticUturns)andofactivepassivity(asinPenelopes
mticmtissages:herweaving[s]andunweaving[s],hermanyfabrica[c]tions).
JustastheChinesedistrustofappearancesorientationaccommodatesthe
verydifferentaimsandmeansofTaoistsandMilitarists,statesRaphals,sotoo
dotheabilitiesofmtis[run]fromthehuntertotheweaver,fromthetrap
pertothedesigner,encompassingthetechniquesofPenelopeandUlysses,

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:10 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

themostoctopoidintelligencesofherocGreekmythoantiquity.47Inoneof
tworecentdoctoraldissertationsonthePenelopean/pnopstopicofmtic

intelligenceanddesign(Pflugfelder2012andSingleton2012,bothofthem
awaitingdoctoraldefense),BenSingletonsuggeststhatmtisisthemissing
terminGreekantiquitybetweenposis,whichroughlymeansmaking,
andtechn,whichapproximatesartand/orskill;48itis,asheputsit,
theforgottencompaniontermtoposisandtechn.49Eventhough
theconceptprovedextraordinarilystable[throughoutantiquity],itis
absentfromtheimagethatGreekthoughtconstructedofitself(deCerteau
1984:81)unlike[theothertwoterms,namely]posisandtechn,states
Singleton.50InaworkpublishedthesameyearasDtienneandVernantsstudy,
themathematicianandFieldsMedalistRenThomsuggestedthatinthefaceof
anenigmaticlocalsituation,universalreasonthelogosisnotsufficientand
thatitisnecessarytohaverecoursetothatformofintelligencewhichtheclass
icalGreekscalledmtis;thusinmathematics,ascienceofexemplaryrational
ity,progressionisaccompaniedmorebytricksthanbygeneralmethods.51Itis
onlybymtisthatchthonic,demonicintelligencewhichOlymposofoldand
currentdaycapitalismcunninglycooptedthatthedemonicinternal(andin
thissenseinfernal)strategiesofasystem,lastratgiedudemoninternedu
systmemoreprecisely,52canbediscernedanditsdissimulationsinturn

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:11 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

playeduponand/orturned[back]onthesysteminthemanner,again,of
aUlysseanUturn.Inattemptingtoexplain[this]kindofintelligence,Thom
opposed[it]thephilosophicalconceptionoflogosandlogicalthought,explains
AndreasVrahimisinhisessayonPlay,BetweenUnderstandingandPraxis;
thekindofintelligenceimpliedby[mtis]isassociated[instead]withthe
multifariousmachinationsofnonlinearapproaches.53

Nonlinearityisthenameofthegameinvampyroteuthic/latecapitalist

coursing;theFlusserianVampyroteuthis,liketheTheutiRadiusofGiordanoBruno
longbefore,breakswithlinearlogicandinsodoingburst[s]openthemechanics
ofthought,encouragingmultiplemodesforachievingmultipletruths.54The
worldoftheVampyroteuthisispreandposthuman(pre/posterouslyso);inits
endlesstwistsandturns,itsspheroid/planetlikecurvature,itsglobegirdling
reticularradius,itisalsogeometricallypostplanetary(totakeatermfrom
fellowcontributorEdKeller)55andindeed,liketheearthitself,perpetually
turning:polytropic(Penelopeaninitsspinning).Withandinsuchspinning,
curving,coiling,twistingandturningtherecanbenoimmutableandeternal
forms,nocirclesandtriangles,56andgeometrybecomesakindof
dynamics:theshortestdistancebetweentwopoints,forexample,
wouldnolongerbeastraightlinebutacoilspringthat,whenfullycom
pressed,bringstwopointstogether.57Ourdialectic[ofdiscernment,con

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:12 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

ceptualizationandcoordination]operatesonaplane,explainsFlusser(speak
ingofhumanmetrics:graspingtheworldviathedigitsofofabygoneloco
motiveorgan58),whereasthatoftheVampyroteuthisandbyextension
(inthisessay)thecapitalistCthulhu,itsentireappallianceoperatesinstead
withandinvolume:its[metricandmathesis]isonedimensionricherthan
ours.59Whereaswethinklinearly(rightly[oralongrightangles]),itthinks
circularly(eccentrically)60with/inageometrythatLovecraftscharacterHenry
Wilcoxdescribesasonethathasgoneallawry,allwrong:anabnormal,non
Euclidean[geometry]61that(visvisidea[l]sofimmutablecircles,triangles
andrectilineargeometries)hasgonemadbreakingupintoallkindsof
irregular[twistingandcurving]figures62whichpassthroughthingsaswellas
aroundthings,contractingandcompressinginadditiontospreadingandspan
ning.Thisisageometrywhereintherelativepositionofeverythingseems
phantasmallyvariable:63ageometry[that]thereforecorrespondsto
whatwecalldynamics64orthatfunctionslikethemissingterm
theforgottencompaniontermtogeometryanddynamics
(hereechoingSingletonsmissingtermbetweenposisandtechn65).

Hencetheappmightbestbeapproachednotonthebasisofitsbuttons,

itsdigitalinterface,itshandheld,audiooropticalaspect[s]dactylographically
referringbacktoourhumanalltoohumandigitsandmodesofdiscernment

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:13 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

butinsteadalongitsmoretwistedtentacular
topos,i.e.asoneofamyriadseriesofsuckers
onthetentaclesofacyberneticcephalopod
thatisultimatelyagloballyreticulated/terra
trackingtentacularintelligence/appalliance.
Flusser,likeLovecraft,foundthisintelligenceto
bedisconcertingifnotdownrightdemonic66(a
wordoriginallydesignatinganongoingandunstoppeddivision,fromtheGreek
daiesthaitodividewhencetheideaofmultiplication,asinthedemons
mynameislegion,forwearemanyofthebiblicalMark5:09),anditspoly
morphic/polymtictacticsareaptlydescribedinthoseterms.TheCthulhuthatis
capitalismscolossalcephalopodthegreatappalliancebehindandwithin,and
(strictlyspeaking)aheadof67eachdownloadedoruploadedappisitselfhyper
camouflagedinandasthelatter(theapparentlyauspiciousapp).Theappisa
capitalistinterfacethatisdesignedtobesthetically appealing.68sthetics

areoneofthegreatestweaponsinthevampiresquidofcapitalism
arsenal:69asJaronLanierstatesinanarticlefromtheApril2006issueof
Discover:TheMagazineofScience,Technology,andtheFuture,theoctopus
masterofmtis70usesarttohunt:

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:14 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

[In]avideoshotin1997bymyfriendRogerHanlonaresearcher
attheMarineBiologicalLaboratoryinWoodsHoleswimsupto
examineanunremarkablerockcoveredinswayingalg.Suddenly,
astonishingly,onethirdoftherockandatangledmassofalg
morphsandrevealsitselfforwhatitreallyis:thewavingarmsof
abrightwhiteoctopus.Itscoverblown,thecreaturesquirtsink
atRogerandshootsoffintothedistanceleavingRoger,andthe
videoviewer,slackjawed.Thestarofthisvideo,Octopusvulgaris,
isoneofseveralcephalopodspeciescapableofmorphing,including
themimicoctopusandthegiantAustraliancuttlefish.Morphing
incephalopodsworkssomewhatsimilarlytohowitworksincom
putergraphics.Twocomponentsareinvolved:achangeinthe
imageortexturevisibleonashapessurfaceandachangeinthe
underlyingshapeitself.Thepixelsintheskinofacephalopodare
organscalledchromatophores.Thesecanexpandandcontractquickly,
andeachisfilledwithapigmentofaparticularcolor.Whenanerve
signalcausesaredchromatophoretoexpand,thepixelturnsred.
Apatternofnervefiringscausesashiftingimageananimationto
appearonthecephalopodsskin.Asforshapes,anoctopuscanquickly
arrangeitsarmstoformawidevarietyofthem,likeafishorapieceof
coral,andcanevenraiseweltsonitsskintoaddtexture.Butwhy
morph?Onereasoniscamouflage.(Theoctopusinthevideois

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:15 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

presumablytryingtohidefromRoger.)Anotherisdinner.Oneof
Rogersvideoclipsshowsagiantcuttlefishpursuingacrab.Thecuttle
fishismostlysoftbodied,thecraballarmor.Asthecuttlefishapp
roaches,themedievallookingcrabsnapsintoamachoposture,
wavingitssharpclawsatitsfoesvulnerablebody.Thecuttlefish
respondswithabizarreandingeniouspsychedelicperformance.
Weirdimages,luxuriouscolors,andsuccessivewavesofundul
atinglightningboltsandfiligreeswimacrossitsskin.Thesight
issounbelievablethateventhecrabseemsdisoriented;its
menacinggestureisreplacedforaninstantbyanother
thatseemstoexpressHuh?Inthatmomentthecuttle
fishstrikesbetweencracksinthearmor.Itusesarttohunt!71

Cephalopoidhuntersmticmastersandthusmasterfulmtisseurs

(mixers,minglers)ofposisandtechnusestheticapplications,theart
andscienceofapps,bothforprotectionandforaggression,forattackaswellas
defense.Inthecaseabove,theparallelsbetweencephalopodsandcontempor
arycomputermediationsaremarkedandindeedratherremarkable;theceph
alopodskinisdescribedasapixelatedscreenuponwhichanimationsappear.
Flusser,andbeforehimDtienneandVernant,alsoexaminethesechromato
phoresandthisinkcloudmechanism(whichtheoctopusabovesquirtsat

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:16 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

RogerHanlon).72ForDtienneandVernant,whiletheoctopusschromato

phoresworkwell(its[mtic]mchanenablesittomergewiththe[st]one
ontowhichitaffixesitself,[and,]apttomodelitselfperfectlyonthebodies
itcaptures,itcanalsomimicthecolourofthecreaturesandthingsitapp
roaches73),itonlyworksuntilsuchtimeasitscoverisblown,asLanier
saysabove.Thatiswhy,forthem,thecloudisthecephalopodsinfallible
weapon:uneespcedenue,akindofthickbrume(orClausewitzian
fogofwar),thisviscousvapor,veil,filmorfogpermitsitatonceto
escapeenemycaptureandtocaptureitsadversariesbecomeitsvictims
asifinanet.74Itisthisdarknebula,thisnightwithoutexit,whichdefines
oneofthemostessentialofoctopustraits:itknowshowtodisappear
inthenight,anightthatitcanitself
secretetoescapefromthegrasp
ofits[wouldbe]adversaries,
becomeitsvictims;75fluid,un
graspable,developingintoathousand
agilelimbs,cephalopodsareenigmatic
creatures,76creaturesofenigma
andtentaculartaqiyya.77

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:17 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

InLieuofaConclusion

Astheforegoingexamplesofoctopoiddlosordissimulativesubtexts

(/hypertexts?)show,theartofappsindeed,ofappsastrapsreliesinlargepart
ontheapplicationofmticmechanisms:inthiscasethepoliplokosspolymorph
oushypercamouflage.Studiesofsuchmticmechanismsincephalopods(i.e.
oftheirpolymorphouspolyplokonnoma)areandwillbeofvaluetothefuture
developmentofimmersive,allencompassing/allconsumingvirtualrealities:
anongoingexampleofthelatterbeingLaniersownLab(theVirtualHuman
InteractionLabprojectatStanford)anditsinvestigationsintotheProteus
effect78ofavatarismofvirtual/polymorphic/computerappgraphic
beingalongwiththeratheralchemicalnevermindneuroscientificconceptof
homuncularflexibilitythatLanierdescribedinarecentTEDtalk.79Thesame
nervoussystemthatwehavehadevolvedtoswim,tocrawl,towalkupright,
etcetera,hasevolvedthroughallkindsofdifferentbodyshapessomething
thatbecomesapparentfromaperspectiveofphylogeneticdeeptime
heexplainsintheverysameinformalyetinformativetalk.Infact,
hecontinues,everythinginbiologyispreadaptiveforevolutionarydesigns
thatdonotyetexist,andinasensewhenwemakeweird[appsand/or]avatars,
weareputtingthebraininatimetravelmachineforspeciesthatdonotyet

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:18 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

exist.80Theapplicationsandappropriationsofthispolymorphic,polytropic,
polyplokoslikecapacitytoturnourselvestoturnyourselforhaveyourself
beturned(inthemannerofapnopssartorresartusorUlysseanuturn)
intodifferentguises/faades/avatars,hencedifferententitiesorwhatsmore,
multiplicities,overandabovethosethatarecurrentlycongealed,ifnotcon
cealed,inandasyourpresentidentityare,asLaniersays,literallyweird:
adescriptorderivedfromtheOldEnglishwordwyrd,meaningdestiny,fate,
prescribedprogramorpath.81Suchshapeshiftingorreconfiguringisamatter
ofcourseandparforthecoursewithrespecttobothappsandappavatars,

thepurpose/programorweirdofwhichistoturnhumansintocephalo
pods(andhereagainwequoteLanier:thistimefromhiswebpageat
jaronlanier.com/squid).82ToclosewiththewisewordsofNewWeird
authorChinaMiville,applyinghiswordstotheweirdworldofapps:letus
beawareof(andletusmtically,meticulously,bearinmind)thefactthatapps
arepartofatentacularnovum,83atentacularnewageinadditiontoweird
world;andthatalthoughitmightappearthatappsarebenignlittledigital
devices,deployments,andusefulutilities,inthecephalopoidsystemoftheir
capitalistdistribution/downloadsanduploadstheyaretentacularlyinterconnect
edwithanentireappalliance,atentacularsystembeyondtheboundsand
thegripofourdoigts,ourdigitsexceedingourapprehensionnottomention

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:19 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

presentcomprehension.Thespreadofthetentaclealimbtypewithno
GothicortraditionalprecedentsinWesternstheticsfromasituationof
neartotalabsenceinEuroAmericanteratocultureuptothe19thcentury,
tooneofbeingthedefaultmonstrousappendageoftoday,signals
theepochalshifttoaWeirdCulture.84W.C.thefaceflushes
(atleastapparently).

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astheObjectofDesign(Ph.Ddissertation,UniversityofNorthumbria,2012).

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or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

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PratiquesdeDsenvotement(Paris:ditionsLaDcouverte,2005).

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(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1964).

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From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Notes

H.P.Lovecraft,TheCallofCthulhuinWeirdTales11.2(February1928),

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Call_of_Cthulhu/Chapter_II.

MarcelDtienne&JeanPierreVernant,LesrusesdeLintelligence:

LamtisdesGrecs(Paris:Flammarion,1974),45.

Thewirelessworld:aworldofholesratherthanofsolidobstaclesi.e.a

( )holecomplexinwhichexpansesaretraversedbypassingthroughrather
aroundthings:passingthroughratherthanbypassingthem,asinFlussers
VampyroteuthisInfernalis:ATreatise,withaReportbytheInstitutScientifiquede
RechercheParanaturaliste,trans.ValentinePakis(Minneapolis:U.ofMinnesota,
2012),42.Theworldofthesetrappistmonkcell[phone]sisthusa
monastic/monadological( )holeyland.

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],5,13;VampyroteuthisInfernalis,

trans.RodrigoNovaes(Dresden:Atropos,2011),74,40.

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:26 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

AsinfernalastheVampyroteuthisinfernalisandthetentaculargripof

whatPignarreandStengerscall[its]infernalalernatives,namelythatsetof
situationsthatseemtoleavenootherchoice[tothoseinitsgrip]than
resignationoraslightlyhollowsoundingdenunciation;cf.AndrewGoffey,
Introduction:OntheWitchsBroomstickinPhilippePignare&Isabelle
Stengers,CapitalistSorcery:BreakingtheSpell,trans.AndrewGoffey
(London:PalgraveMacmillan,2007),xiv,andPhilippePignare
&IsabelleStengers,LaSorcellerieCapitaliste:PratiquesdeDsenvotement
(Paris:ditionsLaDcouverte,2005),40.

AtrucinFrench:i.e.atrickylittledevice,gizmo,gimmickorthingamajig;

MachineTranslation,http://translate.google.com/#fr/en/truc.

Dtienne&Vernant,34,4548.

SeeforexampleGalHirsch,OnDinosaursandHornets:ACriticalViewon

OperationalMouldsinAsymmetricConflictsinTheRoyalUnitedServices
Institute:IndependentThinkingonDefenceandSecurity(August2003),6063.
AlsoseeKatherineHarmon,WhatCananOctopiTellUsAboutNational

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:27 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Security?:AQ&AwithEcologistRafeSagarin;ScientificAmerican(April2012),
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/octopuschronicles/2012/04/05/whatcan
anoctopusteachusaboutnationalsecurityaqawithecologistrafesagarin.

Studiessuggestthatausersperceptionsofinterfacestheticsinfluencetheir

beliefsaboutusability:Threeexperimentswereconductedtovalidateand
replicate.Inadifferentculturalsetting,theresultsofastudybyKurosuand
Kashimuraconcerningtherelationshipsbetweenusersperceptionsofinterface
stheticsandusability.TheresultssupportthebasicfindingsbyKurosuand
Kashimura.Veryhighcorrelationswerefoundbetweenperceivedstheticsof
theinterfaceandaprioriperceivedeaseofuseofthesystem;NoamTractinsky,
stheticsandApparentUsability:EmpiricallyAssessingCulturalandMethod
ologicalIssuesinChi97(March1997),http://www.sigchi.org/chi97/
proceedings/paper/nt.htm.

LouisPrn,MobileComputingAcceptanceGrowsasApplicationsEvolve

10

intheJournaloftheHealthcareFinancialManagementAssociation56.1(2002),
6670.

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:28 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Ifcamouflageutilizesapartialoverlapbetweentwoormultipleentities,

11

hypercamouflageisthecompleteoverlapandcoincidencebetweentwoormore
entities.Inthisterminalcamouflage,themeresurvivalofapredatorthreatens
theexistenceoftheprey,evenifthepredatorneverengagestheprey.
HypercamouflageisassociatedwiththewarriorunderTaqiyyaortheThing
(JohnCarpentersmovie);itcanbedefinedasatotalwithdrawalfrom
theperceptionoffriendsandadissolutionintotheenemy:therebirth
ofanewandobscurefoe;RezaNegarestani,Cyclonopedia:Complicity
withAnonymousMaterials(Melbourne:Re.press,2008),241.

RayBrassier,AgainsttheAestheticsofNoise:AnInterviewinnY:

12

yang&freespaceNieuwzuid,October2009,http://nyweb.be/
transitzone/againstaestheticsnoise.html?view=allct=23.

Wemanipulateappswithourfingers(ourdigits);appsgraspus

13

inaverydifferentmanner(onewhichweherecalltentacular).

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],38.

14

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:29 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Goffey,introduction,xvii.

15

T.S.Eliot,TheWasteLand:AFacsimileandTranscriptoftheOriginalDrafts

16

includingtheAnnotationsofEzraPound,ed.ValerieEliot(NewYork:
HarcourtBrace,1971),6061.

Ibid.

17

Acyberneticcollectiveandcollectionquaappropriationagencyintheworld

18

andwordsoftheStarTrektelevisionfranchise.SeeforinstanceEpisode42
(551989)ofStarTrek:TheNextGeneration(QWho,writtenby
MauriceHurleyanddirectedbyRobertBowman).

Goffey,xvi.

19

Orifyouwill(inamorecybersavvysense),uploading.

20

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2011],129.

21

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:30 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Goffey,xvi.

22

Dtienne&Vernant,,18,29,62,6566.

23

Ibid.,6566.

24

RezaNegarestani,AGoodMeal(2002),

25

http://www.coldme.net/text/meal.html.

i.e.asfastandbulbousas(seeFigure4ASquidEatingDoughinaPoly

26

ethyleneBagisFastandBulbous,GotMe?nearthetelltale/fishtaleend
oftheessayabove).

ArthurC.Clarke,ProfilesoftheFuture:AnEnquiryintotheLimitsof

27

thePossible(NewYork:Harper&Row,1962),36.

Hesiod,Theogony929e930:ButZeuslaywiththefaircheekeddaughterof

28

OceanandTethys,deceivingMtis,althoughshewasfullwise.Andthenhe

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:31 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

seizedherwithhishandsandputherinhisbelly,forfearthatshemightbring
forthsomethingstrongerthanhisthunderbolt:thereforedidZeus,whosits
onhighanddwellsinthether,swallowherdownsuddenly.Andshe
remainedhiddenbeneaththeinwardpartsofZeus,evenMtis,Athenas
mother,workerofrighteousness,whowaswiserthangodsandmortalmen,
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.01
29%3Acard%3D901.

TheCallofCthulhucellphonememe,http://1.media.dorkly.cvcdn.com/15/81/

29

45d7e12177f1c8165a065c52a32a8077.jpg(seeFigure2above).

FlusserVampyroteuthis[2011],129.

30

Dtienne&Vernant,20.

31

Ibid.

32

ArthurC.Clarke,AttheMountainsofMurkiness

33

(London:FerretFantasy,1973).

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:32 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Eliotdefinesthemodernmythicmethodasawayofcontrolling,of

34

ordering,ofgivingashapeandsignificancetotheimmensepanorama
offutilityandanarchywhichiscontemporaryhistorythisthrough
theuseofmythinmanipulatingacontinuousparallelbetween
contemporaneityandantiquity;SelectedProseofT.S.Eliot,
ed.FrankKermode(London:Faber&Faber,1975),177178.

JamesJoyce,FinnegansWake(London:Faber&Faber,1939),3.

35

Dtienne&Vernant,4748.

36

Ibid.,45.

37

FlusserVampyroteuthis[2012],39.

38

Thisoctopusintelligencefromacertainperspectivewouldappearakinto

39

thatwhichtheLyricpoetscalledtheephmeros,theyexplain.Indeed,likeit,
theephmerosischaracterizedbyitsmobility,fluidityanddynamicinstability
(Dtienne&Vernant,4748).ButunliketheintelligenceoftheLyricephmeros,

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:33 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

thatofthepolytropicpolyplokonisunstableonlyinappearance:itsaboutfaces
areatrap,thenetinwhichitsadversariescometobeentangled(48).Between
theintelligenceofthepolytropicpolyplokonandthatoftheephmerosthereis
theexactdistancethatseparatestheoctopusfromthechameleon(4748):
theformerisactive,activelytrapping,approachingitsvictimlikeahunter
orSouthParkTrapperKeeper(thecapitalistCthulhuofMattStoneand
TreyParker*),whereasthelatterispassive,changingwith(ratherthan
chargingandplayingwith)thecurrent[s]ofitsenvironment,thusdevoidof
thedemonicordevilishdeceit.
*MattStoneandTreyParker,SouthPark,Episode60:TrapperKeeper
(November15,2000),http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trapper_Keeper_%28
South_Park%29(alsoseeFigure1above).

Dtienne&Vernant,32,38.

40

T.S.Eliot,PrufrocksPervigiliuminInventionsoftheMarchHare:Poems

41

19091917,ed.ChristopherRicks(London:Harcourt&Brace,1996),4344.

T.S.Eliot,TheWasteLand,1819.

42

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:34 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Dtienne&Vernant,8,39,48.

43

HenryGeorgeLiddell&RobertScott,AnIntermediateGreekEnglishLexicon

44

(Oxford:Clarendon,1889),http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?
doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0058%3Aentry%3Dph%2Fnh.

Ibid.

45

LisaRaphals,KnowingWords:Wisdom&CunningintheClassicalTraditionsof

46

China&Greece(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1992),230.Philosopherssince
Platohavealsotendedtocondemnthetwistsandturnsthiscunning,chthonic,
craftiness(cf.Dtienne&Vernant,40,303306;alsosee142),Platoinparticular
preferringtheOlympian/Apollonianstabilityofrigoroushierarchy,andLovecraft
longafterhimcherishingwhattodaywewouldcalltheWallStreet1%asop
posedtothemassesbelowthisOlympos:the99%throng.Lovecraftaboveall
wouldhaveloathedtheOccupyWallStreetmovement,whichfromhisper
spectivewouldamounttoanOctopiWallStreet(seeFigure3above):the
incursionofCthulhuuponOlympostheriseofhisdreadCthulhu.WallStreet,
andcapitalismingeneral,woulditselfbe(inthewordsofPhilippePignarreand

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:35 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

IsabelleStengers)asystemofsorcerywithoutsorcerersorofcunningconjura
tionsintheabsenceofconflicting/countercapitalistconjurors(cf.Pignare&
Stengers,LaSorcellerieCapitaliste,182).Andinordertobeso,aswehave
statedabove,capitalismrecapitulatesthemythofMtis,consuming/absorbing/
appropriatingallpossibleprestidigitationandsorcerousapprentices,thwarting
insodoingtheemergenceofalternateoctopiandofunforeseententacles
beyondthoseofthecapitalismsownallconsumingcolossalcybernetic
cephalopod.

Raphals,207;andDtienne&Vernant,47.

47

BenedictSingleton,OnCraftandBeingCrafty:HumanBehaviourasthe

48

ObjectofDesign(Ph.Ddissertation,UniversityofNorthumbria,2012),115.
Thereaderisdirectedtothefourthchapterofbothdissertations:thetitular
chapterOnCraftandBeingCraftyinSingleton2012andthechapteron
DesignandNavigationinEhrenPflugfeldersMeasureoftheWorld:
AdvancingaKinestheticRhetoric(Ph.Ddissertation,PurdueUniversity,2012).

Ibid.,106.

49

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:36 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Ibid.,116.

50

RenThom,ModlesMathmatiquesdelaMorphognse:

51

RecueildeTextessurlaThoriedesCatastrophesetsesApplications
(Paris:UnionGnraldditions,1974),305.

Ibid.,306.

52

AndreasVrahimis,Play,BetweenUnderstandingandPraxis:RenThoms

53

CatastrophesinStatic,Issue7(TheLondonConsortium,2008),
http://static.londonconsortium.com/issue07/04_Vrahimis_essay.pdf.

ArielleSaiber,GiordanoBruno&theGeometryofLanguage

54

(Hampshire:Ashgate,2005),73.

EdKeller,PostPlanetaryDesign(GraduateSeminaratParsons:

55

TheNewSchoolforDesign,2012),http://web.archive.org/web/
20120725135559/http://postplanetary.tumblr.com/syllabus.

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:37 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],42.

56

Ibid.,42.

57

Ibid.,39.

58

Ibid,42.

59

Ibid,42.

60

Lovecraft,http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Call_of_Cthulhu/Chapter_II;

61

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Call_of_Cthulhu/Chapter_III.

FrancesYates,GiordanoBruno&theHermeticTradition

62

(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1964),302.

Lovecraft,http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Call_of_Cthulhu/Chapter_III.

63

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],42.

64

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:38 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Singleton,115.

65

Thedemonicpredatorswilltopower(forFlusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],

66

53,41):ademonicpredatorakin,inthetalesofH.P.Lovecraft,totheI.T.or
InuitTornasukwhichwaspartofthemythicmixthatculimatedinthelatters
Cthulhu,hisversionandvisionavantlalettreofthecolossalcybernetic
cephalopodandofFlussersVampyroteuthisInfernalis(cf.Lovecraft,
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Call_of_Cthulhu/Chapter_II).

Theincogitumhactenus[hithertounknown]ofthehunterwhois

67

alreadythere(Negarestani,AGoodMeal2002).

Scholarshavebeguncriticalinquiryoftheimplicationsofinterfacesthetics.

68

Justasliteraturehaspredominantlytakenplaceinandaroundbooks,and
paintinghasexploredthecanvas,theinterfaceisnowacentralaestheticform
conveyingdigitalinformationofallkinds.Itmeansthatweshouldstartseeing
theinterfaceasanstheticforminitselfthatoffersanewwaytounderstand
digitalartinitsvariousguises,ratherthanasafunctionaltoolformakingart

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:39 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

(anddoingotherthings);SrenPold,InterfaceRealisms:TheInterfaceas
stheticForm(2005),http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/textonly/issue.105/
15.2pold.txt.

Goffey,xvii.

69

Dtienne&Vernant,3452.

70

JaronLanier,WhatCephalopodsTeachUsaboutLanguagein

71

Discover:TheMagazineofScience,Technology,andtheFuture(April2006),
http://discovermagazine.com/2006/apr/cephalopodmorphing.

Flusser,Vampyroteuthis[2012],19,5152.Dtienne&Vernant,46,5152.

72

Dtienne&Vernant,47,4546.

73

Dtienne&Vernant,,46.

74

Ibid.,47,4546.

75

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:40 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

Ibid.,46.

76

Thepracticeofconcealingtheidentitywhenrevealingitmightbeharmful;

77

FrankHerbert,GodEmperorofDune(NewYork:AceBooks,1984),215.

Topic:TheProteusEffect(VirtualHumanInteractionLabproject,

78

StanfordUniversity),http://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/?ProteusEffect=yes.

JaronLanier,YouarenotaGadget:ATEDxSFTalk(December2010),

79

http://www.youtube.com/embed/IwbGumZFYg.

Ibid.

80

Weird:thatwhichhappensfate,chance,fortune,destiny;[also]Fate,

81

theFates,Providence;http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/weird.

JaronLanier,ARevelation!:IvedecidedthatthepurposeofVirtualReality

82

istoturnhumansintocephalopods(October2006),
http://www.jaronlanier.com/squid.html.

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:41 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

From the Digital to the Tentacular,


or From iPods to Cephalopods:

Apps, Traps, & Entres-without-Exit.

ChinaMiville,M.R.JamesandtheQuantumVampire:Weird,Hauntological,

83

Versusand/orAndand/orOr?inCollapse:JournalofPhilosophicalResearch&
Development,VolumeFour,IssueonConceptHorror(May2008),105,
http://weirdfictionreview.com/2011/11/mrjamesand
thequantumvampirebychinamieville.

Ibid.

84

Mellamphy & Biswas Mellamphy,


2012:42 (forthcoming, MIT Press).

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