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16,
Evaluation/Commodity Study Series, Andhra Pradesh: No.16, 2007

-
MANGO IN ANDHRA PRADESH
- A Commodity Specific Study

KC Badatya


,
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
Andhra Pradesh Regional Office, Hyderabad
2007

MANGO IN ANDHRA PRADESH


- A Commodity Specific Study

K C Badatya

,
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
Andhra Pradesh Regional Office, Hyderabad
2007

CONTENTS
Particulars

Page No.

Foreword
Credit List
Acknowledgement
Abbreviations
Basic Data Sheet
Executive Summary

i-vi

Main Report
Chapter I

Introduction

Chapter II

Micro finance through SHGs in Andhra Pradesh

Chapter III

Approach to the Study

11

Chapter IV

Group Dynamics & Bank Linkage Pattern Among Sample SHGs

15

Chapter V

Profile of SHG Members

24

Chapter VI

Enterprise Mix & Process of Graduation of SHG Members


To Microenterprises

29

Chapter VII Cost of Investments & Economics of Microenterprises

41

Chapter VIII Income & Employment Generation by Microenterprises promoted


By SHG Members Suggestions, Recommendations an

47

Chapter IX

Role of SHPIs in Promotion of Microenterprises

52

Chapter X

Development Linkages & Sustainability Aspects

59

Chapter XI

Summary & Conclusions

67

Appendix I

SHG-Bank Linkage Programme - A Review

76

Appendix II

Status of SHGs in Andhra Pradesh-2004-2005

80

Appendix

Appendix III Status of SBLP in Andhra Pradesh

81

Appendix IV Best practices followed by SHGs in launching Micro-enterprises

82

Appendix V

Microenterprises by Village Organisations

83

Appendix VI Persons interviewed during the field study

85

Appendix VII Voices Heard in the Field

86


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FOREWORD
The mango is one of the most important tropical and subtropical fruits of the world
and is popular both in fresh and the processed forms. It is called as the king of fruits
on account of its nutritive value, taste and attractive fragrance. India ranks first
among worlds mango producing countries accounting for 52.6 per cent of the total
worlds mango production. It is grown over an area of 1.2 million hectares in the
country producing 11.0 million tonnes. It accounts for 22.1 per cent of total area
under fruit crops (5.6 million ha) and 22.9 per cent of total production of fruits (47.9
million tonnes) in the country. In case of Andhra Pradesh, area under mango
cultivation increased from a mere 0.6 lakh ha. in 1951-52 to 3.9 lakh ha. in 2004-05
growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of ---- per cent. In Andhra
Pradesh, the production of mango increased from 23.8 lakh MT during 1993-94 to
31.4 lakh MT during 2004-05. This and similar observations prompted NABARD to
commission a study in Andhra Pradesh with the objectives of gaining insight into the
dynamics of the supply chain management, assessing the efficiency of the market
intermediation as well as the constraints relating to production, processing,
marketing, etc. so as to arrive at a convergence in regard to an export promotion
strategy.
The study, conducted in Chittoor and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh, is based
on primary data collected from about 75 mango-growers, processors,
traders/exporters, etc. One of the important constraints identified by the study is the
inefficiency in the marketing channels due to the long chain of the intermediaries
resulting in a higher price spread, as a consequence of which the producers share in
the consumers, rupee was as low as 28.80 per cent.
Some of the other major constraints identified by the study on export front are the
incidences of fruit fly and stone weevil putting hindrance to reach some countries
such as Japan, Australia and USA, lack of knowledge and awareness creation among
consumers of the importing countries on different varieties, except Alphanso, nonfollowing of thinning of fruit during on-years leading to biennial bearing habit among
Indian Mangoes, inadequate infrastructure facilities such as pack houses, pre-cooling
and cold at production centres leading to delays in putting them in cold chain,
inadequate follow up of pre-harvest protocols by the producers because of
predisposing of the produce to the contractors.
I am sure that the findings of the study will be found useful to the micro finance
practitioners, experts, banks, rural development institutions and academicians,
concerned with the process of the policy planning, strategising and implementation
for the growth of micro-enterprises through group approach.
National Bank for Agriculture
and Rural Development
A.P Regional Office, Hyderabad
28.September 2007

S. R. Aluru
Chief General Manager

CREDIT LIST

Overall Direction
Department of Economic Analysis & Research, NABARD HO, Mumbai
Shri Ramakrishna Rao, Chief General Manager, AP Regional Office
Guidance
Shri R. Amalorpavanathan, General Manager
Shri. S. K. Bhatnagar, Deputy General Manager (Tech.)
Field Study
Shri K.C. Badatya, Assistant General Manager (Eco.)
Shri R.H.V. Ratnababu, Assistant General Manager (Tech.)
Analysis of Data and Report Writing
Shri K. C. Badatya, Assistant General Manager (Eco.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The study team gratefully acknowledge

the brilliant cooperation and help offered by Department of Horticulture in the


study Districts, Commercial Banks, RRBs, and Krishna DCCB for the smooth
conduct of field-work for collection of primary data and also for the much
needed bank-data provided to us.

the help and cooperation rendered by Shri A. Jayaram Sharma, AGM (DD),
Chittoor District and Smt. K. M. Lakshmi, AGM (DD), Krishna District

all the sample mango growers, processors, traders/commission agents, exporters


who cooperated with the study.
Study Team

Abbreviations
AEZs
Agri Export Zones
AMC
Agriculture Marketing Committee
APEDA Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority
APITCO AP Industrial Technical Consultancy Organisation
APMIP
AP Micro Irrigation Programme
APTransco AP Transmission Corporation
ATL
ATMA
BCR
CA
CAGR
CFBs
CFTRI
CMCP
CP
DAP
DCCB
DDMs
DoES
DoH
DS

Agricultural Term Loan


Agricultural Technology Management Agency
Benefit Cost Ratio
Commission Agent
Compound Annual Rate of Growth
Corrugated Fibre Boxes
Central Food Technology Research Institute
Campaign on Mango Crop Protection
Consumer Price
Dai Ammonium Phosphate
District Central Cooperative Bank
District Development Managers
Directorate od Economics and Statistics
Department of Horticulture
Double Strength

ETTS
FAO
FDA
FFAs
FIGs
FTP
FYM
GoAP
GoI
HACCP

Effective Technology Transfer System


Food and Agricultural Organisation
Food and Drugs Administration
Federation of Farmers' Associations
Farmers' Interest Groups
Farm to Plate
Farm Yard Manure
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of India
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

HCPMA
HOs
HYVs
IARI
IPM
IRR
KCC
LDMs

Horticultural Crops Planting Material Authority


Horticultural Officers
High Yielding Varieties
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Integrated Pest Management
Internal Rate of Return
Kissan Credit Card
Lead District Managers

MACS
ME
MFPI
MoP
MPUs
MSUs
NDDB
NHB
NHM
NIN
NPV
PHC
PLCPs
PP
PV
RRB
RTS
SCMS
SCS
SHGs
SOD
SS
SSUs
SWOT
TSS
UCT
VHTP
VT
WC

Mutually Aided Coooperative Societies


Market Efficiency
Ministry of Food Processing Industries
Murate of Potash
Mango Processing Units
Medium Scale Units
National Dairy Developmet Board
National Horticulture Board
National Horticulture Mission
National Institute of Nutrition
Net Present Value
Pre Harvest Contractor
Potential Linkaed Credit Plans
Producers' Price
Present Value
Regional Rural Bank
Ready to Serve
Supply Chain Management System
Supply Chain System
Self Help Groups
Secured Overdraft
Single Strength
Small Scale Units
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
total soluable solids
Upcountry Trader
Vapour Heat Treatment Plant
Village Trader
Working Capital

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Executive Summary

The commodity study on mango was conducted in Andhra Pradesh covering two
districts, i.e., Chitoor and Krishna, with the objectives of studying the cultivation
practices of mango as also studying the farm economics, aspects relating to
marketing of mango and mango based products, price spread, various channels,
their efficiency, etc., assessing extent and methods of mango processing,
analyzing the export performance of mango and mango based products,
performance of AEZs, etc.

The sample frame constituted 42 mango growers, 18 mango processing units


(pulp and jelly making) and 15 traders, commisiion agents, exporters, etc. The
sample was taken up from selected mandals where area and roduction of mango
was dominant.

Of the total fruit production in India, mango accounted for 43 per cent. In case of
Andhra Pradesh, area under mango cultivation increased from a mere 0.6 lakh ha.
in 1951-52 to 3.2 lakh ha. in 2002-03.

Mango is commercially grown in about 83 countries in the world. Mango is one


of the six major fruit crops in the world grown commercially in India, China,
Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Brazil, Philippines and Haiti.
The total world production during 2005 was around 28 million metric tonnes
(MT) where India enjoys the top slot (10.8 million MT) followed by China (3.67
million MT), Thailand (1.8 million MT), Mexico (1.5 million MT), etc.

The major mango growing states in India are UP, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Karnataka. Goa, Haryana, MP, Punjab
and TN. The region wise popular varieties grown in different parts of the country
comprise Alphonso and Kesar from Western India, Banganpalli, Totapuri and
Neelam from southern states, Fazli from Eastern States and Langra, Chausa and
Dusheri from Northern States.

Area-wise, Andhra Pradesh occupies 20 per cent of the total area under mango in
the country, next to Maharashtra (22%) and followed by UP (12.6%), Bihar (7%)
and Orissa (6%). The area under mango has grown at CAGR of 4.7 per cent
during 1996-97 to 2004-05. Among the several varieties grown in Andhra
Pradesh, Banganapalli or Baneshan occupies a predominant place at more than
70 per cent of the total area under mango. It is predominantly grown in Krishna
district, which is the major mango-growing belt in Coastal Andhra Pradesh.

The cost of establishment of the mango orchards in sample districts, on an


average, was estimated at Rs.12,700 per acre and including the maintenance cost
up to 5th year the unit cost is reported at Rs.25,000/acre.

Manuring, plant protection and irrigation are the major components in the
maintenance cost, apart from the labour charges for training, pruning, etc. The

annual maintenance cost of one acre of full grown mango orchard (from tenth
year onwards) is worked out to Rs.5,500/acre.

The economics of mango orchards has been worked out for the average situation.
At the reference year yield, prices and costs, the net income from mango
orchards is worked out at Rs.17,000 per acre The mango orchard in the study
districts was viable with the present level of yield (5 MT), cost
(Rs.5,500/acre/annum) and price (Rs.4,500/MT) and the IRR worked out to
20.83 per cent.

Based on the discussions with the farmers, traders and representatives of


processing units, it was observed that mango reaches to the consumer through
four channels, i.e., Grower to Pre-Harvest Contractors (PHC), Grower to UpCountry Trader (UCT), Grower to Village Trader/Commission Agent (VT/CA)
and finally Grower to Mango Processing Units (MPUs). From the grower, mango
reaches the consumer and export destination through any of these channels.

However, it is very difficult to come out with a clear cut demarcation of channels
as some PHCs also act as CAs, some CAs act as traders. They themselves also
act as local wholesalers. Many of the CAs/Traders are also mango orchard
owners and contribute substantially to the mango production. About 55 per cent
of mango is marketed through the channel of grower to CA/VT.

Mango production in Chittor district arrives to five different market yards in


Chittoor and two to Nunna market yard in Vijayawada.

Mango prices vary a great deal from year to year, depending upon each years
total production and various other factors like prevailing prices, demand,
transport, marketing facilities, etc. Wholesale prices of mangoes also vary
considerably, depending upon the supply/demand of particular varieties, periods
of availability, weather conditions, transport facilities, variety, quality, etc. The
average monthly wholesale price index of mangoes at all India level for the last
ten years period has grown from 128.9 in 1995 to 227. 5 in 2005 growing at a
CAGR of 6.52 per cent.

The Commission Agents (CAs) are the most important link in the marketing of
mango and these agents control about two-thirds of the total market. Most of the
mango supply to processing industries is taken up by the CAs. In Chittoor district
these CAs are also act as grower cum trader and play a major role in the
marketing of mangoes. The CAs facilitate the trade between the mango farmers
and the UCTs.

Price spread, the difference between the retail price paid by the consumer and the
price received by the farmer/producer for the same quantity of the produce, is
highest in Channel 1. Thus, Channel 1 (Grower CAs/VTs UCTs
Retailers Consumer) depicted the lowest market efficiency in terms of the
highest market margins (65.5%) indicating exploitation of the producers under
the supply chain involving commission agents/wholesalers. The total negative

impact is real and significant as maximum mangoes (55%) are supplied through
this channel.

In Chittoor district, there is the mango pulp cluster containing 55 fruit processing
units operating with an installed capacity of 1,23,300 MT of mango pulp of
which 51 are small-scale units and rest are Medium Scale Units.

The gross and net income realized by canned pulp making units is reported at
Rs.122.12 lakhs and Rs.16.42 lakh, respectively. The profit margin was worked
out to 13.45 per cent.

Mango Jelly making cluster as a cottage industry is flourishing in East Godavari


district comprising four villages, viz., Sarpavaram, Thimmavaram, Panduru
(Kakinada Rural) and Atreyapuram. Average investment cost for a jelly-making
unit is reported at about Rs. 85,000. The average cost of production per jelly
manufacturing unit and per kg. of jelly was worked out to Rs.2.45 lakh and
Rs.28.64, respectively. The jelly units reported gross income of Rs.3.0 lakhs and
net income of 0.54 lakh. The profit margin was worked out to 18.16 per cent.

The export volume of fresh mango from India has increased from 20.30 thousand
MT during 1987-88 to 52.14 thousand MT during 2004-05 growing at CAGR of
6.97 per cent. During the same period the export value has grown at CAGR of
9.85 per cent. The share of export volume to total production is miserably low
which has increased from a mere 0.20 per cent in 1987-88 to only 0.45 per cent
in 2004-05. Indias exports of mango and mango based products in 2004-05,
registered a marginal growth of 6.62 per cent over the previous year when the
same reached a level of Rs. 464.89 crore as against Rs. 436.01 crore.

Mango and mango-based products are mainly exported to Saudi Arabia, U.A.E.,
Yemen, Kuwait, U.K., U.S.A., Germany, Netherlands and Japan from India.
Bangladesh, Nepal and Srilanka are the emerging importers for fresh mangoes.
India's mango export is about 16 per cent of the total global trade. Around 85-90
per cent of the fresh mango exports are to the Middle East. Another 5-7 per cent
of the fresh mangoes are to the South East and the balance to European countries.

There are two AEZs (mango pulp and fresh mango) in Chittoor and Krishna
districts. The pulp AEZ in Chittor has been a success story in the country. The
production of mango pulp has increased by 42 per cent from 48,000 MT in 2002
to 83,000 MT in 2006. The export value of mango pulp has increased by 58 per
cent from Rs.75 crore to Rs.180 crore during the same period.

Major constraints on export front are, incidences of fruit fly and stone weevil
putting hindrance to reach some countries such as Japan, Australia and USA, lack
of knowledge/awareness among consumers of the importing countries on
different varieties, inadequate infrastructure facilities such as pack houses, precooling and cold at production centres leading to delays in putting them in cold
chain, inadequate follow up of pre-harvest protocols by the producers because of
predisposing of the produce to the contractors.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The mango, Mangifera indica L., is one of the most important tropical and
subtropical fruits of the world and is popular both in fresh and the processed forms. It
is called as the king of fruits on account of its nutritive value, taste, attractive
fragrance and health promoting qualities. Mango has been in cultivation in the Indian
sub-continent for well over 4000 years and has been the most favorite fruit since
ages1. Presently, besides India, it is being cultivated world over especially, in all
South & South-east Asian countries, African countries, tropical Australia and the
USA2, Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, West Indies Islands and Cambodia.
1.2 India ranks first among worlds mango producing countries accounting for 52.6
per cent of the total worlds mango production. It is grown over an area of 1.2 million
hectares in the country producing 11.0 million tonnes. It accounts for 22.1 per cent of
total area under fruit crops (5.6 million ha) and 22.9 per cent of total production of
fruits (47.9 million tonnes) in the country. Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab are the major mango
producing states, of which Andhra Pradesh occupies number one position in both
area and production of mangoes. The region - wise varieties grown in different parts
of the country comprise: Alphonso and Kesar from western India, Banganapalli,
Totapuri and Neelum from southern states, Fazli from eastern states and Langra,
Chausa and Dusheri from northern states. The mangoes contribute a major share in
the exports of horticulture items as well. During 2004-05, the countrys exports of
mango and mango-based products were reported at Rs 464.9 crore.
I. Need for a Commodity-Specific Study on Mango in Andhra Pradesh
In case of Andhra Pradesh, area under mango cultivation increased from a mere 0.6
lakh ha. in 1951-52 to 3.9 lakh ha. in 2004-05 growing at a compound annual growth
rate (CAGR) of 3.7 per cent. A shift from traditional agriculture to mechanised
agriculture, diversification and commercialization in agriculture resulted in shifting
of cropping pattern from traditional crops to new crops, which had contributed to the
increased area and production under mango. Changing demand pattern also
contributed significantly to shifting of more area and production under mango. In
Andhra Pradesh, the production of mango increased from 23.8 lakh MT during 199394 to 31.4 lakh MT during 2004-05. However, marketing and processing of mango
have not picked up commensurate with the level of production. Further, supportive
mechanism in the form of agricultural inputs, post harvest infrastructure set up, such
as packaging, pre-cooling, cold storages, pack houses, etc., marketing system,

Historical facts revealed that mango was introduced to the Indian archipelago from the
mainland. Some view that it had originated in the Indo-Burma region.
2
In USA, mango is grown mostly in Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico

institutional credit, etc. have not come up in proportionate to the increase in


production of fruit.
Even though India is the world's largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less
than one percent of the global mango trade. Around 95 per cent of Indias mango
exports are routed to the Middle-East countries, whereas a meager 5 per cent is
channeled to other countries in Europe and America, Japan, Hong Kong, etc. Further,
exports of mangoes in the processed form remain limited. Further, because of high
perishability, seasonality in production and absence of post-harvest facilities, a
standardized supply chain system, etc. about 25-30 per cent of the total mango
production is lost during post-harvest period, reducing further availability of fruits for
consumption, value addition and export. It is also learnt that there are issues such as
weak institutional arrangement, limited marketing facilities, lack of coordination
among the various institutions, etc., acted as hindrance in the growth of mango. The
whole lot of these issues encompasses the supply chain system (SCS) within the
mango-processing sector. The importance of commodity-specific study on mango
lies in addressing these issues affecting the above-mentioned parameters.
Setting up of Agri-Export Zones
The Government of India (GoI) in 2001-02 initiated setting up of Agri-Export Zones
(AEZs) in various States with the objectives of increasing Indias share in global
agri-trade. The AEZs were meant to facilitate the development and sourcing of raw
materials (agri produce) in a contiguous area for exports through
processing/packaging. Presently, in Andhra Pradesh, 5 AEZs are operational in 10
districts, covering five crops. AEZs for mangoes have been set up in major producing
states such as Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil
Nadu and West Bengal. In Andhra Pradesh, three AEZs3 have been set up for mango
and mango pulp. , These AEZs were envisaged to establish a continuity factor and an
assured supply base for export of quality mangoes and mango pulp from the State.
Further, the National Horticulture Mission (NHM) identified mango as one of the
core commodities having scope for further growth. The Agricultural and Processed
Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) since its inception in 1986,
has been playing a major role in the export of mango and mango based products by
providing various services at both national and international level.
Added to this, the State also enjoys a favourable environment, which inter alia
includes favourable agro-climatic conditions, huge domestic market, cheap labour,
etc. All these offer a tremendous potential to increase the overall production of
mango and mango-based products thus contributing to the nations exportable surplus
on the other. Against this backdrop, a commodity study on mango was planned in the

Three AEZs include two for fresh mangoes viz. Vijayawada AEZ covering Krishna district and
Hyderabad AEZ covering Hyderabad, Medak and Mahabubnagar districts, and the third AEZ for mango
pulp in Chittoor district.

state of Andhra Pradesh in order to have a full perspective of the commodity in its
varied facets, i.e., production, processing, marketing, exports, etc.
II. Report
The study report has been organized into nine chapters. Chapter two explains the
objectives, study design and methodology adopted for the study. Chapter three, while
highlighting a global scenario of mango production, presents an overview of growth
in area, production and productivity of mango in India in general and Andhra Pradesh
in particular. Chapter four describes the cultivation practices and economics of
growing mango. Chapter five elaborates the marketing channels, prices, etc. in the
select districts. Extent and economics of mango processing have been analysed in
Chapter six. Chapter seven describes the export of mango and performance of export
in pre- and -post AEZ situations. Chapter eight analyses the supply chain of mango.
In Chapter nine, constraints and strategies for furthering production, processing and
export of mango has been presented.
III. Scope of the Study
The findings of the study are based on a sample of mango growers, traders,
processors, exporters, etc. in two districts of Andhra Pradesh, i.e., Krishna and
Chittoor. Besides, it is based on discussions with district level functionaries like,
officials from the Department of Horticulture (DoH) at the district level, marketing
committees, bankers, DDMs, LDMs of the study districts as also the final consumers
of mango and mango-based products. Generally, mango arrivals and prices vary
considerably across different markets even within a given district. Consequently,
price spread, market efficiency and other related parameters differ. Therefore, the
findings of the study presented in this report should be interpreted judiciously and
should not be generalized across the States and places.

CHAPTER II
OBJECTIVES, STUDY DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter elaborates the objectives and methodology adopted for the study.
I. Objectives
The study has been conducted with the following objectives.

To study the growth patterns in area, production and productivity of mango


in Andhra Pradesh vis--vis India. To study the cultivation practices of
mango as also the adoption of modern technologies, along with studying the
economics of growing mango.

To study the aspects relating to marketing of mango and mango based


products, price spread, various channels, their efficiency, etc.

To assess extent and methods of mango processing as also economics of


processing, issues affecting the processing industries, etc.

To study the export performance of mango and mango-based products, role


of AEZs in export promotion, etc.

To analyse the post-harvest management practices of mango as also


availability of infrastructure and backward and forward linkages for an
effective supply chain system for mango and mango based products.

To study the constraints and offering strategies for strengthening different


segments of supply chain system for mango industry.

II. Methodology and Sample Design


While addressing the issues affecting mango as a horticultural commodity, the study
adopted FARM to PLATE (FTP) approach. The study concentrated on issues
involved from production of mango to its marketing and consumption by the
households. In production stage, the study dealt with the Farm Economics in brief
to understand the cost of cultivation and income accrued to the cultivator of mango.
In the processing stage, the study dealt with different products of value addition and
economics of such value addition. Lastly, in marketing stage, the study focused on
identification of different channels of marketing, price spread, marketing efficiency,
etc. The study identified different channels available and also worked out the price
spread, level of efficiencies in each channel and the critical issues involved for
improving the efficiency. The study also dealt with Supply Chain Management
System' (SCMS) covering the collaborative and harmonized relationship covering
input supply, production, harvesting, marketing, storage, processing, etc.

(i) Selection of Districts and Mandals


Production of mango is concentrated in all the districts in Andhra Pradesh. However,
in terms of ranking, Krishna district in Coastal region (4.96 lakh MT), Chittoor
district in Rayalseema region (3.91 lakh MT) and Khammam district in Telengana
region (3.34 lakh MT) stand first, second and third position, respectively. Further, a
number of mango processing units (pulp and jelly making) are located in Chittoor
and Krishna districts. With a view to harnessing the export potential of mangoes
produced in the State, AEZs for mango pulp in Chittoor district and AEZ for fresh
mango in Krishna district have been set up in the State. Accordingly, Krishna and
Chittoor districts were selected for the study.
From both the districts, four blocks were selected in Chittoor districts and five blocks
in Krishna district considering the area, production and arrival of mango to the
nearest market yard. Damancheruvu, Chittoor, Tirupati and Bangarupalem blocks
were considered from Chittoor district and Nuzivid, Tiruvur, Agiripalli, Vissannapet
and Gampalagudem blocks were taken into account in Krishna district.
(ii) Selection of Mango Growers/Processors/Export Units
A total of 42 mango growers were covered in the study. Growers were selected from
across the selected blocks/mandals in both the districts. Two types of mango
processing units were considered for the study. They were mango pulp making and
mango jelly making. A total of 18 processing units were selected for the study.
Mango jelly making units were concentrated in East Godavari district and 6 jelly
making units were visited for the purpose of the study. Similarly, 6 traders, 8
commission agents, 2 exporters were also covered during the study. The sample
frame for the study is indicated in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Sample Frame for the Commodity Study on Mango
Category/Districts
Chittoor
Krishna
East Godavari
Mango Growers
18
24
--Mango Processors
10
2
6*
Traders/Exporters@
8
7
--Total
36
33
6

Total
42
18
15
75

*Mango jelly making units @ includes retailers, wholesalers commission agents, etc.

III. Data Collection:


The study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected
from mango growers, processors, traders/exporters, etc. Secondary data were
collected mainly from published sources of State and Central Government,
publications from APEDA, National Horticulture Board (NHB), Department of
Marketing and Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DoES), GoAP, websites of
different organizations and institutions, etc. Information was also collected from
nursery and other input suppliers, units involved in post harvest handling of mango,

district level nodal officers for AEZs, market yards, banks and financial institutions.
etc.
The following parameters were broadly studied to address the objectives.

Time series data on area and production of mango in different districts of AP.
Costs and returns in mango cultivation
Costs and returns in processing units (mango pulp, mango jelly making units)
Trend in prices of mangoes
All India mango exports and the states contribution
Role of AEZs in export promotion in the State
Information on organic mangoes and research in mango cultivation.

IV. Data Analysis

The study was attempted to bring out the full perspective of all the aspects of
mango cultivation as also value addition and export of mango.

Different statistical tools, in addition to tabular analysis, ratios, percentages,


were used keeping in view the suitability of their use in analyzing the data
collected.

The viability of mango orchards was analysed using the discounted cash flow
technique and in terms of benefit cost ratio (BCR), the net present value
(NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR).

The marketing efficiency (ME) is arrived through the concept of price


spread4. In the absence of direct linkage between the mango grower and the
consumer, it is the middlemen who have been taking advantage of the
situation. An indicator of the efficiency of any supply chain is the extent of
the price spread between the producer and the consumer. A higher price
spread would indicate a lower efficiency. Conversely, a lower price spread
would indicate a high efficiency. The producers share in the consumer price
is high when the marketing efficiency is high. The formula used to arrive at
the market efficiency is as mentioned below.
ME = Im / (CP PP),
Where Im = Intermediary Margins
CP = Consumer Price
PP = Producers Farm Gate Price.

Variety-wise analysis has been attempted, wherever information was


available for all parameters for different varieties.

The reference year for the study was reckoned as April 2005-March 2006.
All cost and return parameters have been analysed on reference year prices.

The price spread is defined as the difference between the price paid by the consumer and that
received by the producer. This difference is accounted for by various costs, particularly marketing costs,
incurred by the market intermediaries and the margins retained by them.

CHAPTER III
AREA AND PRODUCTION OF MANGO:
GLOBAL SCENARIO, INDIA AND ANDHRA PRADESH
This chapter describes the area, production and productivity of mango in Andhra
Pradesh. Production scenario at global level and all India, has also been highlighted.
I. Global Scenario
Mango is commercially grown in about 83 countries in the world (Appendix I).
According to Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), mango is one of the six
major fruit crops in the world grown commercially in major producing countries like
India, China, Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Brazil, Philippines and
Haiti. The total world production during 2005 was around 28 million metric tonnes
(MT) where India enjoys the top slot (10.8 million MT) followed by China (3.67
million MT), Thailand (1.8 million MT), Mexico (1.5 million MT), etc. (Table 3.1).
When compared to world average (7,226 kg./ha), Indias productivity (6,750 kg./ha.)
is low. Brazil ranks first in productivity (12500 kg/ha), which is well ahead of world
average productivity.
Table 3.1: Area, Production and Productivity of Mango - Global Scenario - 2005
(Area in ha., Production in Mt. & Yield in kg./ha.)

Country

Area

World
3870200
Brazil
68000
China
433600
Guinea
82000
India
1600000
Indonesia
273440
Mexico
173837
Nigeria
125000
Pakistan
151500
Philippines 160000
Thailand
285000
Ohers
517723

Share(% to
total)
100.0
1.8
11.2
2.1
41.3
7.1
4.5
3.2
3.9
4.1
7.4
13.4

Production
27966749
850000
3673000
164000
10800000
1478204
1503010
730000
1673900
950000
1800000
4344635

Share (% to
total)
100
3.0
13.1
0.6
38.6
5.3
5.4
2.6
6.0
3.4
6.4
15.5

Yield
7226
12500
8470
2000
6750
5406
8646
5840
11048
5937
6315
---

Source: FAO database 2005

II. Area, Production and Productivity in India


India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical
conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural
crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts, spices and plantation crops. The total
annual production of such crops has touched over 149 million tonnes. India is the

second largest producer of fruits (45.5 Million tonnes) and vegetables (90.8 Million
tonnes) in the world, contributing 10.23 per cent and 14.45 per cent, respectively, of
the total world production of fruits and vegetables. India enjoys the top position in
production of mango, banana, sapota and acid lime. India accounted for about 53 per
cent of world mango production. Mango is the most important fruit crop of India and
comes next to banana, apple and oranges on the basis of global acreage and
production. India is the largest producer and consumer of mangoes in the world.
Mango accounts for over 23 per cent (45.5 Million tonnes) of the total fruit
production and 41 per cent of the total fruit area (24.87 million ha) of the country
(Table 3.2 & Chart 3.1). The CAGR showed that area growth (3.37%) is quite high
compared to growth in production (0.82%). Productivity experienced a negative
growth of 2.49 per cent.
Table 3.2: Area, Production and Productivity of Mango in India-1987-2005
(Area in 000ha., Production in 000MT & Productivity in MT./ha.)

Year
1987-88
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
CARG (%)

Area
1232.9
1077.6
1136.7
1217.4
1228.3
1283.1
1344.9
1384.9
1401.6
1486.9
1519.0
1575.8
1623.4
1906.7
1961.9
3.37

% to total
fruit area
43.5
37.5
35.5
38.2
28.5
38.2
37.6
37.5
37.6
37.3
39.3
39.3
42.9
39.8
40.9
---

Production
10350.4
8715.6
9223.3
10113.3
10993.3
10810.9
9981.2
10234.2
9781.8
10503.5
10056.8
10020.2
12733.2
11490.0
11605.2
0.82

% to total fruit
Production
37.4
30.4
28.0
27.1
28.5
26.0
24.7
23.7
21.4
23.0
23.3
23.3
28.2
23.3
23.5
---

Productivity
8.4
8.1
8.1
8.3
9.0
8.4
7.4
7.4
7.0
7.1
6.6
6.4
7.8
6.0
5.9
-2.49

Source: National Horticultural Board

Although, India is the world's largest producer of mangoes, its yield is at the lowest.
Low yield is one among many problems identified, others being post harvest damage,
size of orchards not amenable and absence of brands. Indian mangoes are world
famous and have great potential for export as compared to other fruits of the country.
The reasons for low productivity of our mangoes are that most of the commercial
cultivars are location specific with long gestation period and alternate bearing habit
viz., Deshehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green, Alphonso, Banganpalli, Pairi,
Himsagar, Kesar, Mulgoa etc

State-wise Scenario
The major mango growing states in India are UP, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Karnataka. Goa, Haryana, MP, Punjab and
TN. The region wise popular varieties grown in different parts of the country
comprise Alphonso and Kesar from Western India, Banganpalli, Totapuri and
Neelam from southern states, Fazli from Eastern States and Langra, Chausa and
Dusheri from Northern States. Area-wise, Andhra Pradesh occupies 20 per cent of
the total area under mango in the country, next to Maharashtra (22%) and followed
by UP (12.6%), Bihar (7%) and Orissa (6%). In Andhra Pradesh, the area under
mango has grown at CAGR of 4.7 per cent during 1996-97 to 2004-05 (Table 3.3).
Table 3.3: Growth in Area under Mango in Major States during 1996-97 to 2004-05
(Area in '000 ha.)

Year
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
CARG(%)

AP
271.4
276.2
252.1
297.5
306.2
341.2
370.3
402.2
391.9
4.7

UP
256.2
258.7
240.5
243.2
249.1
253.0
247.6
250.5
247.0
-0.5

Ktka
116.5
123.9
123.8
124.1
134.4
115.4
117.4
116.3
117.5
0.1

Bihar
151.8
153.2
154.8
156.0
139.1
139.3
139.5
140.0
140.1
-1.0

Mhtr
65.5
65.5
110.0
147.2
147.2
164.4
181.2
425.8
432.7
26.6

WB
55.7
55.8
59.3
60.0
62.5
65.4
66.4
67.8
69.1
2.7

Orissa Others India


89.1
338.7 1344.9
97.6
354.0 1384.9
109.8 351.3 1401.6
96.2
362.7 1486.9
103.8 380.3 1522.6
107.3 389.8 1575.8
113.1 388.1 1623.4
115.1 389.0 1906.7
120.3 443.2 1961.9
3.8
3.4
4.8

Andhra Pradesh produces 27 per cent of the total mango production in the country
next to West Bengal (28.3%) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (22.3%). (Table 3.3).
Table 3.4: Growth in Production under Mango in Major States during 1996-05
(Production in '000 MT.)

Year
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

AP
3256.3
3314.4
2269.6
2379.6
2449.5
2445.8
2962.1
3217.2
3135.2

UP
3548.0
1722.3
2418.7
1106.7
2250.3
1950.0
4031.3
2100.1
2585.6

K.taka
1106.7
1176.4
1176.5
1179.9
1291.4
1130.6
1098.2
1111.2
1105.9

Bihar
910.4
1838.9
1858.1
1871.9
1112.5
1253.5
1255.6
1540.1
865.6

Mahtra
196.5
65.5
196.9
500.5
500.5
559.0
615.9
629.8
634.3

Others
9017.9
8117.5
7919.8
7038.6
7604.2
7338.9
9963.1
8598.4
8326.6

WB
963.3
2116.7
1862.0
3464.9
2632.8
2681.3
2770.4
2891.6
3278.6

India
9981.2
10234.2
9781.8
10503.5
10237.0
10020.2
12733.5
11490.0
11605.2

III. Area, Production and Productivity in Andhra Pradesh


Mango is the leading fruit crop of Andhra Pradesh, which occupies an area of 3.91
lakhs hectares which accounts for 60 per cent of the total area under fruits with an
annual production of about 31.4 lakh tonnes. As per the Horticulture Vision 2020 of
Govt. of A.P., area under mango shall increase from 2.76 lakh ha in 1997-98 to 5.52
lakh ha. by 2020. The major mango growing districts are Krishna, Chittoor, East
Godavari, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, Khammam,
Karimnagar and Adilabad (Table 3.7). The area and production in major four districts
in the State are Krishna (61,977 ha with 4,95,816 tonnes), Chittoor (48,913 ha with
3,91,304 tonnes), Vizianagaram (35,634 ha with 2,85072 tonnes) and Khammam
(41,840 ha with 3,34,720 tonnes).
Among the several varieties grown in Andhra Pradesh, Banganapalli or Baneshan
occupies a predominant place (<70% of the total area under mango). Banginapalli,
predominantly grown in Krishna district, is famous for its good flavour, flesh
qualities and keeping quality. Slowly and steadily it is gaining popularity in the
international trade. Totapuri, the standard variety for pulp world over, is the major
variety grown in Chittoor district. The other varieties grown in the state are Neelum,
Imampasand, Rasalu varieties, etc. The area, production and productivity of mango in
Andhra Pradesh since 1991-92 is presented in Table 3.5. The CAGR for area and
production under mango in AP during 1991-92 to 2004-05 has been worked out to
5.0 per cent and 2.3 per cent, respectively.
Table 3.5: Area, Production & Productivity of Mango in Andhra Pradesh -1991-2005
(Area in lakh ha.)

Year

1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
CARG (%)

Andhra Pradesh
A
2.08
2.25
2.41
2.56
2.64
2.71
2.76
2.82
2.97
3.06
3.41
3.70
4.02
3.92
5.00

P
24.91
Na
Na
Na
13.04
32.56
33.14
22.70
23.80
24.50
24.49
29.62
32.17
31.35
1.78

Y
12.0
Na
Na
Na
4.9
12.0
12.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.2
8.0
8.0
8.0
---

India
A
10.78
11.37
12.17
12.28
12.83
13.45
13.85
14.02
14.87
15.19
15.76
16.23
19.07
19.62
4.71

P
87.16
92.23
101.13
109.93
108.11
99.81
102.34
97.82
105.04
100.57
100.20
127.33
114.90
116.05
0.82

Y
8.1
8.1
8.3
9.0
8.4
7.4
7.4
7.0
7.1
6.6
6.4
7.8
6.0
5.9
---

% of AP to
India
A
P
19.29
28.58
19.79
Na
19.80
Na
20.85
Na
20.58
12.06
20.15
32.62
19.93
32.38
20.11
23.21
19.97
22.66
20.14
24.36
21.64
24.44
22.80
23.26
21.08
28.00
19.98
27.01
-----

Sources: 1.Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, 2.National Horticultural Board

10

Among the study districts, Krishna district is endowed with the highest area (62,000
ha.) under mango cultivation followed by Chittoor (48,900 ha.) and Khammam
(41,800 ha.) districts. In terms of production, both Krishna and Chittoor districts
stood first and second position producing 4.96 lakh MT and 3.91 lakh MT of mango,
respectively, during 2004-05. In terms of area and production, both the districts share
about 28 per cent of area and production of mango in Andhra Pradesh (Table 3.6).
Even though, these two districts occupy the first and second position in terms of both
area and production, gradually other districts have been increasing their area and
production thus reducing the share of these districts, which has declined from 33 per
cent (area) and 40 per cent (production) during 1998-99 to the present level (28%).
Table 3.6: Area, Production & Yield of Mango in Study Districts 1998-2005
(Area in 000 ha. & Production in 000MTs.)

Year

1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
CARG (%)

Chittoor
A
33.0
42.8
45.1
45.6
47.8
52.7
48.9
6.8

P
106.8
342.1
360.2
368.9
382.7
421.8
391.3
24.2

Krishna
A
61.2
61.3
61.4
65.0
67.5
72.5
62.0
0.2

P
803.4
490.5
491.5
492.7
539.9
579.9
495.8
-7.7

Andhra Pradesh
A
281.9
297.4
306.2
341.2
370.3
402.2
391.9
5.6

P
2269.6
2379.6
2449.5
2445.8
2962.1
3217.2
3135.2
5.5

% of Chittoor &
Krishna
A
P
33.42
40.10
35.00
34.99
34.78
34.77
32.42
35.23
31.14
31.15
31.13
31.14
28.30
28.29
-----

Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh

In Chittoor district, mangoes account for 97 per cent share in total fruit production.
Totapuri (50%) and Neelum (25%) are the major varieties grown in the district. In
Krishna district, while Banganapalli occupies 60 per cent of the area, Totapuri
accounts for 20 per cent. The balance area is under the coverage of other varieties
like Chinnarasam, Peddarasam (both juicy varieties), Neelam, Suvaranrekha, Rasalu,
Jala Navaneetham, Himayat, etc. The Banishan (Banganapalli) is the native variety in
Krishna district. Totapuri and Neelam variety of mango is mostly used for
processing. Banishan or Banganapalli variety is mostly used for export, both,
domestic and outside. In Chittoor district, mango is grown in all mandals.
Vissannapeta (10,000 ha), Nuzividu (9000 ha), Agripalli (8500 ha), Reddigudem
(7000 ha), Chatral (6,000 ha) and Mylavaram (5000 ha ) are the major mango
growing mandals in Krishna district.

11

1998-99
Area
Prodn
7.7
91.0
27.7
95.0
15.4
56.9
20.3
52.4
21.8
422.0
61.2
803.4
0.9
10.5
4.2
47.5
8.6
22.9
167.8 1603.3
33.0
106.8
14.5
107.8
3.4
22.8
1.7
17.9
52.6
255.3
3.6
34.0
3.0
12.2
1.8
14.4
0.6
3.3
3.3
35.0
6.2
53.9
4.4
19.1
31.9
150.0
6.8
89.1
61.5
411.0
281.9 2269.6

1999-2000
Area
Prodn
8.0
63.9
29.7
237.5
15.6
124.6
20.6
164.7
20.7
165.9
61.3
490.5
1.0
7.7
4.2
34.0
9.4
74.9
17.0
1363.6
42.8
342.1
15.7
125.8
3.4
26.9
1.9
15.3
63.8
510.2
3.4
30.8
2.8
22.5
2.3
18.4
0.6
4.8
3.0
24.3
6.3
50.2
4.7
37.9
32.2
257.4
7.4
59.5
63.2
505.8
297.4 2379.6

2000-01
Area
Prodn
8.1
64.6
30.9
247.4
19.6
156.7
19.5
156.3
20.4
162.9
61.4
491.5
1.0
7.9
4.9
34.3
9.4
75.1
174.6 1396.6
45.1
360.2
16.9
135.0
3.4
27.1
2.0
15.7
67.3
538.4
4.5
36.0
2.8
22.1
2.0
15.9
0.6
5.1
2.9
22.8
6.4
51.5
5.1
40.8
32.4
259.6
7.6
60.7
64.3
514.6
306.2 2449.5

Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh

Srikakulam
V. naram
V.patnam
E.Godawari
W. Godawari
Krishna
Guntur
Prakasam
Nellore
Sub-Total
Chittoor
Cuddapa
Anatapuram
Karnool
Sub-Total
Mehboobnagar
RangaReddy
Medak
Nizamabad
Adilabad
KarimNagar
Warangal
Khamam
Nalgonda
Sub-Total
A.P Total

Districts

12

2001-02
Area
Prodn
10.3
68.0
31.1
259.1
17.3
125.6
17.6
150.9
20.5
161.2
65.0
492.7
1.0
8.0
5.1
40.0
9.6
76.0
177.4 1381.4
45.6
368.9
16.3
138.1
3.8
26.8
2.5
15.9
68.1
549.7
3.9
39.7
2.7
21.6
4.1
17.9
1.5
5.5
11.8
13.3
9.8
51.3
14.9
41.5
32.7
261.8
14.5
62.0
95.7
514.7
341.2 2445.8

2002-03
Area
Prodn
11.5
91.7
36.7
293.9
17.0
136.1
21.0
167.7
22.5
179.9
67.5
539.9
2.0
15.9
6.2
49.9
9.8
78.4
194.2 1553.4
47.8
382.7
17.7
141.9
6.0
47.7
3.0
24.2
74.6
596.5
5.1
40.8
2.9
23.6
4.7
37.8
1.6
13.2
13.3
106.1
9.8
78.1
15.5
123.9
35.2
281.3
13.5
107.6
101.5
812.3
370.3 2962.1

2003-04
Area
Prodn
11.5
91.7
36.7
293.9
17.0
136.1
21.0
167.7
27.5
219.9
72.5
579.9
2.0
15.9
6.2
49.9
9.8
78.4
204.2 1633.4
52.7
421.8
22.7
181.9
6.0
47.7
5.0
40.2
86.5
691.6
7.1
56.8
7.9
63.6
4.7
37.8
1.6
13.2
13.3
106.1
9.8
78.1
15.5
123.9
38.2
305.3
13.5
107.6
111.5
892.3
402.2 3217.2

2004-05
Area
Prodn
11.5
91.8
35.6
285.1
19.0
151.7
18.3
146.4
16.4
130.9
62.0
495.8
1.0
7.8
5.2
41.8
10.2
81.7
179.1 1433.0
48.9
391.3
17.6
140.8
6.4
51.2
4.1
32.9
77.0
616.2
18.5
148.0
4.6
37.1
5.3
42.3
1.9
15.1
17.0
136.4
11.7
93.7
19.7
158.0
41.8
334.7
15.1
120.8
135.7 1086.0
391.9 3135.2

CARG (%)
Area
Prodn
6.9
0.1
4.3
20.1
3.5
17.7
-1.7
18.7
-4.6
-17.7
0.2
-7.7
0.8
-4.8
3.6
-2.1
2.9
23.6
1.1
-1.9
6.8
24.2
3.3
4.6
11.3
14.5
16.3
10.6
6.6
15.8
31.6
27.8
7.7
20.3
19.9
19.7
21.3
29.0
31.7
25.4
11.1
9.7
28.2
42.2
4.6
14.3
14.2
5.2
14.1
17.6
5.6
5.5

(Area in 000 ha. & Production in 000MTs.)

Table 3.7: District-wise CARG of Area and Production of Mango in Andhra Pradesh during 1998-99 to 2004-05

CHAPTER IV
CULTIVATION PRACTICES
AND ECONOMICS OF MANGO CULTIVATION
The chapter describes the cultivation practices of mango and the economics of mango
cultivation. The analysis was supported by data/information gathered from 42 sample
mango growers from the study districts, i.e., Chittoor and Krishna.
I. Botanical Description5
Mango trees grown from seeds are known as "seedlings". Tree is symbolically
branched. Grafted trees on the other hand are dwarf with spreading branches. The
compactness of the canopy, branching pattern and leaf component show ecogeographical dependence. Seedling trees live much more than 100 years whereas
grafted ones live 80 years or less. Mango tree is medium to large (10-40 m in
height), evergreen with symmetrical, rounded canopy ranging from low and dense to
upright and open. The mango fruit varies considerably in size, shape, colour,
presence of fibre, flavour, taste and several other characters. The shape of the fruit
varies from rounded to ovate-oblong or longish, with the length varying from 2.5 to
30 cm in different varieties.
II. Nutritional Value of Mango
Mango is very nutritious and excellent source of carotene as compared to other fruits.
The nutritive value of per 100 g of Mango is presented in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Nutritive value of per 100 g of Mango
Nutrients
Ripe mango
Green or raw mango
Protein (g)
0.6
0.7
Fat (g)
0.4
0.1
Minerals (g)
0.4
0.4
Fibre (g)
0.7
1.2
Carbohydrates (g)
16.9
10.1
Energy (kcal)
74
44
Vitamin C (mg)
16
3
Total carotene (mcg)
2,210
90
Beta carotene (mcg)
1,990
NA
Potassium (mg)
205
83
Sodium (mg)
26
43
Calcium (mg)
14
10
Iron (mg)
1.3
0.33
Phosphorus (mg)
16
19
Source: National Institute of Nutrition NIN), Hyderabad
5

Sourced from http://www.horticultureworld.net.

13

A 100 g. of edible portion of the mango contains about 1990 ug of beta-carotene


(vitamin A), which is much higher than in other fruits. The total carotenoids in
mango increase with the stage of ripening. Eating mangoes in the season may provide
a store of vitamin A in the liver, sufficient to last for the rest of the year and highly
beneficial for the prevention of vitamin A deficient disorders, like night blindness.
Mangoes, both ripe and unripe, are very good a source of vitamin C. About 16 mg of
vitamin C is present in 100 g of mango. Both vitamins A and C are antioxidants and
help to prevent free radical injury and thus reduce the risk of certain cancers. Ripe
mango provides a good source of calories. A ripe mango supplies 74 kcal per 100 g
(mainly derived from fructose).
III. Cultivation Practices
Climate: Mango is grown in areas from sea level to an altitude of 1500 m. It thrives
well in regions with no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering period.
During summer (April-May) when the temperature is high (420 - 440 C) growing
shoots wither and dry up and the fruits get sunburn due to desiccation, intense
sunlight (550 cal/CM2 /day) and low atmospheric humidity (less than 20%). Most of
the mango varieties thrive in places with good rainfall (75 to 375 cm per annum).
Soil: Mango grows well on wide variety of soils, such as lateritic, alluvial, sandy
loam and sandy. The loamy or alluvial, well-drained, aerated and deep soils
(minimum 6') rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5 are most suitable
for mango cultivation. In Andhra Pradesh, it is mostly grown in light textured sandy
loams (Chalka and Dubba soils) and trees attain only low to medium height.
Varieties: Though there are nearly 1,000 varieties of mango in India, only a few
varieties are grown on a commercial scale in different states (Table 4.2).
Table 4.2: Major Mango Varieties grown in Different States
No States
Varieties
1 Andhra Pra
Banganpalli, Bangalora,Cherukurasam, Suvarnarekha
2 Bihar
Bombai, Langra, Fazli, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Sukul, Bathua
3 Goa
Fernandin, Mankurad, Alphonso
4 Gujarat
Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj
5 Haryana
Dashehari, Langra, Bombay Green
6 Karnataka
Alphonso, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Neelum, Pairi
7 Kerala
Mundappa, Olour, Pairi
8 Madhya Pra
Alphonso, Bombai, Langra and mostly seedling types
9 Maharashtra Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Pairi
10 Orissa
Baneshan, Langra, Neelum, Suvarnarekha
11 Punjab
Dashehari, Langra, Chausa
12 Tamil Nadu
Banganpalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, Mulgoa
13 Uttar Pradesh Dashehari, Fajri, Langra, Safeda Lucknow, Chausa
14 West Bengal Bombai, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Langra
Source: www.horticultureworld.net.

14

It is reported that at least 350 varieties are propagated in commercial nurseries. Most
of the leading Indian cultivars are seedling selections. Over 50,000 crosses were
made over a period of 20 years in India and 750 hybrids were raised and screened. Of
these, Mallika, a cross of Neelum (female parent) with Dashehari (male parent) was
released for cultivation in 1972. Another hybrid, Amrapali with Dashehari (female
parent) and Neelum (male parent) was developed as a dwarf, precocious, regular and
heavy bearer version. The Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)
Experiment Station, Hyderabad evaluated nine table varieties (firm-fleshed), four
juicy varieties, and five hybrids as suitable for processing. Recently, a few mango
hybrids have been released for cultivation by different institutes/universities as
presented in Appendix II.
Propagation and Planting: Of late, mango orchards in the State are developed
through grafted plants. Several old seedling orchards are also seen in certain pockets.
Quality planting materials are produced in 72 State Horticulture Farms (SHFs). Land
is prepared by deep ploughing followed by harrowing and leveling with a gentle
slope for good drainage. Pits of 1m x 1m x 1m are dug and the pits are filled back by
adding farmyard manure (FYM), tank silt, leaf mould, single super phosphate,
muriate of potash, etc. Orchards are laid out by adopting square system of planting.
All the sample farmers were found to have cultivated a mix of varieties rather than a
single variety so as to minimize various problems associated with incompatibility,
productivity, consumers choice, time of maturity and harvesting, etc. Spacing varied
from 10 m x 10 m in the dry zones where growth is less to 12 m x 12 m in good
rainfall areas. Dwarf hybrids like Amrapali are planted at a closer spacing of 5-6 m.
For effectively utilizing the available natural resources and for increasing
productivity, the Department of Horticulture (DoH) encourages establishment of new
mango orchards under high density planting system with an espacement of 7.5 m x
7.5 m using grafts. To encourage this, the Department is extending subsidy to the
extent of 50 per cent on the cost of planting material.
Training and Pruning: Trees are trained usually about one meter from the base on
the main trunk free from branching and the main stem was allowed thereafter spaced
at 20-25 cm apart in such a way that they grow in different directions. The DoH
through various training programmes has been advocating the importance of proper
pruning and canopy opening for increased fruit production, reducing pest and disease
incidence and improved fruit quality. To encourage this, pruning saws are also
supplied to the growers on subsidy.
Fertiliser Application: The DoH recommended a fertilizer dose of 200 g nitrogen,
100 g phosphorus and 100 g potassium to one-year-old grafts, which should be
increased with plant age (Table 4.3). However, in both the districts, majority of
sample mango growers were not applying chemical fertilizers. A good number of
growers were reported to have applied organic manures like, FYM at 2-3 years
interval. Some of the mango growers especially in Krishna district were reported to
have applied zinc sulphate through foliar feeding. When grown under rainfed

15

conditions, spray of 2 per cent of ammonium sulphate during fruit growth is


advocated. Further, as most of the soils in the state are different in zinc, spray of zinc
sulphate and urea mixture and soil application of zinc sulphate (@0.50 kg to 1.00
kg/plant, depending on the age) once in two years are recommended.

Age of Plant
1
2
3
4
5
6

Table 4.3: Recommended Fertilizer Application


Muriate/sulphate of potash
FYM (kg)
Urea (g)
SSP (g)
20
400
625
190
40
960
1100
290
60
1085
1560
415
70
1410
2030
540
80
1750
3125
830
100
2170
6250
1660

Source: Department of Horticulture, GoAP.

Irrigation: About 92.7 per cent of mango area owned by sample mango farmers was
taken up under irrigation, mostly under drip irrigation. Availability of subsidy to the
farmers under Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP) appears to be one of
the factors resulting in increased area under drip irrigation. Young plants are watered
frequently for proper establishment and for grown up trees, irrigation at 10-15 days
interval from fruit set to maturity is practiced for improving yield.

Plant Protection: Mango is prone to a large number of pests and disorders.


Powdery mildew is the most widely prevalent disease in both the districts. First, the
symptoms appear as white patches, which later coalesce and infect the entire
inflorescence. The infected inflorescence and flowers dry up and fail to bear fruit. For
healthy growth of the plant, recommended control measures6 need to be properly
followed.
Inter cropping: While in Chittoor districts, most growers were not practicing intercropping, in Krishna districts, many growers were cultivating short duration crops as
inter crops to effectively utilize land and water resources. As mango is a long
6

Most important and common pests and diseases of mango are (i) Mango hopper : Two
sprays (at panicles emergence and at pea size of fruits) of carbaryl (0.15%), monocrotophos
(0.04%) or phosphamidan (0.05)., (ii) Mealy bug : Ploughing inter spaces in November and
dusting 2% methyl parathion @200 g per tree near the trunk and fixing 20 cm wide 400 gauge
polythene strips around the trunk with grease applied on the lower edge in January as
prophylactic measures and two sprays of monocrotophos (0.04%) at 15 days interval are
needed. (iii) Powdery mildew : Two to three sprays of wettable sulphur (0.2%) or Kerathane
(0.1%) at 10-15 days interval. (iv) Anthracnose : Two sprays of Baistin (0.1%) at fortnight
interval. (v) Malformation : One spray of 200 ppm NAA in October followed by deblossoming
at bud burst stage in December - January. (vi) Fruit drop : Regular irrigation during fruit
development, timely and effective control of pests and diseases and spraying 20 ppm NAA at
pea size of fruits.

16

gestation period of 5-7 years, many cultivators in Nuzivid, Tiruvur mandals were
practicing paddy cultivation as an inter cropping. The water and nutrient
requirements of the inter crops were being met separately. It was also observed that
certain growers in Krishna district, had grown mango with guava as intercrop with a
spacing of 10m.x 10m. for mango and 5m x 5m. for guava which is grown up to 7-8
years. The actual practices as against the recommended practices of mango
cultivation are presented in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4: Actual Practices as against the Recommended Practices of Mango
Cultivation
No Item of Package
Actual Practices
Recommended
Practice*
1 Soil selection
--All healthy soils
2 Varieties
All varieties including local
Totapuri, Neelam,
Banishan
3 Manures &
Mature tree: DAP & MoP:
FYM -25 kg/pit NPK:
fertilizers
2:1, 4.5 kg/ acre
as per recommendation
4 Spacing
12-16 m (18-40 plants/acre)
7 10 metres
5 Planting Season
June December
6 Seedling selection
Whatever available
Healthy seedling
7 Micro nutrient
ZnSO4 5 gm + 10 gms
Nil to 3 (rainfed) to 5
usage
Urea in 1 ltr water foliar
(irrigated) sprays of Sevin +
spray
Sulpher (before pericle
insiction), Endosulfan +
8 Pest Management
Need based
Bavistin
(on
female
9 Weed Management
Ploughing for 2 times in
emergener), Nuvacron /
rainy season
Corfidor : Thrips
10 Disease
IPM approach Need
Clorpyriptos / Sgnetic
Management
based
pyratherid Hopper
*Source: 19, Strategic Research and Extension Plan of Chittoor District-19, MANAGE, Hyderabad

IV. Economics of Mango Cultivation


(i) Profile of Mango Farmers and Mango Orchards
(a) Age and Education
Age may be a factor influencing adoption of better cultivation practices. The study
indicated that young farmers are adopting better and modern cultivation practices and
shifting to a commercial mode of cultivation. The age of sample farmers ranged from
20 to 69 years with an average of 43 years. Further, 59.9 per cent of sample farmers
belonged to the age category of 20-35 years. Education is considered as a factor
influencing favourably to adoption of modern and better cultivation practices. The
analysis indicated that all mango farmers were literate. Further, 47.7 per cent of
farmers had education of secondary level and above (Table 4.5).

17

Table 4.5: Age and Education-wise Distribution of Sample Mango Farmers


Age
Education
Category
Sample
Per
Category
Sample
Per
Farmers (No.)
cent
Farmers (No.)
cent
20-25
5
11.6
Primary &
4
9.5
26-35
20
48.3
Post Primary
6
14.3
36-45
14
33.1
Secondary
12
28.6
46 & 55
1
3.5
H. Secondary
18
42.9
< 56
1
3.5
Degree & Above
2
4.8
Total
42
100.0 Total
42
100.0
(b) Size Class of Mango Orchards
The size of sample mango orchards varied from 2.5 to 120.0 acres, with an average
size of 13.5 acres. About 24 per cent of the mango orchards belonged to the small
category of less than 5.0 acres. About 43 per cent of the mango orchards belonged to
the category of 10.0 acres and above. The distribution of sample mango orchards
according to size is presented in Table 4.6.
Table 4.6: Size-wise Distribution of Sample Mango Orchards
Size in Acres
No. of Sample
Per cent to
Total Area Average Area
Farms
Total
Below 2.50
2
4.8
4.5
2.3
2.51-5.0
8
19.0
32.5
4.1
5.01 10.0
13
31.0
117.5
9.0
10.01 25.0
15
35.7
303.5
20.2
25.01 50.0*
3
7.1
110.0
36.7
Total
41
97.6
568.0
13.5
* An orchard of size 120 acres belonging to a trader was not included for estimating average size of
orchards

(c) Age-wise Distribution of Mango Orchards


The age of sample mango orchards varied from 3 years to 80 years. Nearly 73 per
cent of the orchards belonged to the age group of 15 to 40 years, i.e., the period of
getting stabilized yield. The distribution of sample mango orchards according to age
is presented in Table 4.7.
Table 4.7: Age-wise Distribution of Sample Mango Orchards
Size in Acres
No. of Sample Farms
Per cent to Total
3 to 7 years
4
9.8
7 to 10
3
7.3
10 to 15
4
9.8
15 to 25
13
31.7
25 to 40*
17
41.5
Total
41
100.0
*An orchard belonging to a trader was about 80 years old is not included while calculating percentages.

18

(ii) Costs & Returns of Mango Cultivation


(a) Cost of Establishment
The cost of establishment of mango orchards was estimated at reference year prices
rather than at historical prices since majority (73%) of the sample mango orchards
were of more than 15 years of age and as such the reliability of the historical costs
would be questionable as it is fraught with memory recall bias and the farmers do not
maintain any records of expenses made by them. The cost of establishment of the
mango orchards in sample districts, on an average, was estimated at Rs.12,700 per
acre during first year (Table 4.8). The cumulative cost of establishment (Rs.12,700)
and maintenance (Rs.12,300) till 5th year is reported at Rs.25,000, depending on the
quality of soil, irrigation and planting material.
Table 4.8: Average Cost of Establishing Mango Orchard during First Year
(per acre)

Particulars
Land preparation
Manures & Fertilisers
Plant protection
Planting material
Implements*
Fencing
Intercropping
Irrigation
Miscellaneous
Total

Average Amount
2500
2400
1200
1250
700
1250
1900
900
600
12700

Percentage
19.69
18.90
9.45
9.84
5.51
9.84
14.96
7.09
4.72
100.00

*expenses on sprayers and other implements used

(b) Cost of Maintenance


Manuring, plant protection and irrigation are the major components in the
maintenance cost, apart from the labour charges for various cultural operations such
as weeding, input application, training, pruning, etc. The annual maintenance
cost/acre of full grown mango orchard (from 10th year onwards) has been is worked
out to Rs.5,500/acre (Table 4.9).
Table 4.9: Cost of Maintenance of Mango Orchards
(per acre)

Particulars
Labour
Manures & Fertilisers
Plant protection
Irrigation*
Miscellaneous
Total

Amount
1400
1700
800
1000
600
5500

*includes minor repairs drip irrigation system

19

Percentage
25.45
30.91
14.55
18.18
10.91
100.00

(c) Gross and Net Income


The average yield of mango varies from orchard to orchard depending on the climate,
soil texture, cultivation practices adopted, etc. In case of the sample mango orchards
in the study districts, the average yield was reported at 5 MT/acre in a stabilized
orchard of 15 years and above. Considering the same yield, the economics of mango
orchards has been worked out for the average situation as presented in Table 4.10. At
the reference year yield, prices and costs, the net income from mango orchards at
Rs.17,000 per acre was low compared to the normal years. Apart from the yield, the
size of mango garden was also an important factor influencing profitability.
Table 4.10: Gross and Net Income from Sample Mango Orchards
(Rs./acre)

No.

Particulars
Gross Returns (@ average yield of 4 tonnes /acre and
selling price of Rs.4,500/-/tonne)
Annual Cost of Maintenance
Net Income

1
2
3

Amount (Rs.)
22500
5500
17000

(e) Economics
The economics of mango orchards in the sample districts was worked out with the
following parameters as assessed during the study.

Since the sample mango orchards were established without replacing any other
crop, the pre-development income of these lands was assumed to be zero.

The mango orchard starts yielding from the sixth year onwards and stabilized
yield is obtained from 15 year up to 35 year.

The costs of maintenance of a mango orchard in the early years of planting is less
than the matured garden, viz., Rs.4,000/acre (6th/7th year), Rs.4,500/acre (up to 9th
year), Rs.5,500/acre (from 10th year). The variation is due to increase in
nutritional and intercultural requirements. The cash flow in mango orchard is
presented in Tables 4.11.
Table 4.11: Cash Flow from Cultivation of Mango Orchards
(Rs./acre)

Items
Yield
(MT/ac)
Returns*
Cost
Net
Surplus

Years
10

11

12

13

14

15-35

1-5

0.8

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

0
25000
25000

3600
4000

6750
4000

9000
4500

11250
4500

13500
5500

15750
5500

18000
5500

18000
5500

20250
5500

22500
5500

-400

2750

4500

6750

8000

10250

12500

12500

14750

17000

*@Rs.4,500/-/tonne

20

The mango orchard in the district was viable with the present level of yield, cost and
price and the IRR worked out to 20.83 per cent (Table 4.12). The farmers in Chittoor
district were of the opinion that the recurring drought for the third consecutive year,
viz., 2002-03, 2003-04 and 2005-06, had affected the economics of existing mango
orchards.
Table 4.12: Economics of Mango Orchards
Sl.
Pariculars
Value
No.
1
PV of costs at 15% DF (Rs./acre)
42553
2
PV of benefits at 15% DF (Rs./acre)
50499
3
NPV (Rs./acre)
7946
4
BCR
1.19
5
IRR (%)
20.83

21

CHAPTER V
MARKETING ASPECTS: ROLE OF DIFFERENT CHANNELS,
MARKET ARRIVALS AND PRICE SPREAD
A healthy marketing system for a particular commodity has to provide required
information, technology, marketing linkages for better price realization by farmer.
Marketing efficiency of a particular commodity is evaluated by looking at the
producers share in the consumers rupee. The present chapter addresses the issues
affecting marketing of mango. The major commercial varieties of mango marketed in
Andhra Pradesh are Banganapalli, Neelam, Totapuri, Suvarnarekha.
I. Marketing Channels for Mango
Based on the discussions with the farmers, traders and representatives of processing
units, it was observed that mango reaches to the consumer through four channels, i.e.,
1.
2.
3.
4.

Grower to Pre-Harvest Contractors (PHC)


Grower to Up-Country Trader (UCT)
Grower to Village Trader/Commission Agent (VT/CA)
Grower to Mango Processing Units (MPUs)

From the grower, mango reaches the export destination through any of these four
channels. A comprehensive chart depicting different channels/sub-channels is
depicted in Chart 5.1.
(i) Pre-Harvest Contractors
The mango orchard owner leases out his orchard as per contract to the PHCs. Both
the parties agree to abide by the terms and conditions stipulated at the time of
agreement (which is almost invariably oral in nature). The PHCs visit the mango
orchards just after the mango-harvesting season (during August, September) to
survey the orchards after which the negotiation takes place between the grower and
the contractor. These contractors also take up the works of required input applications
to the leased in orchards including plant protection to obtain optimum fruit yield.
PHCs, after harvesting mango, sell it in the open market or to processing units like a
grower who undertakes self-marketing.
(ii) Upcountry Traders
Many traders from neighboring states visit mango markets in Chittoor and Krishna
districts during mango season. Traders from Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, New
Delhi, Kolkatta, Nagpur, Jaipur, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad participate in mango
trading in Chittoor and Krishna District. UCTs visit mango orchards during the
months of January-February and survey the orchards at flowering stage and estimate
the output for the forthcoming harvesting season. Based upon the estimation, UCTs
fix the prices for the purchase of mango production from the orchard owners. Unlike

22

the PHCs, the UCTs do not undertake maintenance of the farm. Under an informal
agreement, UCTs pay an advance (10 to 20 %) to the orchard owner. The price is
settled before the harvest and payment is made soon after the completion of
marketing,.
(iii) Mango Processing Units
Processors purchase mango for the production of pulp from traders as well as mango
growers. Totapuri mangoes are mainly used for preparing pulp because of its high
pulp-yielding rate. Processors visit the mango orchards and testify the quality and
determine the price and some also offer advances to the growers. As pulp content
depends upon quality, processors insist on sorting and grading of mangoes and prices
are determined depending on the grade. Processing units purchase mangoes from
market yards as they are assured of large quantities to run the unit continuously till
the mango season is over.
(iv) Village Trader/Commission Agent
About 60 per cent of mango growers transact through village trader/commission
agent (VT/CA). VTs often provide advance to the farmer with the condition that the
grower has to sell his produce to them. They resell mangoes to UCTs/
MPUs/retailers. But VT collects 10 per cent of volume of trade amount towards
commission charges. If, due to any unforeseen situations (pests, cyclones, etc.) the
grower fails to settle the advance, the same gets adjusted from the next year sale
proceeds. However, inadequate information of prices and lack of weighing facilities
are a few limitations of this channel.
Overall, mango reaches to the consumer through five different channels (Table 5.1).
However, it is very difficult to come out with a clear cut demarcation of channels as
some PHCs also act as CAs, some CAs act as traders. They themselves also act as
local wholesalers. Many of the CAs/Traders are also mango orchard owners and
contribute substantially to the mango production. Discussions with different players
in the market as mentioned above revealed the following types of possible marketing
channels.
Table 5.1: Share of Different Marketing Channels in Marketing of Fresh Mangoes
No.
Marketing Channels
Share (%)
1
55.0
Grower CAs/VTs UCTs Retailers Consumer
2
25.0
Grower PHCs CAsRetailers Consumer
3
10.0
Grower UCTs Retailers Consumer
4
7.0
Grower Local Wholesalers Retailers Consumer
5
3.0
Grower Processors
6.
Negligible
Growers Consumer
Total
100.0

23

Chart 5.I

Mango Grower

Pre-harvest
Contractor

Upcountry
Trader

Processor

Village
Trader

Market
Commissio
n Agent/
Wholesaler

Upcountry
Market

Industrial
User/Unit

Processing
Unit

Upcountry
Trader

Retailer

Wholesale
Stockist

Exporter

Importer

Stores
Retailer

Retailer
Retailer
Fruit, Pulp, Juice / Soft Drink, Pickles

Consumer
II. Mango Market Yards in Chittoor and Krishna Districts
Mango production in Chittor district arrives to five different marke yards. They are
Chittoor, Damancheruvu, Bangarupalem, Tirupati and Puttur. In Krishna districts
mango production mostly arrives to Nunna market yard in Vijayawada. In Chittoor
market yard the major varieties of the mangoes are Totapuri, Banganapalli, Mulgoa,
Khadar (Alphanso), Natu (local) and Neelam. The commission agents facilitate the
trade between the mango farmers and the purchasers. Puttur MY mostly handles
smaller quantities of mango. As it lies on the Tirupathi Chennai highway, mango
production mostly reaches either Tirupati or Chennai from the mango orchards
directly. In Tirupati market yard, three varieties such as Banganapalli, Totapuri and
Neelam form the majority of the mangoes being traded. The arrivals of mangoes are
mainly from outside the notified area such as Puttur, Nagari, Kodur (Kadapa district).

24

Damalacheruvu market yard, one of the oldest private market yards in Chittoor
district and consists of about 100 mandis. It is an open market and no auction takes
place. Mangoes mostly arrive from Vellore, Kuppam and all the mandals of the
district. The varieties are mainly Totapuri, Banganapalli, Neelam, Khadar
(Alphanso). Traders from far of places like, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Nagpur,
Mumbai, Bangalore, Raipur visit this market yard for buying mango. The command
area of Bangarupalyam market yard covers four mandals viz., Bangarupalyam,
Thavanampalle, Irala and Yadamari(part). It covers 77 villages consisting of about
800 mango growers. The arrivals of mangoes are mainly from within the command
area and varieties such as Banganapalli, Totapuri and Neelam form the majority of
the mangoes being traded.
The Nunna market yard under Golapudi AMC near Vijayawada consists of 81 shops.
Every year about 6,000-7,000 trucks each containing 9-10 MT of mango are being
transported to different parts of the counry, mostly to Azadpur mandi in Delhi.
Traders in this marke yard also provide finance to the farmers. Major varieties
coming to Nunna MY are Benishan, Totapuri, etc. About 15-20 per cent of Totapari
mango only comes to the market and rest is sold in the orchards itself. Maharashtra,
Gujarat, West Bengal use this for picking in the early season. About 70 per cent of
mangoes are exported to other States and rest 30 per cent is sold local traders.
Traders from Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal visit Nunna MY and take the
advantage of early season pickling, when the prices remain usually high.
Market Arrival and Prices of Mango
The annual arrival of mangoes and prices in five market yards in Chittoor and Nuna
Market yard in Krishna Districts during 1997-98 to 2005-06 is presented in Table 5.2.
The continuous drought conditions in Chittoor district during the last four years had
affected the arrival of major agricultural produce in the market yard. Further,
production of mango fluctuates due to alternate bearing nature of the crop, that
affects the market arrival as well. Absence of effective marketing linkages also
hampers the mango arrival to various market yards. Growers prefer to sell directly to
processing units, local wholesalers and directly to outside wholesalers.
Mango prices vary a great deal from year to year, depending upon each years total
production and various other factors like prevailing prices, demand, transport,
marketing facilities, etc. Wholesale prices of mangoes also vary considerably,
depending upon the supply/demand of particular varieties, periods of availability,
weather conditions, transport facilities, variety, quality, etc. Daily arrivals have also a
direct bearing on the prices. Thus, the fluctuations in prices are of an irregular
pattern. Ordinarily, the prices are high at the commencement of the season, declining
gradually as the supplies increase. Later on, when the arrivals decrease, they tend to
recovery and reach a high level again before the close of the season. The monthly
wholesale price index of mangoes (all India) for ten years period is presented in
Table 5.3.

25

Table 5.2: Market Arrival of Mango and Prices in Chittoor and Krishna Districts
(Q in MT & P in Rs.)

Years
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
Years
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07

Bangarupallem
Q
P
11307
2500
3522
4500
10499
3500
3346
4250
33423
2000
7004
3000
13750
4220
31214
5840
33491
3533
na
na
Puttur
Q
P
18651
3250
7856
4000
38903
3000
8600
4000
13371
3500
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

Chittor
Q
P
28721
3000
17292
5000
58319
2000
14915
5200
57321
3316
19872
5536
13096
4340
27994
7828
19975
5100
8732
na
Tirupati
Q
P
9125
2500
2876
5000
16710
2700
3270
4500
13421
2500
9650
4518
21411
2966
19288
4011
22257
3078
17794
4380

Damancheruvu
Q
P
44426
5000
28118
4000
81825
2000
22777
4000
31612
3500
34700
3000
44025
3000
46490
2500
38307
2500
49031
3000
Nuna
Q
P
na
Na
20542
5074
60000
5055
52000
5386
62058
5015
46824
5919
59285
7000
27710
6867
76538
5514
66720
6163

Q: Quantity of output in Quintals, P: Price per Quintal in Rs. Source: AMC offices of respective market yards

Table 5.3: Monthly Wholesale Price Index of Mangoes in India (1995 to 2006)
Base Year: 1993-94 = 100
Year
April
May
June
July
Average
1995
175.2
109.7
125.5
105.0
128.9
1996
141.3
119.5
137.7
156.2
138.7
1997
173.8
104.9
111.9
95.4
121.5
1998
191.0
195.8
204.7
242.0
208.4
1999
222.7
118.3
111.0
124.8
144.2
2000
208.6
168.5
180.6
174.6
183.1
2001
181.8
157.9
129.9
146.7
154.1
2002
196.6
163.5
149.8
160.2
167.5
2003
201.4
176.9
197.9
197.9
193.5
2004
240.0
223.4
176.8
176.8
204.3
2005
247.9
240.4
210.9
210.9
227.5
CARG (%)
3.53
8.16
3.52
4.76
6.52
Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India

26

Role of Up Country Traders in Price Fixation


Field study revealed that UCTs obtain supply prospects of mango from the village
and supply to the terminal markets. UCTs, acting as traders, also determine prices at
the village level and at the terminal markets. In fact, daily price depends upon visit of
number of UCTs in the village and market yard everyday. If number of UCTs is
large, mango price is reported to be high and vice versa. Thus, the influence of UCTs
is high on prices than the local traders. Growers, mostly small and marginal farmers,
are unaware of the final price of their produce, which they sell to the traders. Farmers
feel cheated as traders garner higher margin.
However, as UCTs facilitate selling of mangoes on the farm itself, small farmers
those who do not have their own transport are greatly benefited. If UCTs purchase
from market, UCTs engage in financial links with mandi owners (traders). Traders
borrow from UCTs before the mango season to meet working capital requirement
and the account is settled in installments or at the end of the season. After the
purchase from the farmer or market, depending upon the distance, transport
arrangements are made by the UCT. Around 300 trucks take mango to upcountry
markets every day during the season (April-May) from Nuzivid mandal of Krishna
district. About 35-40 rakes are exported in a year from this station (one rake = 40
wagons x 26.MT/wagon=1040 MT.). Similarly, about 100 trucks leave from
Damancheruvu market yard in Chittoor to different places in North India.
Role of Commission Agents
The Commission Agents (CAs) are the most important link in the marketing of
mango controling about two-thirds of the total market. These CAs also act as grower
cum trader and facilitate the trade between the mango grower and the UCTs. The
study revealed that the purchasers normally pay Rs 60 for loading/unloading/grading
of mangoes to CAs. They are required to pay 1 per cent of the turnover as market fee
to the AMC and 4 per cent of the turn over as commission to the CAs. The CAs
collect the market fee from purchasers on behalf of the AMC. For this purpose, the
AMC provides receipts to the CAs. CAs, who are also traders, avail Secured Over
Draft (SOD) from banks and utilize the same in lending to mango farmers for
consumption/production purpose (@ 24 % interest p.a). The amount of advance is
decided on several factors such as area under mango, expected production, past track
record of the mango supply to the CAs, etc. After harvest of mangoes, farmers sell
mangoes to the CAs and pay 10 per cent of the sale proceeds as commission charges.
Price Spread
Price spread is the difference between the retail price paid by the consumer and the
price received by the farmer/producer for the same quantity of the produce. Price
spread in marketing of mango is analysed by following the product movement from
the mango grower to the consumer. Various costs (particularly marketing costs) and
margins together with the farm gate price constitute the consumer price of mango. It

27

is a fact that there is a direct relationship between the consumer price and the length
of the marketing channel. In other words, consumer price is the lowest when the
marketing channel is the shortest, i.e., when the mango grower directly sales to the
consumer. However, the magnitude of sale take place through this direct channel was
negligible (Table 5.1). In the absence of direct linkage between the mango grower
and the consumer, it is the middlemen alone who have been taking advantage of the
situation. An indicator of the efficiency of any supply chain is the extent of the price
spread between the producer and the consumer. A higher price spread would indicate
a lower efficiency. Conversely, a low level of price spread would indicate a high
efficiency of the supply chain mechanism. The producers share in the consumer
price is high when the marketing efficiency is high. The price spread in different
channels of mango marketing is presented in Table 5.5.
The marketing margin as percentage of consumer producer price difference is a
measure of efficiency of the marketing channel. High per cent indicates low
efficiency and vice versa. The producers share in consumer price and market
margins as percentage of consumer producer price differential in various channels
of marketing of mangoes is presented in Table 5.4. The analysis indicates that the
share of the grower in the consumer price was 100 per cent when the transaction was
direct without the involvement of the middlemen. The marketing efficiency was the
highest under this channel. However, direct transaction between the grower and
consumer constituted the negligible share (>1%)of the total transactions in the
product and cannot be considered as an effective supply chain management.
Conversely, Channel 2 depicted the lowest market efficiency in terms of the highest
market margins (68.5%) indicating exploitation of the producers under the supply
chain involving commission agents and PHCs. The total negative impact is real and
significant as most of the mangoes (55%) are supplied through this channel.
Table 5.4: Share of Different Marketing Channels in Marketing of Fresh Mangoes
No Marketing Channels
Producer
Margin as %of
Market
share in
consumerEfficiency
consumer
producer price
price
differential
1 Grower CAs/VTs UCTs
28.80
63.8
High
Retailers Consumer
2 Grower PHCs
34.74
68.5
Lowest
CAsRetailers Consumer
3 Grower UCTs Retailers
33.59
65.5
Low
Consumer
4 Grower Wholesalers
44.05
62.2
Higher
Retailers Consumer
5 Grower Consumer
100.0
0.0
Highest

28

29

Table 5.5: Price Spread for a tonne of mango in different Marketing Channels (Value in Rupees)
Particulars
Channels
I
II
III
IV
1
Mango Grower
Sale price
3600 (28.80)
3300 (34.7)
4400 (33.6)
3700 (52.9)
Marketing costs
200 (1.4)
Net price received
3600 (28.80)
3300 (34.7)
4200 (32.1)
3700 (52.9)
2
VT/CA/PHC
Purchase price
3600 (28.80)
3300 (34.7)
Marketing costs
200(1.61)
300 (3.2)
Sale price
4400 (35.2)
4400 (46.3)
Net margin or profit
600 (4.8)
800 (8.4)
3
Local wholesaler
Purchase price
4400 (35.2)
4400 (46.3)
4400 (33.6)
3700 (52.9)
Marketing costs
150 (1.2)
800 (8.4)
150 (1.1)
400 (4.7)
Sale price
5100 (40.8)
6300 (66.3)
5300 (40.5)
4900 (67.1)
Net margin or profit
550 (4.4)
1100 (11.6)
750 (5.7)
800 (9.4)
4
UCTs/Distant wholesaler
Purchase price
5100 (40.8)
5300 (40.5)
Marketing costs
1900 (15.2)
1900 (14.5)
Sale price
9100 (72.8)
9300 (71.0)
Net margin or profit
2100 (16.8)
2100 (16.0)
5
Retailer
Purchase price
9100 (72.8)
6300 (66.3)
9300 (71.0)
4900 (67.1)
Marketing costs
1000 (8.0)
850 (8.9)
950 (7.3)
850 (9.7)
Sale price
12500 100.0)
9500 (100.0)
13100 (100.0)
8400 (100.0)
Net margin or profit
2400 (19.2)
2350 (24.7)
2850 (21.8)
2650 (23.5)
Gross marketing margin
8900 (68.0)
6200 (65.3)
8700 (66.4)
4700 (47.1)
Consumers purchase price
12500 (100.0)
9500 (100.0)
13100.0 (100.0)
8400 (100.0)
Note: figures in parentheses indicate percentages to consumers purchase price.

No

6000 (100.0)

6000 (100.0)
-

CHAPTER VI
MANGO PROCESSING: PROCESSED PRODUCTS, VALUE
CHAIN AND ECONOMICS OF MANGO PROCESSING
The present chapter narrates the processing aspects of mango, value chain involved in
processing; economics of mango processing, problems associated with mango,
mango based processed products and processors, etc.
I. Processing of Mangoes
In Andhra Pradesh, 90 per cent of the mango orchards are having Baneshan
(Banganapalli) variety, which is not a pulp variety. Of the remaining 10 per cent area,
most of it is occupied by Totapuri (also called as Collector) and Suvarnarekha, which
are suitable for pulp extraction. It is estimated that only 6 per cent of the total mango
production is processed. Mangoes are processed into various types of products as
mentioned elow.
(a) Raw Mango Products: Pickle, Amchoor, Mango Slice and Green mango
beverage
For pivckles, the fruits are peeled, sliced into small pieces and mixed with 20 per cent
salt, 7.5 per cent chilly powder and 1 per cent assafoetida on weight basis. Spices are
then mixed in it and the slices dipped in boiled but cool oil. The whole mixture is
then kept for few days with frequent stirring and then filled in clean glass jars.
Mango slices from peeled mangoes are dipped in solution of potassium
metabisulphite (1.5%) for 5 minutes and dried in sun or solar dehydrator. Amchoor is
obtained by grinding the dried slices. Raw mango slices are dipped in 1.5 per cent
potassium metabisulphite solution for 5 minutes, drained, mixed with equal amount
of powdered salt and stored in polythene pouches. These slices could be used later for
the required food / product preparation.
Whole raw mangoes are boiled with equal amount of water and pulp is extracted. To
one kg of extract, 1.6 kg sugar, 1.6 litres water, 80 g salt, 20 g mint, 10 g cumin, 4 g
black pepper and 20 g citric acid are mixed. This mixture is heated and filled in clean
glass bottles. It may be used as raw mango squash, a modified version of Panna.
(b) Ripe Mango Products:Pulp, Mango Jelly, Beverages,Squash, Mango leather
Fully ripe mangoes are washed, peeled and cut into slices. The slices are then
homogenized into pulp, which is filtered through a sieve to remove the fibre. The
pulp is heated to 76-780 C and 2 g citric acid and 2g potassium metabisulphite are
added per kg of pulp. It is filled in sterilized glass jars and lids are sealed with wax.
For mango jelly, mango is cut into 6 to 8 slices, the bulky juice is sent to sieving,
seeds are separated and thick mango juice collected in wooden pots. Sugar or

30

jaggery is mixed in 1:4 proportions. The preparation is subjected to natural drying


process on bamboo-thatched beds. About 7 to 9 layers of juice is applied for natural
drying every day and the process goes for 25 days.
Mango juice may be prepared by mixing 1/3rd of fresh or stored pulp with 2/5th of
water. Sugar and citric acid are added so that the total soluble solids (TSS) and
acidity of the product reach 15 and 0.3 per cent, respectively. The mixture is heated
to 950C, filled hot in clean, sterilized bottles. The bottles are sterilized for 10-15
minutes, cooled to room temperature and stored. Squash is prepared by mixing 1 kg
of pulp with sugar syrup (1 kg sugar in 750 ml water). The whole mixture is heated to
76-780 C and 25-30 g citric acid is added to it. The prepared squash is filled in clean,
sterilized bottles and stored. Homogenized mango pulp is taken and potassium
metabisulphite is added to it @ 2 g/kg of pulp. The pulp is then spread on trays
smeared with butter and sun dried. The process is repeated so as to obtain a thickness
of 0.60 to 1.25 cm. Finally, the dried product is cut into pieces and wrapped in butter
paper or polythene cellophane sheet. Different processing activities in the mango
product chain are presented in the following Chart.
Chart 6.1: Different Processing Activities in Mango Product Chain

Matured Mangoes
Grading
Peeling & Slicing
Processing

Ripe Mango Products


- Pulp, Juice & Nectar
- Slices, Mango Jelly

Raw Mango Products


-

Pickle, Amchoor, Slices


Green Mango Beverage

Marketing Channels
Consumer
(c) Waste Utilisation
During the processing of mango, peel and stones are generated as waste, which is
about 40-50 per cent of fruit weight. They are rich in various nutrients and many

31

value added products could be obtained from them. Good quality jelly grade pectin
and edible fibre could be extracted from ripe mango peel. Mango peel has
lignocellulosic composition and hence its complete break down is difficult. Its cocomposing with cow dung in 3:1 ratio results in its successful biodegradation. Mango
kernel contains high amount of fat and starch. The oil extracted from kernel is of
good quality and could be used in cosmetic and soap industries. About 10 per cent
alcohol could be obtained from mango kernel by co-culture fermentation.
II. Mango Processing in Sample Districts
Major value added products prepared out of mango are mango pulp, mango pickles
and mango jelly. While many medium and small scale pulp making units have come
up in Chittor district (Box-6.1), jelly making and pickles making have been taken up
as village and household enterprises in Krishna, East Godavari and Vishakhapatnam
districts. Sunsip, Allana, Vinsari Fruitech, Jain Irrigation, Galla Foods, Capricorn
Food Products, etc. are major processors of mango fruit pulp and concentrates in
Chittoor district.
Box-6.1
Mango Pulp Cluster in Chittoor District
The mango pulping units could be bifurcated into small scale industries (SSI) and
medium scale industries (MSI), based on the investment range, technology level and
working capital requirement. About 85 per cent of the units are in the SSI sector. In
Chittoor district, at present there are 53 fruit processing units operating with a total
installed capacity of 2,06,700 MT of mango pulp, of which 46 (87%) are small-scale
units and rest are in medium scale (Table 6.1).
Table 6.1: Mango Pulp Units in Chittoor Cluster
No. Capacity (in MT)
Investment (Rs. lakh)
No. Category
Total
Average
Total
Average
1 Small Scale Units
46
67000
1456
2981.60
64.8
2 Medium Scale Units
7
40300
5747
3576.33
510.9
3 Projects on pipeline
5
16000
3200
1903.5
380.7
Total
58 123300
3467
8461.43
145.9
The most common range of installed capacity at SSI level was 25-40 tonnes of pulp
and in the medium scale units, it was about 80-100 tonnes of pulp per day. These
units predominantly process Totapuri (also called as Bangalora or Collecor) variety
and the average recovery (yield) of pulp was reported about 50 per cent (on weight
basis). Alphonso mango is also being processed to a certain extent and the average
recovery varies from 47-49 per cent. The average brix (total soluble solids) of
Totapuri pulp is around 14.50, the minimum and maximum levels varies from 13.5 to
17.00. In respect of Alphonso, the brix is around 15.5 per cent, depending on fruit
maturity and origin. The acidity levels of mango pulp are maintained between 3.5 and
4.0 pH. During peak operation period, the units were found to operate continuously
for 13- 15 hours a day.

32

(a) Manufacturing Process of Mango Pulp


A flow chart of processes involved in preparation of mango pulp is presented in
Chart 6.2. Once the mango season starts, the matured mangoes are bought from the
market and are ripened in the ripening sheds. Usually, the fruits ripen in about 7-8
days under tropical conditions. The usual practice is to place the fruits in single
layers on paddy straw in closed but well ventilated rooms. The fruits ripe uniformly
in a temperature range of 19.4o to 21.1oC. The ripened fruits are then washed with
water in tubs to remove the adhering impurities and dirt. The prepared mangoes are
passed through pulper fitted with 30 mesh sieve to obtain the pulp. The pH of the
pulp is adjusted to 3.8 - 4 by adding citric acid. It may also be sweetened so that a
brix value of 16-18o is attained, as per the requirement. Ascorbic acid if added to the
pulp is helpful for retention of colour, flavour and carotene. The pulp is then heated
to 850 C and sterilized cans are filled with hot pulp. Thereafter, the cans are sealed,
processed at 1000 C for 45 minutes and cooled. Then the cans are moved to store
room, where the cans are labeled and packed in card board cartoons until they are
lifted by the export houses/agents. The indicative cost for establishing a mangopulping unit with an installed capacity of 600 tonnes of pulp per annum is about Rs.
35 lakh, while for an aseptic unit, the cost is estimated at Rs. 200 lakh (Table 6.2).
Table 6.2: Indicative investment cost of mango pulping unit
(Rs Lakh)

Aseptic Packing Units


Particulars
Value
%
Land value (lease)
1.50
1.25
Buildings
25.00
5.32
Machinery
168.00 89.63
a. Plastic Crates
0.30
0.16
b. Fruit washer
2.50
1.33
c.Inspection
1.80
0.95
conveyor
d. Screw conveyor
2.00
1.06
e. Pulper
2.50
1.33
f. Roto pumps
1.00
0.53
g. Boiler
3.50
1.86
h. Genset
3.00
1.59
i. Filtron machine
j. Star asept
ETP
Total

2.00

1.6

150.00
8.00
203.10

79.74
4.25
100.0

Canning Units
Particulars
Value
Land value (lease)
0.10
Buildings
15.00
Machinery
15.53
a. Plastic Crates
0.13
b. Fruit washer
2.00

%
3.04
28.69
55.70
0.46
7.17

c. Belt conveyor

1.00

3.58

d. Screw conveyor
e. Pulper
f. Roto pumps
g. Boiler
h. Kettles/Pasteurizer
i. Filling tank &
pipeline
j. DS - 24
k. Retards
l. Genset
4. ETP
Total

1.00
2.00
0.75
3.00
2.40

3.58
7.17
2.69
10.76
8.61

0.50

1.79

0.50
0.10
2.15
3.50
34.88

1.79
0.36
7.71
12.55
100.0

33

Chart 6.2: Flow Chart of Preparation of Mango Pulp

Ripe Mangoes
Washing
Peeling/Slicing
Pulp Extraction
Pulp
Brix and acidity adjustment
(Brix 16-18 0, pH 3.8 4)
Heating to 85 0 C
Filling Hot Pulp into Cans

Sealing
Processing
(45 min at 1000C)
Cooling
Labeling
Packing
Storing
(b) Economics of Pulp Making
The length of operation of mango processing units depends on the varieties of mango
processed and the source of procurement. For example, if the unit processes only
Totapari mango produced in Chittoor district, the fruits are available from first week
of June to the end of July (50-60 days of operation). If the fruits of Totapari are
procured from Krishna district also by taking the advantage of early cropping in that

34

region, the length of processing could go up by another 15 days (from 15 May).


Similarly, those units, depending on the orders received from the export houses,
when process Alphonso mango, the fruits are available from April end onwards from
Karnataka. Thus, the operation of these units is only seasonal. With a view to
increasing the operational days and the profit ratios, some of the units have been
exploring the possibilities of processing other fruits and vegetables, such as papaya,
tomato, guava, etc.
The average annual operational cost of a 600 MT capacity pulp making unit was
estimated to be about Rs.105.7 lakh (Table-6.3). The cost of production per tonne and
per kg. of pulp worked out to Rs.12,858.50 and Rs.12.86. The canned units reported
gross income of Rs.122.12 lakhs and net income of 16.42 lakh. The profit margin
was worked out to 13.45 per cent in case of canned pulp making units.

A.
1

2
3
B.
C.
D.
E.

Table 6.3: Costs and Returns of Processing Mango into Canned Pulp
Per kg.
Item
Per (600 tonnes)/ Per tonne % to
(Rs.)
total
(Rs.)
Unit (Rs.)
Input Costs
Mango
6570000
9825
76.41
9.13
Sugar
1008000
1000
7.78
0.88
Citric acid
165000
93.8
0.73
0.09
Labour
1260000
633.92
4.93
0.63
Utilities (electricity, diesel
941864
784.89
6.10
0.62
etc.,)
Packing Material
*
*
*
*
Total input cost
9944864
11346.36 95.95
11.39
Interest on Working Capital
625068
520.89
4.05
0.52
(@13%p.a. per 6 months)
Total Cost (A + B)
10569932
12858.50 100
12.86
Gross Returns
12211922
14856.01 --14.86
Net Returns (D - C)
1641990
1997.51
--2.00

* : Supplied by the buyer

Packaging is an important component in canning. However, as all canned pulp units


mostly do job work and after receiving orders from various export houses, they need
not incur any cost on packaging. The export houses are supplying all materials for
canning and packaging. Tin cans are made of thin steel plate of low carbon content
lightly coated with tin metal. The cans are lacquered inside with acid resistant gold
coloured enamel to seal microscopic spaces on the surface of ordinary tin can.
Depending upon the requirement of the export houses, the cans are manufactured in
situ in the processing units. Three sizes of cans, 5.25 kg., 3.1 kg. and 0.85 kg. are
extensively used by canning units for consignment.

35

Various profitability ratios have been computed and presented in Table 6.4. These
ratios measure the efficiency of canning units activities, thus identifying operating
problems and strengths. The ratio of net profit to sales measures the earning capacity
of canned firms. Ratio of expenses to sales measures the extent of expenses that
occurred in relation to sales and indicates the control of the management over the
expenses. The ratio is indicative of the operational efficiency of canning firms. The
high value of this ratio suggests that limited control is exercised over the expenses
casting aspersions on the operational efficiency. It may be noted that raw material is
the major cost center in canning units as in any other agro-processing industry. On
the other hand, demand for processed foods being damp and sloggy the consumption
will be price elastic and scope for pegging higher price is remote. So the revenue
would continue to be strained just to offer normal returns in the business. The low
ratio of net profit to sales also proves this point. Large canning units were cut above
the others with slightly higher value. Thos canning units were slightly in an
advantageous position to survive in the face of falling sales prices, rising cost of
production or declining demand for the product. It was difficult for low net profit
farms to withstand these adversities.
The ratio of net profit to capital employed is a measure of return on investment and is
an useful way of looking at the overall performance of the business. It indicates that
performance can be improved either by generating more sales volume per rupee of
capital employed or by increasing the profit margin on each rupee. However, the ratio
(0.47) was not that encouraging for canning units and the capital intensity and limited
scope for triggering demand for mango pulp posed as hurdles to improve the ratio.
Further, the narrow margin (13.45%) in caned units (% of manufacturing cost to
gross value of production) is an area of concern suggesting appropriate management
of various cost centers for greater profitability.

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Table 6.4: Profitability Ratios of Canned Pulp Making Units


Particulars
Value
Total Cost (Rs. lakh)
105.70
Gross Returns (Rs. lakh)
122.12
Net Profit (Rs. lakh)
16.42
Capital (Rs. lakh)
34.88
Ratio of Expenses to Sales
0.87
Ratio of Net Profit to Sales
0.13
Ratio of Net Profit to Capital Employed
0.47
Capital Output Ratio
0.29
Capital/Labour Emp.
2.77
Mnfg. Cost as % to Gross Value of Prodn.
86.55

(ii) Mango Jelly Cluster in East Godavari District


Mango jelly making is a age old cottage industry in East Godavari district. It is
mostly a seasonal industry functioning from May to July in a year (Box-6.2).

36

Box-6.2
Mango Jelly Units in East Godavari District
. Locally known as Mamidithandra, it is mainly concentrated in Kakinda (Rural) and
Athreyapuram mandals (Sarpavaram, Thammavaram, Panduru and Penumarthi
villages in Kakinada Rural mandal and Athreyapuram, Lolla and Rally villages in
Athreyapuram mandal). More than 500 units are reported to operate in these clusters
with an estimated production of 35,000 MT of jelly per annum. Of this, Panderu
accounts for about 15,000 MT, Sarpavaram about 10,000 MT, Thammavaram about
5,000 MT and the balance 5,000 MT in the rest of the areas. In Athreyapuram, about
70 SHGS are reported to have taken up mango jelly making as an income generating
activity.
The major reasons for growth and concentration of these units are: (i) has been a
traditional activity for more than a century, (ii) raw material availability (iii)
availability of abundant skilled workforce in this activity (iv) expanding market (iv)
tastes and preferences of this product by a large population in Kolkata, Delhi,
Mumbai, Gujarat and Northern India. An analysis of mango jelly cluster revealed that
its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) lie in :
 Strengths: Availability of adequate and skilled labour, abundant raw material
availability, suitable climatic conditions, prospective banking network for
investment.
 Weakness: No collective market (to procure raw materials and to market finished
product), no specific brand image, predominantly a cottage or household
industry, inadequate cold storage facility for extending the shelf-life of the
finished product, no preservatives added in general, open drying process prone
to dust and flees, lack of hygiene, less concentration on attractive packaging.
 Opportunities: Scope for development of branding, scope for mechanical drying
so as to extend the period of production, production of intermediate / diversified /
value added products
Threats: Manual handling throughout the process, lack of hygienic atmosphere in
manufacturing, marketing dominated by commission agents.
(a) Manufacturing Process of Mango Jelly
Jelly is a semi-solid product prepared by boiling a clear strained solution of pectincontaining fruit extract free from pulp after the addition of sugar and acid. Pectin is
the most important constituent of jelly. Usually, about 0.5 1.0 per cent of pectin of
good quality in the extract is sufficient to produce jelly. Pectin, sugar, acid and water
must be present approximately in required proportion (i.e., pectin-1%, sugar- 6065%, citric acid 1% and water 33-38%).
The ripe mango fruits are cut into 6 to 8 slices by manual peeling. At this stage the
juice looks like bulky material. This bulky juice is sent to sieving, which is done
through muslin cloth or plastic sieves. The sugar is sprinkled into the fruit extract

37

while it is boiling and is thoroughly mixed by stirring to ensure complete dissolution.


Cooking promotes cohesion of jelly components and also brings them to setting state.
The setting of jelly is determined both by cold plate test and sheet/flake test. A drop
of the boiling jelly is taken from the pan and placed on a plate and allowed to cool
quickly. If the jelly is about to set, the mixture on the plate will crinkle when pushed
with a finger. In the sheet/flake test, a small portion of jelly is cooled slightly and
then allowed to drop off from a large laddle. If the jelly drops off from syrup, it
requires further concentration, if it falls in the form of sheet or flakes, the end point
has been reached.
Well-prepared mango pulp is spread on clean bamboo mats evenly to form a sheet of
two mm thickness. The size of the mat generally used is 1.35 m x 1.35 m. On its
drying, another layer is spread over this and allowed to dry. About 7 to 9 layers of
pulp are applied for natural drying every day. This process is continued till a
thickness of about 3 cm is attained. The dried slab is cut into required sizes and
packed for marketing. Generally, packs of 2 kg are made and 30 numbers of such
packs are bulk packed in a wooden box. Thus, the wholesale dealers normally collect
jelly in lots of 60 kg.
The consistency / strength of pulp used in jelly making is thicker than that of the pulp
obtained in a pulping unit. Generally, from one MT of ripe mango fruit, 350-400 kg
of pulp used in jelly making is produced (as only 2% of water is added in the process,
as against 10-20% water added in normal pulp making, where the recovery of pulp is
about 50% on weight basis). The slab thickness varies from 2 to 4 cm. About 500 kg
of mango pulp mixed with 40 kg of sugar on drying yields 80 kg of jelly. Generally,
the production of jelly is quantified in the number of mats used for the process (e.g.,
100 mats, 200 mats, etc.). On each mat of 1.35 m x 1.35 m size when the jelly of 3
cm is produced, it weighs about 80 kg.
(b) Economics of Jelly Making
A total of 6 jelly making units were visited during the study. All entrepreneurs
covered in the sample were middle aged (32-50 years). All entrepreneurs, except one,
had small land holdings and hence their main occupation was jelly making. Past
experience (as jelly making had been a traditional enterprise for many households),
simple technology, high profit margin are the motivating factors for taking jelly
making occupation as a household enterprise. Costs and returns of a jelly making are
presented in Table 6.5. The average cost of production of jelly manufacturing unit
and per kg. of jelly was worked out to Rs.2.45 lakh and Rs.28.64, respectively. The
profit margin was worked out to 18.16 per cent. Jelly making units do not incur cost
on packing material, as the trader bears the concerned expenditure. As soon as the
agreement on price and quantity to be sold is reached between the entrepreneur and
the marketing agent, the 60 kg. jelly slab is cut into small pieces (i.e., 30 slabs each
of 2 kg.) and packed with laminated paper foils first and then staked in wooden
boxes/cardboard cartons lined with waxed paper. The consignment is then moved in
trucks or trains to distant markets in Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, etc.
Table 6.5: Costs and Returns of Sample Jelly Manufacturing Units

38

No.
1
a
b
c
d
e
f
2.
3.

Particulars
Input Cost (a to f)
Mango
Sugar
Labour
Consumables*
Depreciation
Interest
Gross Income
Net Income (2-1)

Per Unit (Rs.


lakh.)
2.455
1.500
0.600
0.155
0.128
0.057
0.015
3.000
0.545

Per kg. of Jelly (Rs.)


28.64
17.50
7.00
1.81
1.49
0.66
0.18
35.00
6.36

Percent
100.00
63.31
21.71
6.54
5.40
2.39
0.65
-----

*mat, cloth, firewood, etc.

Various profitability ratios have been computed and presented in Table 6.6. Ratio of
expenses to sales is indicative of the operational efficiency of jelly units. The high
value of this ratio (0.82) suggests that limited control is exercised over the expenses
casting aspersions on the operational efficiency. Raw material is the major cost center
in jelly making units. The ratio of net profit to sales is also low at 0.18. The ratio of
net profit to capital employed (0.64) was encouraging for jelly units that demonstrate
efficiency in the use of capital with higher rate of returns. However, profit margin
(18.16%) in jelly making units (% of manufacturing cost to gross value of
production) need to be further improved through appropriate management of various
costs. The waste generated in the process of manufacturing mango jelly is solid
waste i.e., skin, seed and negligible quantity of water for cleaning the vessels. There
is no pollution of air, sound and no contamination of ground water. However,
substantial number of flees are attracted to the solid waste requiring some waste
disposal mechanism to be put in place.
Table 6.6: Profitability Ratios for Jelly Making Units
No. Particulars
Overall
1
Total Cost (Rs.)
245510
2
Gross Returns (Rs.)
300000
3
Net Profit (Rs.)
54490
4
Capital (Rs.)
85000
5
Ratio of Expenses to Sales
0.82
6
Ratio of Net Profit to Sales
0.18
7
Ratio of Net Profit to Capital Employed
0.64
8
Capital Output Ratio
0.28
10 Mnfg. Cost as % to Gross Value of Prodn.
81.84

39

CHAPTER VII
POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT, EXPORT OF MANGO &
MANGO BASED PRODUCTS, PERFORMANCE OF AEZs
The present chapter analyses the post-harvest management of mangoes for exports,
export performance of mango/mango-based products. The role of AEZs has also been
explored.
I. Post Harvest Management of Mangoes for Exports
Mangoes are generally harvested at physiological mature stage and ripened for
optimum quality. Fruits are hand picked or plucked with a harvester. The best way to
observe maturity in mango is the colour of the pulp, which turns cream to light
yellow on maturity. The harvesting needs to be done in the morning hours and fruits
should be collected in plastic trays and kept in shades. Fruits harvested with 8-10 mm
long stalks appear better on ripening as undesired sports on skin caused by sap burn
are prevented. Such fruits are less prone to stem-end rot and other storage diseases. A
simple, low cost and portable mango harvesting device has been propagated by AEZ,
Krishna costing Rs.2,000, which is subsidized by 50 per cent. The post harvest losses
in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 20-30 per cent from harvesting to
consumption stage (Table 7.1).
Table 7.1: Post Harvest Losses t Various Stages and Crops in Andhra Pradesh
% of losses
Crop
% of losses
No. Stage
1
Field level
10
Grape
25
2
Transport
5
Mango
20
3
Packing
2
Pomegranate
10
4
Storage
9
Sweet Orange
20
5
Processing
4
Banana
30
Total
30
Sapota
20
Onion
25
Source: S.Mahendra Dev & N. Chandrasekhara Rao (2004), Food Processing in Andhra Pradesh
Opportunities and Challangres, Working Paper No.57, June.

Grading
In order to reduce the value loss and to remove the field heat, the produce should be
harvested during coolest part of the day, i.e. in the morning. A preliminary grading is
done immediately after harvesting at the field level. The mangoes are graded
according to size and maturity.
Desapping
Matured mangoes exude large amounts of sap from the cut stem. As the sap contains
lots of resorcinol (oil), which burns the mango skin if contacted by the sap, the

40

mangoes are desapped by placing them in framework in an inverted position for two
hours to completely remove the sap from the fruit.
Processing
After the desapping process, the mango is processed in a post harvest treatment line
having following operations in a common facility center (pack house).
Post-harvest Operations
(i) Pack house/Grading and Packing Centre
A pack house is a place where products are brought after harvesting to prepare them
as per the market requirements, in terms of washing, brushing, waxing, grading,
packing, cooling, etc. It also carries out value addition without modifying the
appearance of the product. The shelf life of the product is enhanced by providing the
congenial conditions. Keeping in view the variety of crops, two to three grading and
sorting lines may be installed. After sorting, the produce is packed in various desired
packs and pre-cooled. The operational steps in the pack house would be as under:Sorting, Cleaning and Washing
A preliminary sorting of produce is carried out to remove unmarketable pieces and
foreign matter such as plant debris, soil, stone etc. before the produce is passed on for
further operations.Cleaning and washing are carried out with flush of cold water to
clear produce which has acquired latex stains from injures caused during harvesting.
Fungicides Treatment
As decay caused by moulds/bacteria is a major cause of loss of fresh produce during
distance transportation and marketing, the fungicides are applied after the produce is
washed and dried. The fruits are taken to a trough containing detergent and 0.5 per
cent fungicidal solution. After treating the fruit with the detergent and diluted
fungicidal solution (Benomyl powder), the fruit is wiped off with white muslin cloth
till dirt and latex stains are completely removed. After treatment with the fungicidal
solution, the fruit is dried with dry muslin cloth and spread on the grading table and
air-dried.
Size Grading and Waxing
The fruits so treated are finally graded according to the size, maturity and quality
without any blemish. Selection and grading in a small packinghouse are best done by
human eye and by hand, assisted by sizing rings. For long distance destinations the
fruit is treated with wax. The wax emulsion is kept in a vessel and a muslin cloth is
soaked in it and applied on individual fruit. This is carried out to enhance appearance
and limit water loss from produce.

41

Packaging
The fruit is packed in corrugated fibre boxes (CFBs) with necessary bursting and
puncture resistance and compression strength. The specification details of CFB boxes
are recommended by APEDA7.
Pre-cooling8
After packaging the mango in CFB boxes, the packed cartons are placed in the precooling rooms where the temperature is set at 12.50C with 90 to 95 per cent relative
humidity. Once produce is placed in the pre-cooled, it will radiate heat to the room by
virtue of field heat and heat of respiration. The sooner the produce is brought to its
optimum storage temperature then the sooner will respiration be brought under
control and the maximum storage life of the produce be realized. It is observed that
the fruit pulp temperature comes down from 350 to 12.50 C in about 6 hours.
(ii) Cold Storage
After the pre-cooling, the produce is brought to the cold storage to extend its shelf
life. The harvested fruits are pre-cooled to 10-120 C and then stored at an appropriate
temperature. The fruits of Dashehari, Mallika and Amrapali are pre-cooled at 120 C
and then stored at 80 C with 85-90 per cent relative humidity. The fruits can be stored
for 3-4 weeks in good condition at low temperature. The development of cold
storages, including cold chain, for transport has an important role to play in reducing
post-harvest losses9. The bio-chemical and microbial changes are slow at low
temperatures. As such, refrigerated cold storages are used to prolong the shelf life of
perishable produce. The fruits can be stored for 3-4 weeks in good condition at low
temperature. The problem of chilling injury at low temperature can be overcome by
keeping the fruits in 0.5 per cent ventilated polythene bags.
Transportation
The truck has been adopted as the most convenient mode of transport due to its easy
approach from the orchards to the market. However, these trucks are not found
7

For Banganpalli mangoes, 400mm 250 mm 110 mm. size with telescopic design with 2
pieces box. Mango is packed in tilted position in single layer in the box touching each other
and no tissue paper or any packing material is used for packing. The standard net weight of
the box is 4 kgs. And the empty box alone weighs 0.5 kg.
8
This rapid cooling of the produce to bring down the metabolic activity to bare minimum is
referred as pre-cooling. Pre-cooling is a pre-requisite for export to increase the shelf life of
mangoes. The pre-cooling removes the field heat and retards the metabolic activity of
mangoes, and helps substantially to maintain the orignal quality of the produce by keeping it
fresh.
9
The post harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 20-25 per cent from
harvesting to consumption stage.

42

suitable for transporting this live material as they exert lot of pressure on the fruits
and do not bossed temperature control devices. Therefore it is imperative to design
and develop suitable transport system. Reefer containers (Refrigerated vans) may be
found useful for long distance transport and export purposes, as they would help in
reducing the post harvest losses. The processes in post-harvest management of
mangoes are depicted in Chart 7.1.
Chart 7.1: Flow Chart of Post Harvest Operations of Mango Export

Harvesting of Ripe Mangoes


Grading at the Field
Desapping
P R O C E S S I N G
Sorting
Cleaning & Washing
Fungicides Treatment
Size Grading
Waxing

Packaging
Pre-cooling
COLD STORAGE
Export

43

II. Export Performance of Mango and Mango-based Products


(a) Fresh Mango
Of the total world production of mango, only 0.6 per cent is accounted in
international trade in the form of fresh fruit. USA, UK, France, Germany, Holland
and all Middle East countries, Japan and Hungary are the major importing countries.
The major exporting countries are Mexico, Haiti, Venezuala, Pakisthan, India,
Kenya, South Africa, Phillipines, etc. In case of India, at present a few varieties such
as Alphonso, Kesar, Banganapalli, Totapuri, Suvarnarekha, Dashehari and Langra
have export quality and are being exported. The export volume of fresh mango from
India has increased from 20.30 thousand MT during 1987-88 to 52.14 thousand MT
during 2004-05 growing at CAGR of 6.97 per cent. During the same period the
export value has grown at CAGR of 9.85 per cent. The share of export volume to
total production is miserably low which has increased from a mere 0.20 per cent in
1987-88 to only 0.45 per cent in 2004-05 (Table 7.2).
Table 7.2: Export of Fresh Mangoes from India
% of export volume
Year
Production
Export
Value
(Rs.crore)
to Production
(,000MT)
Volume
(000MT)
1985-86
--16.54
19.32
--1986-87
--16.26
19.12
--1987-88
10350.4
20.30
23.34
0.20
1991-92
8715.6
16.84
22.11
0.19
1992-93
9223.3
12.01
16.75
0.13
1993-94
10113.3
19.38
31.22
0.19
1994-95
10993.3
23.10
36.00
0.21
1995-96
10810.9
25.85
45.99
0.24
1996-97
9981.2
22.79
43.87
0.23
1997-98
10234.2
30.00
57.74
0.29
1998-99
9781.8
40.00
77.00
0.41
1999-00
10503.5
50.00
96.25
0.48
2000-01
10056.8
37.11
68.61
0.37
2001-02
10020.2
44.43
80.99
0.44
2002-03
12733.2
38.00
84.19
0.30
2003-04
11490.0
60.54
110.52
0.53
2004-05
11605.2
52.14
86.95
0.45
CARG (%)
0.82
6.97
9.85
6.10
Source: APEDA

(b) Mango Pulp


There are only nine major exporters of mango pulp in the country. Sourcing of the
product is done primarily from South-India viz. Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh

44

and Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Exports of mango pulp in quantity and value
terms during 1995-96 to 2004-05 is presented in Table 7.3.

Year
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Table 7.3: Exports of Mango Pulp from India (Rs. crore)


Qty (MT)
Value (Rs. crore)
36023
84.61
40302
105.01
45874
125.31
38133
138.56
72384
196.53
57303
263.85
76735
241.34
96107
297.02
89515
241.99
300.90

Source: APEDA

(c) Other Mango-based Products


Indias export of mango and mango-based products during 2004-05 registered a
marginal growth of 6.62 per cent over the previous year (Table 7.4).
Table 7.4: Indias exports of Mango/Mango based products to major Markets -200205
Country
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
% Change
Saudi Arabia
103.96
86.82
103.12
18.77
UAE
66.88
69.09
54.72
(-) 20.80
Netherland
42.41
40.50
49.16
21.38
Bangladesh
13.89
35.36
29.20
(-) 17.42
UK
36.68
25.25
25.62
1.47
Kuwait
20.24
19.22
16.04
(-) 16.55
Yemen Rep
28.32
18.23
34.07
86.89
USA
19.44
17.14
15.38
(-) 10.27
Japan
9.45
7.33
14.42
96.73
Nepal
8.07
6.15
5.66
(-) 7.97
Lebanon
7.62
5.42
6.37
17.53
Oman
5.67
5.48
6.07
10.77
France
9.73
3.69
7.71
108.94
Total
468.87
436.01
464.89
6.62
Source: APEDA

Saudi Arabia continues to be the largest market for Indian mango and mango-based
products. Exports to this market in 2004-05 registered a steep growth of 18.77 per
cent over the previous year when the same reached a level of Rs. 103.12 crore as
against Rs. 86.82 crore. The other markets registering a steep growth during the
period comprised: France (108.94%), Yemen Rep (86.89%), Netherland (21.38%)

45

and Lebanon (17.53%). On the other, the countries showing a decreasing trend during
the period included: UAE (20.80%), Bangladesh (17.42%), and Kuwait (16.55%).
Country-wise export of mango are presented in Appendix V.
In Andhra Pradesh, two of the exportable varieties, viz. Banganapalli and Totapuri,
are grown in larger scale. Even though Andhra Pradesh is the second largest producer
of mango, producing about 3.14 million MT, exports from the State have never
crossed the 1,000 tonne mark despite huge production. The major reasons for this
were poor infrastructure, inadequate quality fresh mango, lack of mango processing
units, absence of air link to Vijayawada, which is the main production center. From
the State, mangoes are exported mainly to the Gulf countries, Hong Kong, Singapore
and Malaysia since 1993 under the brand name Vijaya Gold by farmer societies on
a cooperative basis, but no significant headway has been made so far. The State
Government, on its part, set up a pre-cooling unit at the Gollapudi market yard,
Vijayawada, with a capacity of 40 tonnes but it is grossly inadequate to take up
exports in a substantial scale.
Export Prices of Mango and Mango Pulp
APEDA since its inception in 1986 has been playing a major role in the export effort
of mango and mango-based products by providing various services to the trade and
industry, such as identifying new markets, regular participation in both national and
international trade fairs and also vigorously launching of promotional campaigns for
mango and mango-based products like mango pulp, juices, chutney, and pickles. The
computation of the ratio of FOB price at Chennai as collected from exporters in both
the study districts to the international border prices shows that both mango pulp and
fresh mango are highly price competitive in the international market (Table 7.5).
Table 7.5: Export Competitiveness of Mango and Mango Pulp
(Rs./tonne)

Items
Fresh Mango-Alphonso

Prices during 2005-06


Ratio of Domestic
FOB Price, Chennai Domestic Price
Price to FOB Price
(US$)
(Rs.)*
(Rs.)#
1820
80080
18000
0.225

Neelam

1000

44000

8000

0.182

Banganapalli
Mango Pulp-Totapuri
Alphonso
Raspuri

1600
900
1050
900

70400
184186
214884
184186

4500
23000
---23000

0.064
0.125
---0.125

*US$ is converted to rupee@ Rs.44 per US $., # Standard price at which the processors procure mango
from various Market Yards in Chittoor and Vijayada. Source: Exporters from Chittor and Vijayawada

III. Role of Agri- Export Zones in Promotion of Mango Exports


Three Agri- Export Zones (AEZs) for mango, i.e., two for fresh mangoes viz.,
Vijayawada AEZ covering Krishna district and Hyderabad AEZ covering Hyderabad,

46

Medak and Mehabubnagar districts and third AEZ for mango pulp in Chittoor district
were set up in Andhra Pradesh in 2002-03. For successful implementation of AEZ
activities, the following fiscal measures were taken up.

Exemption of market fee/cess. Exemption of sales tax on all the inputs used for
exports including containers used for packing by the units in AEZ

AP Transco has declared fruit processing industry as a seasonal industry in the


tariff order from 01 April 2003. Accordingly, 70 per cent exemption has been
provided on payment of fixed demand charges during off season.

Further, fruit processing units are eligible for concessional electricity tariff @
Re.1 per unit for period of five years in terms of State Food Processing Policy.

During the field study, the AEZ offices in both the districts were visited to gather the
information on the performance of AEZs. Field level findings were as presented
below.
(i) Chittoor AEZ for Mango Pulp
The impact of AEZ on mango production, processing, export in pre and post AEZ
scenario is presented in Table 7.6.
Table 7.6: Impact of Agri. Export Zone, Chittoor District
Status of AEZ
% change
No Items
Before AEZ
After AEZ
1
Mango productivity/ha.
8.0
20.0
60.0
2
Area under mango (ha.)
44950
49221
8.7
3
No. of Processing Units (No
24
50
52.0
4
Mango Pulp Production (MT)
48000
83000
42.2
5
Export Value (Rs. crore)
75.0
180.0
58.3
Mango stone weevil infestation
7
17.0
2.0
(%)
-750.0
8
Area under IPM (ha.)
0
4280
100.0
9
Area under drip irrigation (%)
0.67
10.50
93.6
10 Post Harvest Losses (%)
25
15
-66.7
11 Farmers trainings/exposure visits
--11037
--12 Aseptic packing units
--2
--13 Plastic crates (no.)
--147511
--Intermediate Ripening Sheds
14
--54
(nos)
--15 ETPs (nos)
6
33
81.8
16 HACCP Certification (nos)
5
33
84.8
17 Aseptic Packaging (No.)
1
2
50.0
18 Quality Testing Lab (No.)
--1
--19 Cold storage units (No)
5
6
16.7
20 Pack Houses (No.)
-2
100.0
Source: Department of Horticulture, AEZ office, Krishna District

47

Chittor AEZ is involved in educating the farmers on Integrated Nutrient Managament


(INM), Integrated pest management (IPM) and high density planting to increase the
productivity of mango; conducting seminars and exposure visits on subjects of
importance to farmers; supply of pruning saws and plant protection chemicals;
providing training on post harvest management practices, etc. Subsidy is also
provided under AEZ for cold storages and pack houses. The project envisaged
improving the mango yield from the existing 10 tonnes to 18 tonnes per acre by 2005
and increasing export of mango pulp and other value added products from Rs.80
crore in 2002 to Rs.150 crore by 2005. The aggregate investment required by the
processing units was estimated to be at Rs.236.09 crore with GoI share of Rs.52.92
crore. State Governments share of Rs.25.87 crore and private participation at
Rs.157.31 crore.
As a result of these initiatives taken by the AEZ, the exports have grown over the
years. The quantity of mango pulp exported increased from r50,000 metric tones in
2002-03 to 95,360 metric tones in 2005-06 (Table 7.8). However, still thee is a lot of
scope to increase exports from the region.
Table 7.8: Export of Mango Pulp from Chittoor AEZ during 2002-03 to 2005-06
(Quantity in MT & value in Rs.crore)

Year
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
CARG (%)

Quantity
50000
42130
81500
95360
24.0

Annual Change
---18.68
48.31
14.53
---

Value
75.0
84.2
175.2
190.7
36.5

Annual Change
--10.93
51.94
8.13
---

Source: Department of Horticulture, AEZ office, Krishna District

(ii) Vijayawada AEZ for Mango


The Vijaywada AEZ for mango was notified in September 2002 because of two
reasons, (i) to promote production and export of Banganapalli mangoes from Krishna
district and (ii) good connectivity by road and rail from Vijayawada to Hyderabad,
Mumbai and Chennai where international airports are present. The aggregate
investment required for setting up of the AEZ was estimated at Rs.17.90 crore with
GoI share of Rs.3.775 crore. State Governments share of Rs.4.235 crore and private
participation at Rs.9.89 crore. It was targeted that such an investment would result in
export of 4,000 MT of mangoes valued at Rs.18.67 crore. A number of activities
were suggested under the AEZ to facilitate exports, which included (i) interventions
at farm level like appropriate agronomical practices, IPM & INM programmes, (ii)
demonstrations and trainings, (iii) promotion of drip irigation, (iv) post harvest
practices like usage of plastic crates, precooling centers, cold storages, pack houses
and marketing areas leading to an integrated approach for export development, (v)
creation of and upgradation of post harvest infrastructure required for exports. (vi)
exclusive market yard for mangoes at Gollapudi market yard. The performance of
mango export during the last four years is presented in Table7.9. The AEZ took up
the following measures to strengthen the mango sector in the district.

48

 Exposure visits for 100 farmers to Integrate Pack House (IPH) at Washi, Indian
Institute of Packaging (IIP) at Washi.
 About 41,813 plastic crates were supplied.
 335 training programmes conducted, about 70 programes on post harvest
management.
 Planting material for 512.2 ha were supplied on 50 per cent subsidy basis.
 Additional controlled grading hall and hot water treatment plant was set up at a
cost of Rs.15.92 lakh and two de-sapping sheds were established at AMC
Vijayawada.
 An exclusive buyer/seller meet was organized with exporters, growers and
bankers.
 220 foot sprayers and 7 mechanised chains saws were supplied to farmers. About
180 Thaiwan sprayers and 500 folding handsaws were supplied to mango
farmers.
 17 pack houses were constructed in Nunna market for packing, grading, washing.
 Organic farming is encouraged. 120 acres of Prakash Bio Farm is organically
certified.
 Workshops on EUREGAP/HACCP were conducted for officers and mango
farmers.

Year
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
CARG (%)

Table 7.9: Export of fresh mango from Krishna district


Export Volume (MT)
Annual Change
268.84
--253.74
-5.95
341.91
25.79
448.00
23.68
18.56
---

Source: Department of Horticulture, AEZ office, Krishna District

49

CHAPTER VIII
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN MANGOES
Supply Chain Management (SCM) represents the management of the entire set of
production, manufacturing/transformations, distribution and marketing activities by
which a consumer is supplied with a desired product. The practice of SCM
encompasses the disciplines of economics, marketing, logistics and organizational
behaviour to study how supply chains are organized and how institutional
arrangements influence industry efficiency, competitions and profitability. One can
also include the production practices in the field to understand food safety and
traceability (Ramaswamy 2007)10.
Supply chain development not only benefits the private sector but also creates sequel
to stimulate sustainable social, economic and environmental development in the
region. The specific gains may be reduction of product losses in transportation and
storage, increasing of sales, dissemination of technology, capital and knowledge
among the chain partners, etc.
I. Supply Chain Management in Mangoes
Supply Chain System (SCS) for mangoes covers a balanced and efficient relationship
encompassing input supply, production, harvesting, storage, processing, marketing,
export, etc., of mangoes and managing such relationship in a collaborative and
efficient manner to garner optimum benefit out of it for all the players in the chain.
Agri Export Zones
Considering the existing production of mango and mango pulp on one hand and
keeping in view the future potential on the other, for facilitating the supply chain
management, AEZs for mango and mango pulp were notified in 2002. However,
there is no significant development in linkages, both backward and forward, and no
breakthrough in developing quality standards and post harvest management for
furthering exports. Number of pulp making units, production of mango pulp as also
export of fresh mango and pulp have picked up in Chittoor AEZ, but infrastructure in
terms of post harvest facilities, like pack houses, cold storages, etc., have not come
up to exploit the potential. In mango AEZ in Krishna district, as against the target of
25 pack houses only two have come up. Only one post harvest facility is available at
AMC, Vijayawada (Gollapudi). Export of fresh mango from Krishna district has
always been below 500 MT per annum. Currently, export of mango by air is in
passenger aircraft, due to which the freight charges are very high. There are Mango
Growers Cooperative Organisations and they have not been able to plan an
10

Ramaswamy, C.(2007), Supply Chain Management in Agriculture: Trends Staus, Initiatives taken up
by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paper presented in the 8th Agricultural Science Congress held
at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. 15 - 17 February, 2007.

50

organized production and marketing system and have also not been able to reduce the
marketing channels, which are so long thus increasing the margins to the middle men
and thus aggravating marketing inefficiency.
Post Harvest Operations
In order to facilitate the SCM, the GoAP had sanctioned a scheme for promotion of
export of mangoes through Mango Growers Cooperative Organisations. As a part of
the scheme, a cold storage plant was set up in 1993 as Post Harvest Temperature
Management Scheme at AMC, Vijayawada. Exports were taken up under the
management of Marketing Department during the initial years through reefer
containers by sea and air. However, the progress in export front was not that
encouraging (Table 9.1). The AMC, Vijayawada was charging nominal service
charges from exporters11. The unit has the facilities of one cold storage plant with 20
MT capacity, two pre-cooling units each with a capacity of 20 MT.
Table 9.1: Performance of Post Harvest Management Unit at AMC VIjayawada
(Rs.lakh)

Period
1993-2001
2002-2006

Avg. Quantity
exported (MT)
143.82
124.20

Avg. Service
Charges
Collected
1.70
0.61

Avg.
Expenses
Incurred
7.33
5.81

Countries
Exported
Singapore, Dubai,
Hong Kong,
Malaysia,

Vijaya Association of Fruits & Vegetable Growers, consisting of 230 members in


Vijayawada, has been engaged in export of mangoes since 1994. They have been
using the pack house and cold storage unit at Gollapudi AMC. They use the protocol
developed and given by Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) for
export though central marketing fund of mango. Further, as the protocol for sea
shipment has not yet stabilized, APEDA engaged a scientist from Belgium to develop
a protocol for cases where more than 15 days sea journey is required. Vitas Company
(Exports) Pvt. Ltd., Chennai visits AMC, Gollapudi every year and also visits the
mango orchards and purchases the fruits at the ripening stage. The graded mangoes
are priced at Rs.15,000/MT and are of good size and quality (labeled as "Garden
Fresh Mangoes").
Marketing
In both the districts, exclusive mango market yards are functioning for marketing the
produce. There is also excellent network of traders, both local and upcountry,
commission agents, etc., to assist in smooth flow of the product (fruits) from growers
to final consumers. However, even though growers/traders associations are
informally functioning in both the districts, these have not taken up any initiatives to
11

For desapping and cold storage treatment Rs.3.50/kg., for hot water treatment Rs.0.50/kg.
and rent per crate per day Rs.0.10.

51

reduce the large margins eaten by the middle level functionaries. They have not made
any attempt even to reduce the length of the marketing channels. Such growers
associations have not made any visible attempts in creating awareness with regard to
quality improvements in fruits. However, conduct of Mango Festival has been a
regular affair in Chittoor that creates a lot of awareness among the
growers/traders/processors on quality issues.
Growers/Processors Federation
In order to smoothen out the Supply Chain Management for mango processing sector,
Chittoor District Canners Federation was formed during 1991. Later, it was
rechristened as Chittoor District Fruit Processors Federation. The Federation used to
assist units in hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) Certification with
assistance from APEDA, modernization of cluster through Andhra Pradesh Industrial
and Technical Consultancy Organization (APITCO), seek soft loans and subsidies
with APEDA, Ministry of Food Processing (MFPI) and National Horticulture Board
(NHB). In consultation with Pollution Control Board (PCB) and other technical
institutes, the Federation helps units in formulating exact technology to treat liquid
and solid effluent wastes.
Federation of Farmers Associations (FFA) in Andhra Pradesh plays a formidable
role addressing current issues and problems in consultation with GoAP and other
stakeholders. This year, FFA managed to form six exclusive mutually aided
cooperative societies (MACS) of mango growers in Chittoor district. AgriTerra of the
Netherlands, through the FAO, FFA and Horticulture Department of Andhra Pradesh,
has initiated this project and helping the farmers to develop these cooperatives. The
cooperatives are expected to result in an additional value of up to 20 per cent to the
growers as they cut second-rung traders/commission agents from the supply chain by
providing a direct interface between the buyer and the seller. Besides making it easier
for companies to enter into agreements, these MACS are expected to strengthen the
hands of mango growers. The tie-ups would result in saving of transportation charges
and market cess. The idea is to strengthen the supply chain and facilitate a direct
linkage between the corporate buyers and the farmers (Kurmanath 2007)12. On its
part, the FFA would give training to the farmers on issues such as use of pesticides
and improving soil quality.
Input Supply
As far as the input availability is concerned, for growers- plant materials are available
sufficiently in Srikalahasthi, Tirupati, Mallavalli in the study districts. All sorts of
pesticides and chemicals are locally available in major towns. For processors, mango
as a major raw material is available in plenty. Processors procure mangoes (i) directly
from mandies, (ii) directly from growers after visiting the orchard, (iii) directly from
12

Kurmanath, K. V., (2007), Mango growers


http://www.thehindubusiness line.com/ 2007/02/ 23/ stories/

52

join

hands

to

gain

more

value,

the growers who brought to factory sites in carts and trolleys, head-load and (iv)
through traders who purchase directly from the orchards. Generally, the processors
go for a storage capacity of 7 days fruit requirement to match with the ripening cycle.
Totapuri is the key variety of mango used in the pulping industry and in both the
districts this variety is grown in significantly large areas.
Power supply by AP Transmission Corporation (APTransco) is quite adequate to run
the units. Diesel generating units have been installed to meet power requirements
during power shut downs. Water being a major requirement for processing units is
available sufficiently at site. A good network of transport arrangements is available to
transport both raw material and the finished product. Both sea and air transport is
available at Chennai, which is only 185 km from Chittoor and 300 km from
Vijayawada.
Various enzymes, i.e., bio-tropilase enzyme for consistency of mangoes, are being
purchased from M/s Biocon, Bangalore. Citric acid (for maintaining the pH. level of
the pulp), ascorbic acid (added as per the customers requirement) are being arranged
from Bangalore and Chennai. Various machineries required for installing the canning
unit, like Plastic Crates, Fruit washer, Belt conveyor, Screw conveyor, Pulper, Roto
pumps, Boiler, Kettles/Pasteurizer, Flanger (to seal one side of the tin), Embosser
(for labeling), etc. are available in Chittoor (Nazim Industries) and Bangalore
(Lakshmi Industries).
Another important input in the pulping industry is the packaging and packing
material, such as cans, aseptic bags, cartons, etc. In respect of units which undertake
processing on job work basis, the required can material, labels, packing material are
supplied by the export house which has provided production orders. Discussion with
two aseptic packing units revealed that they procure aseptic bags from M/s Goglio,
Germany, M/s Dupont, India and M/s Scholle, Australia. Aseptic packing sizes are
mostly of 200 litre [228 kg double strength (DS) or 215 kg single strength (SS)], 45
kg, 54 kg and 91 kg, depending on buyer specifications. Mostly DS aseptic packages
go to Europe and USA and SS aseptic packages are supplied to Coca Cola, Indian
fruit juice manufactures like Pepsi, Parle, Coco Cola, Godrej, etc. Cans are mainly
supplied to Middle East countries, (Saudi Arab, Dubai, Yamen, Kuwait), Korea,
Japan, Singapore, Australia, etc.
Credit Support
Data collected from a sample of 10 bank branches (CBs, RRBs and DCCBs)13
revealed that crop credit to mango during the last three years constituted a share of

13

Sample bank branches consisted of (1) Indian Bank, Diguamagham, (2) RRB, Kanipakam,
(3) RRB, Gajulapalli, (4) RRB, Bangarupalem (all in Chittoor district), (5) Saptagiri
Grameena Bank (RRB), Vellaturu, (6) RRB, Vinugadapa, (7) Indian Bank, Vissannapeta, (8)
DCCB, Nuzivid, (9) DCCB, Tirvur (10) Indian Bank, Nuzvidu (Krishna).

53

38.7 per cent of total crop loan accounts and 47.1 per cent of total crop loan amount
(Table 9.2).
Table 9.2: Crop Loan for Maintenance of Mango Orchards by Sample Bank Branches
(A/Cs in No. & Amt. in Rs.lakh)

Year
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Overall

Crop Loan
A/Cs
Amt.
10452
883.83
12214 1190.19
16303 1756.18
38969 3853.81

Of which Mango
A/Cs
Amt.
3786
396.76
4818
560.92
6306
836.85
15070
1814.03

Percentage
A/Cs
Amt.
36.22
44.89
39.45
47.13
38.68
47.65
38.67
47.07

Pre-harvest contractors, VT/CAs are adequately provided with Secured Overdraft'


(SOD)14 facility from banks. They utilize the same in lending to farmers as also in
going for lease/contract of mango orchards. Bank loan is also utilized by them for
procuring mangoes from the field as also from the market in order to supply to
upcountry traders, as there remains time lag of 30 to 75 days while getting payments
from UCTs. Similarly, term loan for establishment of mango orchards constituted
19.1 per cent of the total Agricultural Term Loan (ATL) A/Cs and 17.2 per cent of
the ATL amount during the period 2003-06 (Table 9.3). However, interactions with
banks revealed that bankers are not inclined to provide term loan owing to its long
term tenure, i.e., up to 10 years.
Table 9.2: ATL for Establishment of Mango Orchards by Sample Bank Branches
(A/Cs in No. & Amt. in Rs.lakh)

Year
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Overall

ATL *
A/Cs
Amt.
42
19.87
227
124.3
281
240.16
550
384.33

Of which Mango
A/Cs
Amt.
21
13.25
33
20.25
51
32.6
105
66.1

Percentage
A/Cs
Amt.
50.00
66.68
14.54
16.29
18.15
13.57
19.09
17.20

*ATL Agricultural Term Loan

Various mango pulp making units procure mangoes directly from growers or source
from market yards, VT/CAs, etc. In order to get quality fruits one or two aseptic
packing units had tie up arrangement with banks to purvey credit to the
growers/traders. Bank credit was arranged for the growers and professional suppliers
under tripartite arrangement, i.e., (i) company, (ii) mango grower/professional
supplier, (iii) bank. The bank finances mango growers /suppliers through its branches
under tie up with the company (Capricorn Food Products India Ltd.). Branches
procure the list from the company and enter into tie up arrangement with the
company depending on feasibility/ viability, finance growers/ professional suppliers.
The company after procuring the fruits from the growers/ professional suppliers route
the entire sale proceeds through their bank accounts. The system is good so long as
14

Secured overdraft' facility is sanctioned against fixed deposits, NSC, and other securities.

54

there is smooth flow of the margin to the grower after adjusting their loan repayment.
However, growers complained that the company delays the payment resulting in
delayed repayment of loan by growers, which amounts to more repayment in terms of
interest (@11.0%). All processing units have working capital (WC) arrangement
with banks, which range from a lowest of Rs.20 lakh to a maximum of Rs.60 lakh
depending on their requirements. Banks work out the WC requirements as per Nayak
Committees recommendation.
Agri-extension
Horticulture Officers, (HOs) posted in the districts, take care of extension activities.
However, HOs are not adequately posted. For 48 mandals in Krishna district, 10 HOs
have been posted, which hampers extension mechanism.
Further, the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at district level
plays a lead role for technology dissemination. In case of mango, its role is laudable
in conducting awareness camps on IPM, encouraging marketing tie-up of Farmers
Interest Groups (FIGs) with direct purchaser, conducting training programmes, Kisan
Melas, exposure visits to FIGs, encouraging installation of drip and sprinkler
irrigation systems.It also plays a lead role in introducing HYVs through FIGs and
also creating revolving fund for popularization of these varieties and promoting inter
cropping practice in young mango orchards. To create awareness among the mango
growers, it has organized Campaign on Mango Crop Protection (CMCP) in nine
major mango growing mandals jointly with Horticulture Department in Chittor
district.
Export Houses
All small scale canning units in Chittoor are receiving job orders from export houses.
Some of the major export houses providing job orders to the units are located in
Delhi (M/s Sundarshan Overseas Ltd., M/s Jadli International Exports, M/s Usha
International), Mumbai (M/s Godrej Exports, M/s Foods & Inns Ltd., M/s Parle
Industries.), Ahmedabad (M/s Vadilal Industries, M/s Himagiri Foods) and
Bangalore (M/s Jagdale Exporter, M/s Lasa Foods Exports, M/s Fairy Foods Pvt.
Ltd., M/s Eicher International, Mysore Fruit products, M/s Hopwell Exports,
Bangalore and M/s Exotic Food Exports. There are no specific terms and conditions
of job work. All these export houses label the product, give brand name and emboss
(as Manufacturer and Exporter) before undertaking exports. As regards to payments,
about 60 per cent of the work order is paid before lifting of consignment. Rest is
paid after lifting of the full consignment. ITC-IBD15, with its operations based at
Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, has procurement and processing network covering
important fruit and vegetable belts all over India. Mango pulps (Totapuri/Raspuri
varieties) are packed in bulk (industrial packings), catering and consumer packs in
aseptic bags, OTS cans, frozen & IQF form according to the buyers requirements.
Fruit processing operations have been given a special thrust by IBD with an emphasis
15

Sourced from http://www.itcibd.com/pfhis.asp

55

on developing strategic partnerships across the value chain, especially fruit


procurement and processing. IBD has established its presence as a reliable and
competitive exporter to USA, Western Europe, Far East and Middle East countries.
Quality Certification
About 37 out of 53 canning units in Chittoor have got HACCP certification. All
aseptic units are ISO 9001-2000 certified along with HACCP. They have also got US
accredited Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) certification. One unit has also got
certification from International Raw Material Association (IRMA) that stipulates
standards for pulp used as a raw material for other products. SURE, a Global Fair
Certification, has also been received by aseptic units for mango pulp that acts as a
raw material for blending, juices etc.

56

CHAPTER IX
CONSTRAINTS AND STRATEGIES
As seen from previous chapters, India has achieved a remarkable success varietywise, taste-wise and size-wise in the production of mango. However, both in value
addition and exports, mango constituted a very meager share of its total production
because of several constraints.
I. Constraints
(i) Cultivation Aspects

Field study revealed that availability of genuine plant material is lacking and
small and marginal farmers are often deceived. Despite large wealth of mango
cultivars available, none of the cultivars have all the qualities like precocity,
dwarfness, prolificity, regularity in bearing, resistance to pests and diseases, etc.
However, adequate efforts have not gone into developing improved varieties of
mango through breeding. Further, efforts have also not made to popularize the
hybrid varieties and educate the growers and consumers on such varieties.

The study also revealed that orchard management is not proper among many of
the farmers. Improper spacing not based on soil type, variety, rainfall/irrigation,
etc. giving rise to poor yield, is not uncommon. Efforts have not been made to
rejuvenate the old orchards through new plantations. Certain farmers followed a
blanket fertilizer dose and doses are not based on soil type, irrigation and the
plant condition. Several mango orchards have been intercropped with paddy,
which has resulted in good yield in the beginning, but may result in several
orchard problems at a later stage like low yield, declined fruit quality and
increased mortality of mango trees. Inundation and chloride injury had started
leading to leaf burning and twig drying and outbreak of diseases.

Mango does not bear a good crop every year and tends to follow alternate bearing
pattern.. However, there is no effort to minimize irregular bearing by adopting
suitable cultural practices, like open canopy management, pruning, adequate
manuring, etc.

Fruit drop has been a problem for certain farmers. Farmers viewed that even after
careful farming, mangoes were infected with spots (Mangu disease), which
didn't fetch remunerative prices. However, in most cases, the farmers tended to
take the advise of the local fertilizer / pesticide dealers for its control, which
often failed. Application of recommended doses of plant growth regulators at the
appropriate stages of fruit growth, following of proper plant nutrition, plant
protection measures and cultural practices, especially irrigation schedule, could
greatly reduce the fruit drop.

57

(ii) Inadequate Extension Services

Field study revealed that there is lack of training and awareness creation on
various cultivation practices for producing good quality mango. Growers
cultivate mangoes just for the sake of cultivation and they have no adequate
knowledge on good agricultural practices. Horticultural Officers (HOs) are not
adequately posted in the districts for providing the required extension services.
The Horticulture Department has always been facing shortage of staff. There is
inadequate awareness on post-harvest needs and its technology among the mango
growers/traders.

(iii) Infrastructure Bottlenecks

It has been reported that more than 20-30 per cent of the produce is lost in the
post-harvest operations. This is mainly because of factors like non-availability of
proper infrastructure in terms of facilities for handling the produce, inadequate
transport and storage facilities. For distant markets and exports, infrastructure in
the form of pack houses with automatic sorting, washing, waxing, packing, precooling, storage and marketing has not developed commensurate with the level of
production and export prospects. To address a few of these issues and for giving
further boost to the export of fresh mangoes from the state, especially in the light
of opening of mango exports to Japan, action has been initiated by the
Department for establishment of 2 vapour heat treatment plant centers, one each
at Nuzvid (Krishna district) and Tirupati. AP Agros has been identified as the
Nodal Agency for establishing these units.
The Government is also
contemplating to develop a Horticulture Hub, with an end-to-end approach, under
private-public partnership at Nuzvid in Krishna district, at an estimated cost of
Rs. 28 crore. The modalities are being worked out.

The poor transportation and road conditions coupled with inappropriate packing
and temperatures as high as 40oC further deteriorates the quality. The prices of
mangoes in international market fluctuate on daily basis and long period of
journey reduces the freshness as also price realization for mangoes.

The present position of post harvest handling is not up to the mark. Even grading
standards are not uniform and limited to a few varieties and that are not
mandatory. Only AMC, Gollapudi is having one unit with facilities of cold
storage, processing hall, hot water drip treatment, etc.

(iv) Lack of Export Promotion and International Competition Strategies

Generally, the international trade demands mango varieties that are with fibreless
flesh, good aroma, attractive colour (preferably red, pink, purple or yellow) and
better sugar and acid blend. Efforts are not being made to produce and grade our
mango based on such tastes and varieties. Therefore, export strategy should be to
respond to the choices of the consumers of the importing countries. Fresh
mangoes are now one of the most liked tropical fruits in the United States. Per

58

capita consumption doubled from 1.1 lbs per person in 1995 to an estimated 2.2
lbs in 2004. The U.S. imported 638 million lbs of mangoes in 2004 at a cost of
$196 million. Mexico (63%), Peru (11%) and Brazil (9%) were the major supply
countries to the USA market.

The mango marketing seasons in various countries are given in Annexure V.


Indias major mango marketing season is April to July, whereas it is produced
round the year in Brazil, Columbia, Kenya and Venezuela. The season is quite
long in Burkino Faso, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicargua and
Puerto Rico. Very big mango orchards of a single variety of the size ranging
from 2,000 to 10,000 ha area have come up in those countries, keeping an eye on
export market which require consistent bulk supply of uniform good quality.

Many African and Latin American countries have become major suppliers to
European market. Philippines (70%) is the largest supplier to Japan, having
invested heavily in vapor heat treatment technology to ensure that export variety
of the Manila Super could be certified as fruit fly-free by Japanese quarantine
inspectors. Australia exports its Kensington Pride variety to Japan after
winning Japanese health authorities of its vapour heat treatment programme.
Pakistan gives higher subsidies, charges low freight tariff and also its proximity
to gulf countries has given its Ratual mango a permanent place in eating table
in the gulf. Therefore, our efforts for mango export need to be re-christened with
well planned strategies.

II. Issues and Strategies


A number of issues need to be addressed to strengthen mango crop so as to cater to
the export demand of mango and mango-based products from India.
a. Growers
(i) Fruit Size and Shape Improvement
Under-nourished trees cannot exhibit correct shape and size of the fruits. For optimal
development of the fruit, location specific nutrient management schedules with
optimal doses need to be developed and provided to the farmers. Hit and miss
methods as followed by certain farmers may not serve the purpose. Canopy
management need to be stressed to achieve the desirable leaf size. In the study area,
it was observed that the average age of the orchards is more than 40 years and the
interplant spacing ranged from 12-16 m.
(ii) Uniformity of shape and colour exhibition
An attractive shape is always appealing to the buyer. Colour development and bright
exhibition is possible through exposure of the fruit to solar light and temperature,
which means canopy management, adequate nourishment and stage of harvest. Early
harvests always lack good colour development on ripening.

59

(iii) Blemishes / Scars on fruits


Different types of blemishes and scars on the fruit make it unattractive for marketing
and get rejected while grading. Various causes for the occurrence of blemishes/scars
need to be identified and suitable remedial measures may be taken up to reduce such
occurrences. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, has
introduced two new mango varieties which have an acidic-sweet taste and also
developed a technology to prevent infection of mango fruits by insects. These two
mango varieties - Pusa Arunima and Pusa Surya, with characteristics such as
appropriate acidic-sweet blend, golden colour of the pulp and a cylindrical nut, would
help the country in competing with Philippines in mango exports to Europe.
b. Exporters and Traders
(i) Export Promotion Strategies
Concerted efforts need to be stepped up to intensify export promotion efforts. Some
of the points which merit attention of the policy makers in this respect include (i)
strengthening infrastructure base, (ii) efficient post harvest management, (iii) better
and improved packaging, (iii) exploring new markets, (iv) improving cold storage
and transportation logistics, (v) developing India brand mangoes and campaigning
abroad about their quality, (vi) developing an efficient export marketing network to
optimize our export, and (vii) setting up of more quality control laboratories in the
export processing zones. Exploring new export destinations has to be the priority.
Japan16 has opened up its market by lifting its 20-year-old ban on Indian mangoes in
June 2006. Banganapali, including other exportable varieties can now be imported by
Japan. Chinese market also needs to be tapped by our mango farmers.
(ii) Post-Harvest Infrastructure
The success of post-harvest considerations depends upon the identification of
appropriate technologies, sourcing and creation of need-based infrastructure,
followed by its proper management. With the post harvest losses roughly pegged at
25-30 per cent of the production level (8.86 lakh MT) in the study area, it implies a
wastage of 2.7 lakh MT. The volume of production (even at the farm gate price of
Rs. 4,500/ tonne) results in a loss of Rs.122 crore of revenue to the mango sector.
Since the creation of post-harvest infrastructure requires huge capital investment
initially, its creation has to be considered on merit so that proposed infrastructure
remains in operation for at least 200-250 days in a year. Creation of collection
centers with facilities of sorting, grading, transport and marketing in nearby urban
areas need to be stressed. Such facilities could be created by a group of farmers
growing mango by forming a cooperative society or a association of farmers or self
16

Japan had imposed a ban on import of Indian mangoes in 1986 on the ground of infestation
by melon fruit fly and oriental fruit fly.

60

help groups (SHGs). Some AMCs are contemplating to strengthen the existing
market and post-harvest handling infrastructure by utilizing the subsidy assistance
from the MoA, GoI through the Scheme for Development / Strengthening of
Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardisation.
Pack Houses
For distant markets and exports, establishment of pack houses with automatic,
sorting, washing, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, storage & marketing on large scale
could be considered by private and public sectors and these facilities could be made
available on hire basis to the farmers. Certain criteria like, urban areas with
concentrated pockets of production, having good connectivity, availability of
electricity and water round the year, hygienic surroundings, etc. need to be
considered for setting up of pack houses. The pack-houses need to have the adequate
capacity and should have the provision of pre-cooling unit/cold storage. Provision of
refrigerated/insulated van to have cool chain upto marketing may also be considered
in the pack-house with the aim to market quality graded products.
Cold Storage
The development of adequate cold storage capacity with latest technology17/cool
chain would help not only in increasing the shelf life and minimizing post-harvest
losses through proper storage but also help farmers in taking timely marketing
decisions. Cold storages with multi-chamber/multi-commodity concept need to be
popularized. Environment friendly and modern cooling system need to be introduced
at par with some other developing countries.
Vapour Heat Treatment Plant
There is the need to establish one vapour heat treatment plant (VHTP) to sort out the
problem of fruit fly, which is the main hindrance for exporting mangoes to Japan,
USA and European countries. There should be provision for the export of mangoes in
modified atmospheric containers.

17

Modified and Controlled Atmosphere Technology (MOCAT) is being adhered in ultramodern plants in developed countries. In such cases of storage, carbon-di-oxide and oxygen
ratio is varied to slow down the respiratory changes in the stored produce. In case of cold
storage, it has to be kept in mind that commercial refrigerated preservation of perishable
commodities is a short-term process. Costly produce like dry-fruits, potatoes, oranges,
chemicals, processed foods like fruit juices, pulp, concentrate, dairy products, frozen meals;
fish, poultry etc are being stored in cold storages. These cold storages should be multichamber having facilities for storage of various kinds of fruits, vegetables, spices etc at
different temperature and humidity. This would help in better utilization of cold storages,
throughout the year and will be more economical. These cold storages should preferably be
established in market yards/consuming areas.

61

Rail and Road Transport


Mangoes are transporated through trucks, open pickup or bigger trucks. Specialized
transport vehicles should be used, which may have separate cabins and partial shade
so that losses during transport are minimized. Around 300 trucks take mango to
upcountry market every day during the season (April-May) from Nunna market yard
in Vijayawada. Mango is also sent through a special wagon from Nuzvid railway
station. For export purpose, mango is being transported to Chennai airport.
Gannavaram airport near Vijayawada need to be upgraded and special cargo flights
need to be introduced for mango.
Capacity building
There is shortage of trained and skilled manpower for the management and
operations at field level. There is need to create world-class farms/mango orchards
for which capacity building needs to be initiated. An effective technology transfer
system (ETTS) may be promoted to take up technology development/transfer to the
mango growers/ processors.
c. Processors
Mango pulp making units put forth a lot of their grievances during the field study. As
almost all canning units are operating on work order basis, export houses give only
50 per cent of the cost as advance. Rest is paid after the consignment is lifted in
phases, which may go up to 6-7 months. Processors money remains locked and they
pay interest to banks on their borrowings. Further, because of competition and
inconsistent international prices, exporters are offering unattractive conversion
charges (Rs.22000/MT of pulp). Thus, most of the units are operating on reduced net
margins (Rs.200/MT of pulp).
Processors requested for a rationalization of sales tax rates. As per the existing
structure, sales tax rate @12.5% is levied if the pulp is manufactured and sold within
the state of Andhra Pradesh. However, the same is only 4% if the pulp is sold in other
states or that manufactured in other states is sold in Andhra Pradesh. With regard to
paying of 1% market cess to the AMCs on he procurement of mangoes, this is
waived by the Government if the end product is exported or deemed as exported.
However, this benefit has not been received by many of the processing units.
Similarly, the subsidy on power tariff as announced under the Food Processing Policy
of the State Government has not reached many of the units, as reported.
Because of stiff competition from he large corporate units, increasing costs of
manufacture which are not adequately compensated by the job charges being paid by
the export houses, many of the pulping units in the small scale sector are under the
threat of becoming sick. It is also observed that for exporters, the interest charged by
the banks under EPC is 7-8 per cent, whereas small-scale processing units are
charged at 12-13 per cent interest per annum. Exporters viewed that shipments by sea

62

are not preferred due to unreliable sea protocols. Freight charges for Singapore,
Dubai & Middle East is at Rs.50/kg now. However, there is no airfreight subsidy for
mangoes.
A few other facilities required in Chittoor district as revealed by processors are
setting up of a common solid waste treatment facility, warehousing facility to avoid
carrying the produce to Chennai, etc. The Marketing Department may also conduct
extensive studies and provide information to the industry on a continuous basis the
demand and international market prices.
d. Marketing
Discussions on previous chapters revealed that middlemen are considered as
necessary evils in the mango marketing system. Two types of measures need to be
directed for controlling the activities of middlemen, i.e., (i) regulating the marketing
of mango, (ii) creating alternative channels of trade for marketing of mango.
It is a known fact that the present commission charged by the commission agents is
nearly 4-10 per cent of the total value. But the commission charges fixed under the
APMC Act of State may be 1 to 1.5 per cent. To correct the situation it is necessary
to have a dialogue with the traders and fix a reasonable commission (4-6%), which
may partly be borne by sellers and buyers instead of sellers alone paying it as at
present. This type of realistic approach may give results in getting the markets
regulated and prevent other losses in weighing, handling, etc.
It is often suggested that creating producer cooperative organizations will solve most
of the problems and increase the bargaining power. But marketing is a specialized
activity and producer cooperatives consisting of small growers cannot undertake the
job. So it is necessary to create marketing organizations, which can take care of
marketing as well as trade in mango. The main features of the organization may
include establishing collection centers at growing regions, regulating all
buying/selling activates through the organization at the market yard, registration of
all buyers with the organization, advancing loans on the pledge of the produce,
disbursing of inputs through collection center and arrangement with banks for
advancing production loans, etc. For maintaining the organization, a commission of
4-6 per cent may be charged. The DoH can be closely associated with the
organization and some responsibility of collection centers can also be entrusted to
their field staff. Considering the success of MAHAMANGO, a Federation of mango
producers societies in Maharashtra, promoted by the Maharashtra State Agricultural
Marketing Board, the Department may undertake a detailed study on its functioning
and assess the scope for formation of similar such interventions in Andhra Pradesh.
e. Institutional Credit
The credit requirement of mango is very high. Presently, middlemen meet a part of
the requirement of the credit for which the farmer market the produce through the

63

middlemen. Therefore, to shorten the activities of the middlemen in the marketing


channel, it is also necessary to provide the credit required by the growers. Presently,
though the banks are advancing the credit, it is limited to production of
crop/establishment of mango orchards and does not cover the marketing cost. This
can be achieved if the marketing organization through its assembling centers arranges
to supply the inputs on credit basis on the understanding that the producer through its
assembling centers sell through that marketing organisation. This organization may
suggest the banks located in the area to route the credit through them. As the
assembling centers of the organizations will be distributing the credit in kind and
cash components, there will be less scope for misutilisation. The repayment will also
be regular as the produce is marketed through the organization.
III. Policy Suggestions/Action Points

Mango being a potential horticulture crop, needs to be developed by adopting a


cluster approach. The Department of Horticulture may categorise the district into
specific clusters and go for a thorough survey of orchard areas, mango growers,
processing units, market yards, etc. to identify the constraints and try to put in
place the required extension support, infrastructure, etc.

There are several varieties, which need to be identified and given a geographical
identity, such as Nuzividu Chinna Rasalu a highly delicious juicy variety. Such
varieties are dependent upon specific soil and climatic conditions. The DoH may
identify and make efforts to screen out the places linked with a particular variety
of mango and thereafter attempt for registration of geographical identity of such
local varieties. Branding in such a way would lead to integrated growth of that
crop.

As many as 17 lakh mango trees have died in Andhra Pradesh since May 2003.
The worst-affected area is the Nuzveed belt in Krishna district (Jayan 2007)18.
Considering this, large-scale re-plantation needs to be initiated to rejuvenate the
senile and unproductive orchards. Improved rootstocks need to be introduced and
strategies finalized to promote high density planting of mangoes. The
Department of Horticulture may popularize the improved package of practices
among the growers and ensure that new plantations are established accordingly.

The study revealed that availability of genuine plant material of the required
quantity is lacking. It is learnt that bankers are reluctant to offer term credit on
account of non-availability of adequate quality planting material. The DoH may
take necessary action and ensure that adequate good quality planting material is
available for new mango plantations. Sometimes, there has been a demand in
certain quarters to create Horticultural Crops Planting Material Authority
(HCPMA) for ensuring quality of planting material.

18
Jayan, T. V., (2007), In a pickle: Mango crop runs into rough weather,
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/full6.asp.

64

It is revealed that alternate bearing has been creating problems in mango


production to a large extent. While in one year it creates glut with excess
production, the next year it results in short supply due to low production thus
leading to high price of mango, which affects processing units with high cost of
production. The crop production can be regulated to a certain extent through
pruning immediately after the harvest followed by adequate manuring, judicious
irrigation and effective plant protection measures. The appropriate package of
practices need to be popularised by the Department.

There is increasing need to set up pack houses with washing, waxing, packing,
pre-cooling and storage, including refrigerated vans for transport at the
production centres. The pack houses need to be designed in such a manner to
facilitate year round operation, taking into consideration the availability of other
perishable products in the region. These should be linked with the terminal
markets.

There is the need to establish one vapour heat treatment plant (VHTP) to sort out
the problem of fruit fly, which is the main hindrance for exporting mangoes to
Japan, USA and European countries. There should be provision for the export of
mangoes in modified atmospheric containers in ships.

Mango processing industry, particularly pulp making, has enough potential to


grow in the future considering the declining consumer preferences towards
synthetic drinks because of growing health consciousness and increase in
purchasing power. Jelly and pickles making has also enough potential to grow.
Proportionately, production and productivity of good quality/processing-worthy
mango has to increase, for which availability of adequate institutional credit is
essential. Credit is needed for crop establishment and maintenance, installation of
on-farm infrastructure, such as drip irrigation, processing units, export credit, etc.
Banks to provide adequate credit to various segments of mango industry, keeping
in view the banking plan prepared/potential envisaged in PLCPs by NABARD.

The credit purveyed to the mango sector is not getting reflected in the present
system of data generation by banks. There is a need to streamline data on credit
flow to mango separately for various activities, especially in the AEZs. Credt
flow in AEZs may be included as an item of agenda in the district-level and state
level bankers meets.

Similarly, the data on area, production and yield also need to be streamlined after
conducting proper survey. Data generated by the Department and other agencies
at the field level vary to a large extent. Similarly, there is a need to streamline the
data and put in place a system to update and publish the data on market arrival
and prices of mango variety-wise.

There is need to regularly review and monitor the progress and various issues
confronted by the stakeholders in AEZs at the State/District level so as to identify
constraints and initiate corrective actions.

65

Appendix I
Important Mango Cultivars in Major producing Countries
Country
Australia
Bangladesh
Brazil
China
Costa Rica
Ecuador
Egypt
Guatemala
Haiti
India

Indonesia
Israel
Kenya
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Myanmar
Pakistan
Peru
Philippines
Singapore
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Thailand
USA
Venezuela
Vietnam

Cultivars
Kensington Pride, Banana, Earlygold, Glenn, Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Kent,
'Zill'
'Aswina', 'Fazli', 'Gopal Bhog', 'Himsagar','Khirsapati', 'Langra', 'Kishan
Bhog', 'Kohinoor', 'Kua Pahari', 'Mohan Bhog'
'Bourbon', 'Carlota', 'Coracao', 'Espada', 'Itamaraca', 'Maco', 'Magoada',
'Rosa', 'Tommy Atkins'
'Baiyu', 'Guixiang', 'Huangpi', 'Huangyu', 'Macheco', 'Sannian', 'Yuexi No. 1'
'Haden', 'Irwin', 'Keitt', 'Mora', 'Tommy Atkins'
'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'
'Alphonso', 'Bullock's Heart', 'Hindi Be Sennara', 'Langra', 'Mabrouka',
'Pairie', 'Taimour', 'Zebda'
'Haden', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'
'Francine', 'Madame Francis'
'Alphonso', 'Banganapalli', 'Bombay', 'Bombay Green', 'Chausa', 'Dashehari',
'Fazli', 'Fernandian', 'Himsagar', 'Kesar', 'Kishen Bhog', 'Langra', 'Mallika',
'Mankurad, 'Mulgoa', 'Neelum', 'Pairi', 'Samar Behisht Chausa?,
'Suvarnarekha', 'Totapuri', 'Vanraj', 'Zardalu', 'Amrapali', 'Bangalora',
'Gulabkhas'
'Arumanis', 'Dodol', 'Gedong', 'Golek', 'Madu', 'Manalagi', 'Cengkir', 'Wangi'
'Haden','Tommy Atkins','Keitt', 'Maya', 'Nimrod', 'Kent', 'Palmer'
'Boubo','Ngowe','Batawi'
'Arumanis', 'Kuala Selangor 2', 'Golek', 'Apple Rumani', 'Malgoa', 'Apple
Mango', 'Maha-65', 'Tok Boon'
'Amelie','Kent'
Haden, Irwin, Kent, Manila, Palmer, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke
'Aug Din', 'Ma Chit Su', 'Sein Ta Lone', 'Shwe Hin Tha'
'Anwar Ratol', 'Baganapalli', 'Chausa', 'Dashehari', 'Gulab Khas', 'Langra',
'Siroli', 'Sindhri', 'Suvarnarekha', 'Zafran'
'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'
Carabao, Manila Super, Pico, Binoboy, Carabao, Dudul, Pahutan, Senora
'Apple Mango', 'Arumanis', 'Golek', 'Kaem Yao', 'Mangga Dadol'
'Fascell', 'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Sensation', 'Tommy Atkins', 'Zill,
'Karutha Colomban, Willard, Vellai Colomban, Petti amba, Malwana amba,
Parrot Mango and Peterpasand, Dapara, Hingurakgoda
'Nam Doc Mai', 'Ngar Charn', 'Okrong', 'Rad', 'Choke Anand', 'Kao Keaw',
'Keow Savoey', 'Pimsenmum'
'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'
'Haden' 'Keitt' 'Kent' 'Tommy Atkins
Combodiana

Source: horticulture world.net.

66

Appendix II
19

Characteristics of Important Indian Mango Varieties

1. Alphonso : This is the leading commercial variety of Maharashtra state and one

of the choicest varieties of the country. This variety is known by different names
in different regions, viz. Badami, Gundu, Khader, Appas, Happus and Kagdi
Happus. The fruit of this variety is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and
orange yellow in colour. The fruit quality is excellent and keeping quality is
good. It has been found good for canning purpose. It is a mid season variety
2. Bangalora : It is a commercial variety of south India. The fruit size is medium to

large, its shape is oblong with necked base and colour is golden yellow. Fruit
quality is poor. Keeping quality is very good. It is widely used for processing. It
is a mid season variety.
3. Banganpalli: It is a commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and

also known as Chapta, Safeda, Baneshan and Chaptai. Fruit is large in size and
obliquely oval in shape. The colour of the fruit is golden yellow. Fruit quality and
keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety and is good for canning.
4. Bombai : It is a commercial variety from Bihar state. It is also known as Malda in

West Bengal and Bihar. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate-oblique and colour
yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is an early season
variety.
5. Bombay Green : It is commonly grown in north India due to its early ripening

habit. It is also called Malda in Northern India. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate
oblong and fruit colour is spinach green. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality
is medium. It is a very early variety.
6. Dashehari : This variety derives its name from the village Dashehari near

Lucknow. It is a leading commercial variety of north India and one of the best
varieties of our country. The fruit size is medium, shape is oblong to oblong
oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality is excellent keeping quality is
good. It is a mid season variety and is mainly used for table purpose.
7. Fajri : This variety is commonly grown in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and

West Bengal. Fruit is very large, obliquely oval in shape. Fruit colour is light
chrome. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. This is a late season
variety.
8. Fernnadin : This is one of the oldest varieties of Bombay. Some people think that

this variety originated in Goa. Fruit size is medium to large, fruit shape is oval to
obliquely oval and fruit colour is yellow with a red blush on shoulders. Fruit
quality and keeping quality are medium. It is a late season variety mostly used
for table purpose.

19

Source: www.horticultureworld.net.

67

9. Himsagar : This variety is indigenous to Bengal. This is one of the choicest

varieties of Bengal and has gained extensive popularity. Fruit is of medium size,
ovate to ovate oblique. Fruit colour is yellow. Both fruit and keeping quality are
good. It is an early variety.
10. Kesar : This is a leading variety of Gujarat with a red blush on the shoulders.

Fruit size is medium, shape oblong and keeping quality is good. It is an early
variety.
11. Kishen Bhog : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit

size is medium, fruit shape is roundish oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit
quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
12. Langra : This variety is indigenous to Varanasi area of Uttar Pradesh. It is

extensively grown in northern India. Fruit is of medium size, ovate shape and
lettuce green colour. Fruit quality is good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid
season variety.
13. Mankurad : This variety is of commercial importance in Goa and in the

neighbouring Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The variety develops black spots


on the skin in rainy season. Fruit is medium in size, ovate in shape and yellow in
colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is poor. It is a mid season
variety.
14. Mulgoa : This is a commercial variety of southern India. It is quite popular

among the lovers of mango owing to high quality of its fruit. Fruit is large in size,
roundish oblique in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good.
Keeping quality is good. It is a late season variety.
15. Neelum : This is a commercial variety indigenous to Tamil Nadu. It is an ideal

variety for transporting to distant places owing to its high keeping quality. Fruit
is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and saffron yellow in colour. Fruit
quality is good and keeping quality is very good.
16. Chausa : This variety originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of a

Talukadar of Sandila district Hardoi, U.P. It is commonly grown in northern parts


of India due to its characteristic flavour and taste. Fruit is large in size, ovate to
oval oblique in shape and light yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good keeping
quality is medium. it is a late variety.
17. Suvarnarekha : This is a commercial variety of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra

Pradesh. Other synonyms of this variety are Sundari, Lal Sundari. Fruit is
medium in size and ovate oblong in shape. Colour of the fruit is light cadmium
with a blush of jasper red. Fruit quality is medium and keeping quality is good. It
is an early variety.
18. Vanraj : It is a highly prized variety of Vadodra district of Gujarat and fetches

good returns. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblong in shape and colour is deep
chrome with a blush of jasper red on the shoulders. Fruit quality and keeing
quality good. It is a mid season variety.

68

19. Zardalu : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit size is

medium, oblong to obliquely oblong and golden yellow in colour. Fruit quality is
very good. Keeping quality is medium.
Hybrid Varieties
1. Amarapali : This hybrid is from a cross of Dashehari x Neelum. It is dwarf,
regular bearing and late maturing variety. The variety is suitable for high density
planting as about 1600 plants may be planted in a hectare. It yields on an average
16 tonnes / hectare.
2. Mallika : It is from a cross of Neelum x Dashehari. Its fruit is large in size,
oblong elliptical and in shape cadmium yellow in colour. Fruit and keeping
quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
3. Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Baganpalli and Alphonso. It is dwarf regular
bearing, precocious. Fruits are large having attractive skin colour with red blush
free from spongy tissue.
4. Arka Puneet : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Banganpalli. It regular and
prolific bearer. Fruits are medium sized having attractive skin colour with red
blush and free from spongy tissue.
5. Arka Anmol : This hybrid is from a cron of Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand. It is
regular bearer and good yielder. Fruits are medium sized having uniform yellow
peel colour, excellent keeping quality and free from spongy tissue.
6. Arka Neelkiran : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Neelum. It is , regular
bearering late season variety with medium sized fruits having attractive red blush
free from spongy tissue.
7. Ratna : This hybrid is from a cross of Neelum x Alphonso. Tree vigorous,
precautions, fruits are medium sized, attractive in colour and free from spongy
tissue.
8. Sindhu : It is from a cross of Ratna x Alphonso. It is regular bearer, fruits
medium sized, free from spongy tissue with high pulp to stone ratio and very thin
and small stone.
9. Au Rumani : It is from a cross of Rumani x Mulgoa. It is precocious, heavy and
regular bearing with large fruits having yellow cadmium skin colour.
10. Manjeera : This hybrid is from a cross of Rumani x Neelum. It is dwarf, regular
and prolific bearer with firm and fibre less flesh.
11. Other hybrid varieties released are Alfazali, Sundar Langra, Sabri, Jawahar,
Neelphonso, Neeleshan, Neeleshwari and PKM2.

69

Appendix III
Peak Mango Marketing Seasons for Various countries

Countries
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Columbia
Costa Rica
Gambia
Guatemala
Guinea
Ecuador
Egypt
India
Indonesia
Israel
Cote d Ivories
Jamaica
Kenya
Madagascar
Mali
Mexico
Nicaragua
Pakistan
Peru
Puerto Rico
Senegal
South Africa
Spain
Sudan
Swaziland
USA
Venezuela
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Peak mango marketing season


Year round
March-July
Year round
March-September
May-July
March-July
May-August
November-February
August-October
April-June
May-August
July-December
March-July
May-October
Year round
November-December
March-July
April-December
April-July
June-August
September-May
March-November
May-July
January-May
September-December
June-August
January-March
June-October
Year round
January-March
November-April

70

Appendix-IV
Major Country-wise Mangoes Exported from India -2003-2006 (in MT)
Country
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06*
Algeria
38.40
0.00
17.00
Bahrain
635.65
803.69
197.84
Bangladesh
23797.13
32503.22
2698.67
Belgium
105.88
31.45
8.53
Brunel
12.75
9.88
1.04
Canada
116.80
28.19
29.07
China
41.86
1.09
0.18
Finland
21.00
0.04
0.00
France
245.05
41.19
12.31
Germany
101.14
82.55
1.27
Hong Kong
79.11
38.50
14.11
Iran
71.20
17.00
0.00
Jordan
22.91
88.00
0.00
DRepublic of Korea
19.01
0.00
0.00
Republic of Korea
16.00
0.30
11.72
Kuwait
438.30
267.96
35.03
Malaysia
294.23
185.00
52.37
Maldives
12.49
4.32
3.53
Myanmar
5.00
0.00
0.00
Nepal
2930.11
3400.94
301.63
Netherlands
855.94
532.00
0.21
Norway
9.70
117.88
0.26
Oman
556.73
143.40
59.60
Philippines
37.00
0.00
0.00
Portugal
81.00
41.15
0.00
Qatar
232.23
160.29
16.66
Russia
1930.80
0.03
0.00
Saudi Arabia
3845.72
2300.53
390.58
Singapore
238.84
159.63
77.46
South Africa
14.54
0.40
2.47
Sudan
251.00
105.00
0.00
Switzerland
76.91
39.70
4.86
Thailand
0.58
5.44
0.00
U.A.E
21056.16
9480.93
5219.40
UK
1511.63
1202.36
205.55
Yemen Republic
80.30
205.25
0.00
Japan
51.60
Reunion
34.00
Bhutan
28.00
U.S.A.
632.61
Other Countries$
16.9
142.99
12.35
$ include Sweden, Taiwan, Swaziland, Italy, Austria, Congo P Rep, Denmark, Greece and others. Note :
* : April - September 2005, Source: Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.188, dated on 01.03.2005, & Lok
Sabha Starred Question No.562, dated on 23.05.2006.

71

REPORTS PUBLISHED UNDER THE EVALUATION STUDY SERIES OF


NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
A.
Reports Published by the Head Office of NABARD
Series No.
Title of Evaluation Report
Year of
Publication
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.
*Minor Irrigation Scheme-Construction of New Wells and Installation
of Pumpsets thereon in Sholapur District of Maharashtra
1977
2.
*Minor Irrigation Scheme Installation of Shaloow Tubewells
in Karnal District of Haryana
1977
3.
*Bhadra Land Development Project Scheme for Reclamation
and Development of Land, Karnataka
1977
4.
*Land Development under Nagarjuna Sagar Project, Miryalguda
Taluka, Andhra Pradesh
1977
5.
*Dairy Development Scheme in Jagadhri Block of Ambala
District, Haryana
1978
6.
*Dairy Development Scheme in Moga of Faridkot District
1978
7.
*Poultry Development Scheme in Mulkanoor, Karimnagar, AP 1979
8.
*Mechanised Fishing Boats in South Kanara District, Karnataka 1979
9.
*Development of Acid Lime Gardens in Nellore District, AP
1981
10.
*Groundwater Irrigation in Kota District, Rajasthan
1982
11.
*Minor Irrigation in Bhojpur District, Bihar
1982
12.
Development of Grape Cultivation in Bijapur District, Karnataka 1982
13.
River Lift Irrigation Scheme in Pune District, Maharashtra
1982
14.
Dairy Development Scheme in Western Uttar Pradesh
1982
15.
*River Lift Irrigation Scheme in Kolhapur District, Maharashtra 1982
16.
*Sheep Rearing in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh
1982
17.
Development of Coffee Plantation in Lower Palnis Area,
Madurai District, Tamil Nadu
1983
18.
*Public Tubewells and River Lifts in Orissa
1984
19.
*Power Tillers in Hooghly District, West Bengal
1985
20.
Commercial Poultry in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh
1986
21.
Dugwell Irrigation in Palghat District, Kerala
1986
22.
Tractors in North Bihar
1986
23.
Dairy Development Schemes in Darjeeling District, West Bengal 1987
24.
Tractors Schemes in Varanasi, Ghazipur and Jaunpur Districts,
Eastern Uttar Pradesh
1987
25.
Tractors and Power Tillers in Tamil Nadu
1987
26.
Minor Irrigation in Muzaffarnagar District, Uttar Pradesh
1987
27.
Dairy Development in Quilon District, Kerala
1987
28.
Dugwell Irrigation in Dhenkanal District, Orissa
1988
29.
Bamboo and Shallow Tubewells in Purnia District, Bihar
1988
30.
Dugwell Irrigation Development in Nasik District, Maharashtra 1988

72

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

Calf Rearing in North Arcot, Salem and Coimbatore District, TN 1988


Minor Irrigation in Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh
1988
Coconut Development in Quilon District, Kerala
1988
Minor Irrigation in Purulia District, West Bengal
1988
Sprinkler Irrigation in Semi-arid Areas of Rajasthan
1989
Dugwell Irrigation in Amravati District, Maharashtra
1989
Marine Fisheries in Coastal Gujarat and Maharashtra
1989
Shallow Tubewells under Massive National Programme I
1990
Financing of Apple Orchards in Hill Districts, Uttar Pradesh
1991
Work Animals & Animal Driven Carts in Meerut District,UP
1991
Inland Fishery in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh
1991
Bio-gas Plants in Nainital and Rampur Districts, Uttar Pradesh 1991
Impact of Non-farm Sector Investments
1994
Lift Irrigation Schemes in Maharashtra
1995
Mendhwan Watershed Project under Indo-German Watershed
Development Programme (IGWDP) Maharashtra State
1999
46.
Self Help Groups in Tamil Nadu
2000
47.
Micro Finance for Rural People An Impact Evaluation Study 2000
48.
Rural Non-farm Investments An Impact Study
2002
49.
SHG - Bank Linkage Programme for Rural Poor in India
- An impact Assessment
2002
50.
Cold Storage units financed under Capital Investment Subsidy
Scheme An Impact Assessment
2003
51
Infrastructure for Agriculture & Rural Development Impact
Assessment of Investments in Rural Roads & Bridges under RIDF2004
* Reports are out of Stock
B. Reports Published by Regional Offices of NABARD
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Series No.
Title of Evaluation Report
Year of ublication
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gujarat
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Poultry Development Scheme in Gujarat


Dairy Development Scheme in Mehsana District, Gujarat
Lift Irrigation Scheme of Ukai Left Bank Main Canal Gujarat
Financing of Tractors in Mehsana and Rajkot Districts, Gujarat
Investments Financed under IRDP in Valsad District, Gujarat
Market Yard in Jetpur, Rajkot District, Gujarat
Marine Fisheries in Junagarh District
Buffalo Financing in Sabarkanta
Karnataka

1988
1989
1991
1992
1994
2003
2003
2004

1.
2.
3.
4.

Development of Grape Gardens in Bangalore & Kolar Districts


Borewell Financing in Chitradurga and Kolar Districts
Development of Coffee Gardens in Karnataka State
Sericulture Development in Karnataka Farm Investments

1989
1990
1992
1993

73

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11
12
13

Lift Irrigation Schemes in Belgaum District, Karnataka


2000
Poultry (Broiler) Development in Bangalore (Rural) and
Bangalore (Urban) Districts, Karnataka
2001
Drip Irrigation Programme in Chitradurga District of Karnataka 2002
Dairy Development in Kolar and Shimoga Districts of Karnataka 2003
Sericulture in Kolar and Tumkur Districts of Karnataka
2003
Fuelwood Development Project in Karnataka
2003
Participatory Irrigation Management Institutions in Karnataka 2004
Gherkins-AEZ, Karnataka- A Commodity-Specific Study
2005
Comparative Cost Models for SHGs in Karnataka
2007
Madhya Pradesh

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dugwell and Shallow Tubewell Irrigation in Narsinghpur


Tractor Financing in Raisen and Vidisha Districts,
Commercial Layer Poultry Development in Indore District, MP
IRDP in Sagar District, Madhya Pradesh
Rural Non-Farm Sector in Ujjain District
Orissa

1988
1989
1992
1994
2005

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Betelvine Gardens in Puri District, Orissa


Tractors in Sambalpur District, Orissa
Dairy Development Scheme in Cuttak and Ganjam Districts
Brackish Water Prawn Culture in Puri District, Orissa
Minor Irrigation in Sambalpur District, Orissa
Shallow Tubewells in Undivided Cuttak & Puri Districts Orissa
District Rural Industries Project and PLI Training Programme
Group Financing Under Farm Mechanisation in Orissa
Investments under RIDF in Rural Bridges
SHG Bank Linkage Programme in RBK Region in Orissa
Commodity Specific Study-Cashew Nuts in Orissa
Punjab & Haryana

1989
1989
1992
1994
1997
2000
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Poultry Farming in Punjab


Dairy Development Schemes in Karnal and Rohtak Districts
Tractors in Haryana
Grape Gardens in Hissar District, Haryana
Inland Fisheries in Patiala and Bhatinda Districts, Punjab
Viability of Tractors in Punjab
Non-farm Sector in Ludhiana and Sangrur Districts of Punjab
Water Conveyance System in Rewari & Mahendragarh Districts
Cold Storages in Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Patiala Districts
Dairy Financing in Kurukshetra and Kaithal Districts
Self Help Groups in Karnal, Gurgaon and Bhiwani District
Poultry (Layers) in Sangrur and Gurdaspur Districts in Punjab
Financing of Tubewells in Bhatinda, Hoshiarpur & Ropar
Agro and Food Processing units in Haryana
Roads in Mukatsar District in Punjab

1987
1987
1994
1998
2000
2001
2001
2001
2001
2002
2002
2003
2003
2003
2003

74

16.
17.
18.

Financing of Dairy (Buffaloes) in Patiala & Sangrur Districts


Tractor Financing in Kaithal & Faridabad Districts
Impact Assessment of RIDF Investments in Haryana
Tamil Nadu

1.
2.
3.
4.

Poultry Development in Salem District, Tamil Nadu


1988
Dugwell Irrigation in Pudukkottai & North Arcot District
1989
Tea Gardens in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu
1990
Minor Irrigation Investmentsunder Massive Assistance Programme
in South Arcot, Tiruchirappalli Districts, Tamil Nadu
1991
Jasmine Investments in Salem and Madurai Districts
1992
Mini Dairy Investments in Coimbatore & Periyar Districts, TN 1994
Marine Fisheries in Tamil Nadu
1998
Sericulture in Tamil Nadu
1999
IRDP in Tamil Nadu
2000
Modern Rice Mills in Tamil Nadu
2001
Coconut Development in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu
2002
Minor Irrigation Credit Programme in Ramnad and Trichy
2002
District Rural Industries Project in Tirunelveli District
2003
Cold Storages in Tamil Nadu
2003
Combine Harvesters in Tiruvallur & Salem Districts
2005
Comparative Cost Models for SHGs in Tamil Nadu
2006
Assam

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

2004
2005
2006

1.
2.
3.
4.

Private Shallow Tubewells and Lift Points in Assam


Inland Fishery in West Tripura District, Tripura
IRDP in Nagaon District (Assam)
Farm Mechanisation (Power Tillers) in Sibsagar District, Assam
Andhra Pradesh

1989
1992
2000
2000

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Public Tubewells in Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh


Development of Grape Gardens in Rangareddy District, AP
Dugwell Irrigation in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh
Mango Orchards in Krishna and Khammam Districts, AP
On-Farm Development Works under Nagarjunasagar Project
Command in Khammam and Krishna Districts, Andhra Pradesh
Inland Fishery in West Gogdavari District, Andhra Pradesh
Dairy Development in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh
Poultry Layer Investment, Andhra Pradesh
Food (Mango) Processing in Visakhapatnam and Chittoor
Sheep Rearing in Mahbubnagar and West Godawari Districts
An Ex-Post Evaluation Study on Sericulture Investments in AP
Rural Non-Farm Sector in Andhra Pradesh
Commodity-Specific Study-Grape
Commodity-Specific Study Cotton
Microfinance for Microenterprises-Impact Evaluation of SHGs
Mango in Andhra Pradesh: A Commodity Specific Study

1988
1989
1989
1991

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

75

1995
1996
1999
2000
2001
2002
2002
2005
2004
2005
2006
2007

Rajasthan
1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Minor Irrigation Structures in Udaipur District, Rajasthan


Tractors in Alwar District, Rajasthan
Market Yard in Kekri Ajmer District, Rajasthan
Borewell in Jodhpur District, Rajasthan
IRDP in Alwar District, Rajasthan
Poultry in Ajmer District, Rajasthan
Sprinkler Irrigation Schemes in Barmer District, Rajasthan
Dairy Scheme in Bharatpur District
Water Management Schemes in Jaipur District
Minor Irrigation Schemes in Bikaner District of Rajasthan
Orange Cultivation Schemes in Jhalawar District of Rajasthan
RNFS Investments in Bhilwara District of Rajasthan
Poultry Layers in Ajmer District of Rajasthan
A Comparative Study for Cost Models for SHGs
Jammu & Kashmir

1988
1991
1991
1993
1995
1995
1997
1999
2001
2001
2002
2006
2006
2007

1.
2.

IRDP in Baramullah District , Jammu & Kashmir


Tractors in Jammu District, Jammu & Kashmir
West Bengal

1992
1995

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
27.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Inland Fisheries Scheme in Nadia District, West Bengal


Betelvine Gardens in Midnapore District, West Bengal
Bullocks and Bullock Carts in Malda District, West Bengal
Poultry Farming (Broiler) in Medinipur District, West Bengal
Minor Irrigation Schemes in Birbhum District, West Bengal
Floriculture in Midnapore District of West Bengal
Modern Rice Mills & Mustard Oil Ghani Mills in Bankura
Special Component Plan & Tribal Sub-Plan -Impact Assessment
Rural Roads under RIDF in West Bengal
Land Development Sector in West Bengal
Rural Godowns in West Bengal
Uttar Pradesh

1987
1989
1991
1999
2000
200
2003
2004
2005
2005
2006

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Minor Irrigation Scheme in Jhansi District, Uttar Pradesh


Tractors in Western Uttar Pradesh
Inland Fishery in Azamgarh and Deoria Districts, Uttar Pradesh
NFS in Moradabad District, Uttar Pradesh
Saghan Mini Dairy Project in Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh
Mushroom Cultivation in Dehradun District, Uttar Pradesh
Grape in Muzaffarnagar District, Uttar Pradesh
Minor Irrigation in Raebareli District, Uttar Pradesh
Poultry (Broilers) Farming in Uttar Pradesh
Impact Assessment of Investments under RIDF
Bihar

1988
1992
1994
1995
1997
1997
1998
1998
2005
2006

1.

Shallow Tubewells in Darbhanga, Madhubani & Samastipur

1988

76

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Deep Tubewells in Bihar


Dairy Development Scheme in Begusarai and Singhbhum
Minor Irrigation Schemes in Samastipur District, Bihar
IRDP in Ranchi District in Bihar
Cold Storages in Bihar
Million Shallow TubeWells Programme in Bihar
Maharashtra

1989
1989
1996
1997
2004
2005

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Lift Irrigation Schemes in Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra


Well Irrigation in Aurangabad District, Maharashtra
Poultry Development in Pune District, Maharashtra
Grape Gardens in Nasik District, Maharashtra
Land Development in Command Area of Kukkadi Project
IRDP in Yavatmal District
Farm Mechanisation in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra
Post Harvest Centres (Pre-Cooling, etc.) for export of Grapes
Rice Mills in Maharashtra
Cold Storages in Maharashtra
Himachal Pradesh

1988
1991
1991
1993
1995
1998
1999
2001
2002
2004

1.
2.
3.

Dairy Development in Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh


Apple Cultivation in Himachal Pradesh
Rural Roads and Bridges under RIDF in Himachal Pradesh
Kerala

1997
2004
2006

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Betelvine Gardens in Trivandrum District, Kerala


Broiler Poultry Development in Ernakulam District, Kerala
Development of Rubber Plantation in Kattayam District, Kerala
Fisheries Development in Kollam District, Kearla
Farm Mechanisation in Palghat and Ernakulam Districts, Kerala
Rural Non-Farm Sector in Malappuram & Kozhikode Districts
Sprinkler Irrigation in Kasargod District of Kerala
Dairy Development in Kollam District of Kerala
Minor Irrigation in Kasaragod and Kannur Districts of Kerala
Rural Non-Farm Sector in Kollam & Alapuzza Districts
SHGs in Wayanad District

1988
1990
1991
1992
1995
1998
2002
2002
2003
2004
2004

Copies of the study reports can be obtained from the Chief General Manager, Department of Economic
Analysis and Research (DEAR), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, C-24, G
Block, Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (East), Mumbai400 051.

77

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