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THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

The six phases of the generic development process are;

Phase O; Planning. The planning activity is often referred to as phase zero since it
precedes the project approval and launch of the actual product development and
launch of the actual product development process. The phase begins with corporate
strategy and includes assessment of technology developments and market
objectives. The output of the planning phase is the project mission statement, which
specifies the target market for the product, business goals, key assumptions, and
constraints.

Phase 1: Concept development. In this phase the needs of the target market are
identified, alternative product concepts are generated and evaluated; and one or
more concepts are selected for further development and testing. A concept is a
description of the form, function, and features of a product and is usually
accompanied by a set of specifications, an analysis of competitive products, and an
economic justification of the project.

Phase 2: System-level design. The system-level design phase includes the


definition of the product architecture and the decomposition of the product into
subsystems and components. The final assembly scheme (which we discuss later in
the chapter) for the production system is usually defined during the phase as well.
The output of this phase usually includes a geometric layout of the product, a
functional specification of each of the products subsystems, and a preliminary
process flow diagram for the final assembly process.

Phase 3: Design detail: This phase includes the complete specification of the
geometry, materials, and tolerances of all the unique parts in the product
And the identification of all the standard parts to be purchased from suppliers. A
process plan is established and tooling is designed for each part to be fabricated
within the production system. The output of the phase in the drawings of computer
files describing the geometry of each part and its production tooling, the
specifications of purchased parts, and the process plans for the fabrication and
assembly of the product.

Phase 4: Testing and refinement: The testing and refinement phase involves the
construction and evaluation of multiple pre-production versions of the product. Early
prototypes are usually built with parts with the same geometry and material
properties as the production version of the product but not necessarily fabricated
with the actual
Process to be used in production. Prototypes are tested to determine whether the
product will work as designed and whether the product satisfies customer needs.

Phase 5: Production ramp-up: In the production ramp-up phase, the product is


made using the intended production system. The purpose of he ramp-up is to train
the workforce and to work out any remaining problems in the production processes.
Products produced during production ramp-up are sometimes supplied to referred
customers and are carefully evaluated to identify any remaining flaws. The
transition from production ramp-up to ongoing production is usually gradual. At
some point in the transition, the product is launched and becomes available for
widespread distribution.

The development process described in exhibit 1 is generic, and particular


processes will differ in accordance with a firms unique context. The generic process
is most like the process used in a market-pull situation. This is when a firm begins
product development with a market opportunity and then uses whatever available
technologies are required to satisfy the market need ( i.e. the market pulls the
development decisions). In addition to the generic market-pull processes, several
variants are common and correspond to the following technology-push products,
platform products, process-intensive products, customized products, high-risk
products, quick-build products and complex systems. Each of these situations is
described below. The characteristics of these situations and the resulting deviations
from the generic process are summarized in Exhibit2.

Exhibit 1: The Generic Product Development Process.


Six phases are shown, including the tasks and responsibilities of the
Key functions of the organization for each phase.
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Phase O
planning

MARKETING
Articulate
market
opportunity
Define
market
segments

Phase 1
Concept
Developme
nt

Phase 2
SystemLevel
design

Phase 3
Detain
Design

Phase 4
Testing
and
Refinemen
t

Phase 5
Production
Ramp-up

Collect
customer
needs

Develop
plan for
product
options
and
extended
product
family.

Develop
marketing
plan

Develop
promotion
and launch
materials.

Place
learly
production
with key
customers.

Identify
lead users
Identify
competitive
products

Facilitate
field
testing

Set target
sales price
point(s)

DESIGN
Consider
product
platform and
architecture.

Investigate
feasibility
of product
concepts.

Assess new
technologies

Develop
industrial
design
concepts.
Build and
test
experiment
al
prototypes.

MANUFCTURI
NG
Identify

Estimate
manufactur

Generate
alternative
product
architectur
e.

Define part
geometry.

Reliability
testing.

Choose
materials.

Life
testing.

Define
major subsystems
and
interfaces.

Assign
tolerances.

Performan
ce testing.
Obtain
regulatory
approvals.

Refine
industrial
design.

Complete
industrial
design
control
documentati
on.

Identify
suppliers

Define
peace-parts

Facilitate
supplier

Evaluate
early
production
output.

Implement
design
changes.

Begin
operatin of

production
constraints
Set supply
chain
strategy

ing cost.
Assess
production
feasibility

for key
component
s.
Perform
;make-buy
analysis.
Define
final
assembly
scheme.
Set target
costs.

production
processes.
Design
tooling.
Define
quality
assurance
processes.
Begin
procurement
of longtesting
tooling.

ramp-up.
Refine
fabrication
and
assembly
processes.

entire
production
system.

Train work
force.
Refine
quality
assurance
processes

OTHER
FUNCTIONS

Research,
Demonstrate
available
technologies.
Finance
Provide
planning
goals.

Finance,
Facilitate
economic
analysis.

Finance,
Facilitate
make-buy
analysis.

Legal,
Investigate
patent
issues.

Service
identify
service
issues.

Sales.
Develop
sales plan.

General
Management
Allocate
project
resources.

Exhibit 2 Summary of Variants of Generic Product Development Process

Process Type

Description

Distinct
Features

Examples

Generic
(market-pull
products)

The team
begins with a
market
opportunity and
selects
appropriate
technologies to
meet customer
needs.

Process
generally
includes
distinct
planning,
development,
system-level,
design detail
design, testing
and refinement,
and production
ramp-up
phases.

Sporting
foods,furniture tools.

Technologypush products

The teams
begin with a
new technology,
thenfinds an
appropriate
market.

Planning phase
involves
matching
technology and
market,
concept
development
assumes a
given
technology.

Gore-tax rainwear,
Tyvek envelopes.

Platform
products

The team
assumes that
the new product
will be built
around an
established
technological
sub-system.

Concept
development
assumes a
proven
technology
platform.

Consumer electronics,
Computers, Printers.

Process
intensive
products

Characteristics
of the product
are highly
constrained by
the production
process

Either an
existing
production
process must
be specified
from the start
or both product

Snack food, breakfast


cereals,
chemicals,semiconduct
ors.

and process
must be
developed
together from
the start.
Customised
products.

New products
are slight
variations of
existing
configurations.

Similarity of
projects allows
for a
streamlined
and highly
structured
development
process.

Motors switches,
batteries, containers.

High-risk
products

Technical or
market
uncertainties
create high risks
of failure.

Risks are
identified early
and tracked
throughout the
process.
Analysis and
testing
activities take
place asearly as
possible.

Pharmaceuticals,
space systems.

Quick-built
products

Rapid modeling
and prototyping
enables many
design-buildtest cycles,.

Detail design
and testing
phases are
repeated a
number of
times until the
product is
completed or
time/budget
runs out.

Software, cellular,
phones.

Complex
systems

System must be
decomposed
into several
sub-systems
and many
components.

Subsystems
and
components are
developed by
many teams
working in
parallel,
followed by

Airplanes, jet-engines,
auto-mobiles.

system
integration and
validation.